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Let us then, in God's name, promote this tendency, and associate for the noblest of all human purposes-To banish war from the earth. We have witnessed the Fiend's coadjutor destroyed; who is it that has contributed to heal the mise ries of war, but must consider that prevention is better, far better, than cure! I have already addressed those, who have so nobly subscribed for the wives and children of Englishmen; for the distresses of many countries suffering by war, at different periods, such as Poland, Sweden, Westphalia, &c. We would now address the religious world who believe that Christ died for the sins of the world, according to the Scriptures; that he had compassion on that he pitied be in our daris estate, and shed his blood

for us.

If there is any hidden meaning in the account in the Revelations, that Michael and his Angels fought against the Dragon, and the Dragon and his angels prevailed not, nor was their place found any more in heaven: if the power of him, there called the Word of God, consists in a sharp, two-edged sword, proceeding from his mouth: if the beast and the Kings of the earth, and the false prophet, are to be destroyed by this kind of sword, as it is written they will: and if all the powers of the earth are at last to be overcome by the blood of the Lamb; the whole must certainly refer to efforts of the kind here recommended. The blood of the Lamb, in the metaphorical language of Scripture, means, that pity, that benevolence,which he shewed to us, and is to be extended by us towards the miseries and sufferings of our fellow creatures, and it is ordained, that it shall at last overcome. The Angel, which enlightens the whole world with his glory, is this benevolent principle. The great Babylon of the earth, Covetousness, falls to the earth before him; and this idol's flesh becomes food enough for all the world.

The four and twenty elders fall down and worship God, because he has taken to himself his great power, and displayed it (has reigned) to destroy them which destroy the earth. 11 Rev. 17. 18.

The purport of these observations, is the more strongly to recommend an association for this most excellent purpose; to form a centre of union, and to open correspondence with the benevolent of other cities and countrics, circulate suitable publications on the continent, and begin a subscription for that purpose Whe

ther the times are ripe for such an effect, it is not for us to determine; happy are those who are made the instruments of so glorious an achievement!

I have thrown out a few hints, and I hope to see the subject taken up by abler pens. I leave my name with the Editor, as one ready to promote such a plan, with my time and my money; and I will give the sum of fifty pounds, or ten pounds per annum, in aid of such an undertaking. Your's, &c.

H. W.

For the Monthly Magazine. LYCEUM OF ANCIENT LITERATURE.-No. XXIII.

PINDAR.

INDAR, the last greatest of Grecian Lyrics, and rent at The bes, the capital city of Boeotia; a country It proverbial among the Greeks, for the extreme stupidity of its natives.* however gave birth to Epaminondas, Pelopidas; and in later times, to Plutarch. Under Epaminondas, the Thebans were the masters of Greece; but so much does the fate of a country often depend upon the valour and talents of one man, that the glory of Thebes arose, and expired with the hero of Leuctra and Mantiaca. It derived a more lasting honour from the name of Pindar, which, unaffected by the caprices of fortune, or the revolutions of governments, has maintained itself, after the lapse of more than two thousand years, with unabated lustre ; and next to Homer, has the greatest celebrity among the poets of antiquity.

The period of his birth is not established with equal certainty; and according to Scaliger, every attempt to fix it must inevitably fail. Fabricius, however, with great appearance of probability, has placed it in the 65th Olymp. forty years before the expedition of Xerxes, and about two hundred and fifty He was B. C. The names of his parents are not sufficiently ascertained." born during the solemnity of the Pythian games, which he afterwards immortalized by his poetry. Contenting ourselves with barely mentioning the marvellous incidents so gravely mentioned by Philostratus and Pausanias, that, at his

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birth, the nymphs danced; Pan, himself, leaped for joy; and that, when a child, the bees settled upon his lips, and fed him with their honey; it may be inferred, that his genius for Lyric verse declared itself in early youth. It does not appear, that his education was attended with any remarkable advantages; and from this circumstance, he himself assumes the greater merit; boasting that his genius was the genuine offspring of nature; while his rivals, owed all their reputation to their laborious industry.

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Considering the great eminence of Pindar in his own time, and the high rank he still holds in ancient literature, the memorials of his life are inconceivably scanty. Very few anecdotes are extant, by which we can fill up the interval between his birth and his death. He appears to have been held in high estimation by the princes and states of Greece. In some, this respect amounted almost to adoration, The oracle at Delphos cominanded the people to present to the poet a proportion of the first fruits; thus placing him upon an equality with the gods. Pausamas mentions an iron stool in the temple, upon which he was accustomed to sit, when he recited his verses in honour of Apollo: and this was preserved, with the greatest veneration, for some centuries after his death.* By a fatality not uncommon with great characters, he was less considered in his native city, than by the rest of Greece. It is supposed, that he offended his countrymen, by praising the Athenians, their mortal enemies. For this public affront to the state, he was heavily fined; while the liberal and enlightened Athenians presented him with a sum of money, which doubled that to which he had been amerced; and honoured him with a noble

Pausan in Phocid. p. 656. MONTHLY MAG. No. 188,

statue, when it was denied him by the ungrateful Thebans. This asperity, on their part, also exposed hifn to the indignity of a defeat, in a poetical contest with the celebrated Corinna, upon whom the laurel was bestowed. Hiero of Syracuse appears to have been his particular patron; and it would seem from the second Pyth. that he visited the court of that prince. But for this, there is no other authority than the uncertain inference which may be drawn from the ode alluded to. The latter part of his life was probably spent in ease and tranquillity, in his native city; as far as we may judge from the 7th Isthm. Ode, where he defends his retired way of living, and apologizes for not pursuing the more active and perilous career of arms. His death was sudden, and when he had only attained his 55th year. It is well known, that, when Thebes was sacked by the soldiers of Alexander, he ordered them to spare the house in which Pindar had resided; and when Pausanias wrote, who lived under the Emperor Antoninus, its ruins were still visible.*

The works which remain of this illustrious poet, consist of four books of odes, or triumphal hymns; each of which de rives its title from the games which it celebrates; such as the Olympic, the Pythian, the Nemaan, and the Isthmian. He is supposed to have also written Tragedies, Paans, Dithyrambics, Epics, Epigrams, and other poems; in the whole, seventeen distinct works. It may be presumed, therefore, that the high honours which he received during his life, and particularly those from the Delphic oracle, were not conferred upon him, on account of the odes which have descended to us; but for other productions, of a still higher character, such as his hymns to the several deities of the world. It is probable, that Pindar himself little expected that his reputation with posterity would depend upon occasional tributes of praise to the conquerors in the Grecian games. Such, however, is the case: by these odes, we are now left to judge of his merit, as they are the only living evidences of his cha racter as a poet.

It may be proper, briefly to notice the occasions, upon which these odes were

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recited. The vain-glorious Greeks, ever prone to ascribe the remotest origin to every part of their history, derived that of their sacred games from the greatest and most venerable personages of antiquity; from the Idæan Hercules, Clymenus, Endymion, Peiops, and Hercules, the son of Alcmena. Their name was taken, either from the town of Olympia, where they were observed, or from Jupiter Olympius, to whom they were dedicated. They were originally celebrated in triumph for victories. But from Iphitus, King of Elis, by some called the restorer, but most probably the founder, of the Olympic games, they received a more regular and coherent form. And after him, Corbus ordered them to be regularly and constantly celebrated. They consisted of religious ceremonies, and the games, compre. hending the equestrian and gymnastic exercises. The care and superintendance of the games were entrusted to the people of Elis, who, on this account, were held in veneration by the other in habitants of the Peninsula; being exempt from every species of taxation, and possessing other immunities, which in the course of time they grossly abused. They appear to have been established, under the direction of the Delphic oracle, about 776 years before Christ, and 19 or 20, before the building of Rome, according to the common chronology; but 149, according to Sir Isaac Newton.* The chronology of the Greeks was also determined by the Olympiad, which was a period, or cycle, of four years; and is the only æra made use of by their writers. Thus their great festivals, such as the Panathenea at Athens, and the Olympic games in Elis, were solemnized every fifth year, after an interval of four complete years; and to prove the great veneration in which these ganies were held, each Olympiad took its name from that of the person who succeeded in obtaining the prize. The Olympic æra, in general, prevailed through the Pythian games served as an epoch to the people of Delphi and Boeotia; the Nemean, to the Argives and Arcadians; and the Isthmian, to the Corinthians, and the inhabitants of the Peloponnesian Isthmus. The computations by Olympiads appear to have ceased after the 364th, in the year 440 before the Christian æra.

Nothing could exceed the pomp and

Newton's Chron. p. 37, 38.

solemnity with which these festivals were performed; in which religion, the trial of strength and skill, and the magnificence of the Greeks, had an equal share. But as we have no complete or circumstantial account of the several rites and ceremonies observed on those occasions, some of which, especially the Eleusinian mysteries, the Greeks considered it unlawful to divulge, we can' only form a general idea of the splendour and magnificence with which they were performed. The learned reader is re ferred to Pausanias, for a pompous description of the temple of the Olym pian Jupiter. But, however these religious ceremonies might exalt the devotion and excite the enthusiasm of the people, they were no doubt equally attracted by the magnificence, the spirit, and the emulation, which accompanied the performance of the Olympic games. In these, the youth of the first distinction contended in person, as well as the professed Athletes. The games consisted of the foot-race; of the Pale, or wrest ling; the Pentathlon, which compre hended the five diversions of leaping, running, quoiting, darting, and wrestling; the Castus, a rough exercise, in which the victory was most commonly, if not always, stained with blood; the hands and arms of the combatants being usually bound with thongs of leather, or raw hides of bulls, up to the elbow, and not unfrequently lined with plates of lead or iron. The Pancratium partook both of the Castus, and the Palè. Horse-races, and chariot-races, concluded these dangerous sports. The victors were warded with the most enthusiastic honours. They received the warm congratulations of their friends, amid the tumultuous applause of a numerous assembly. As they passed along the Stadium, a shower of herbs and flowers poured on them from every side, their heads were decorated with the olivechaplet, or crown; and to complete their triumph, their name formed an epoch in the history of their country. The solemnization of these games concluded with a sacrifice, performed by the con querors in honour of the gods, sometimes with such prodigality of expenditure, as to entertain the whole mul

re

Fifth book of his Journey through Greece.

For a more detailed account of these, see West's Dissertation on the Olymp. Games, in the 2d vol. of his Pindar. titude,

upon the occasion; but the poet demanding a large sum (three thousand drachms) for his performance, they replied, that it would be better to have a statue of brass erected for the money, than a copy of verses. At length, however, having renewed their request, and complied with his proposal, they obtained the object of their wishes. To this poetical bargain, he himself alludes in the begining of the ode itself; the 5th Nemaan, which opens thus:

Οὐκ ἀνδριαν Τυποίος εἰ

καμ ̓ ὦ τ ̓ ἐλινῦσον τ' εργάζεσ
καθας αγαλματ' επ' αυτάς βαθμίδες
ἐςαότ ̓ ἀλλ ̓ ἐπὶπάσας

ὁλκάδος, ἐν τ' ακάτω γλυκεί αοιδά
sux' 4.

titade, as in the cases of Alcibiades, the Nemaan games, came to Pindar, Leopheon, and Empedocles.* Others, and desired him to compose an ode who had less ability, or perhaps less vanity, were contented to feast only their own friends. At these entertainments, whether public or private, were frequently sung by a chorus, accompanied by instrumental music, such odes as were composed upon that occasion, in honour of the conqueror. But it was not the good fortune of every conqueror to have a poet for his friend; or to be able to pay the price of an ode, which the poets were accustomed to rate at an extravagant height. Those who could not attain to the honour of an ode, upon their particular exploit, were compelled to take up one composed by Archilochus in praise of Hercules; which, as we learn from Pindar,t and his Scholiast, it was customary to sing three times to the conqueror, in the Stadium, at the time of his being proclaimed the successful candidate; in the Gymnasium; and in his own country, at the solemnity of his triumphal entry there. Of this ode, nothing has come down to us but the two first verses, preserved by the Scholiast of Pindar; the three first words of which, Kahinxı, Xaïge, seem to have been applicable only to the Olympic conquerors. Finally, the Hellanodics or presidents of the games, granted to the victorious candidate the privilege of having their statues placed in the Altis, or sacred grove of Jupiter at Olympia. They were generally represented in the attitudes, habits, &c. in which they had gained the prize. This honour, however, was not granted to those, who were of mean occupations, or had exercised any handicraft trade. Similar honours awaited the return of the heroes to their own country.

Such were the splendid games, which exercised the muse of Pindar; and happy were those that could secure her praise. That she was sometimes hired, to perpetuate the faine of the victors, may be collected from the following anecdote. The friends of Pytheas, a conqueror in

How sumptuous these entertainments, (called by the Greeks valpia, that is, Feasts of Victory,) were, may be collected, from an Anecdote in Plutarch's Life of Phocion.

✦ Olymp. Ode 9.

A Greek Epigram, (Anthol. lib. 4.) represents the statue of Ladas, an eminent racer, as having been formed by Myron, the Sculptor, in the very act of running.-See also Paus. lib. 6.

He naturally gave the preference to his own art; so did the friends of Pytheas: and his works are now, after a lapse of more than two thousand years, still remaining to prove, that neither of them

were mistaken.

The remains of Pindar consist of fourteen Olympie odes, twelve Pythian, eleven Nemaan, and eight Isthmian. "They are of so difficult a character," observes Dr. Kennet,† “that the greatest judges are commonly satisfied with confirming his general title, of Prince and Father of Lyrics, without engaging in the search of his particular excellencies." For the prodigious elevation of his spirit, the beauty of his sentences, his boundless scope of thought, and the daring freedom of his figures and metre, are as likely to deter a critic, as an imitator. All that we propose, therefore, are such form a general and comprehensive opiobservations as may enable the reader to first which occurs, is, that his odes have nion, upon the merits of Pindar. The been transmitted to posterity in a state of comparative integrity. It is remarkable, indeed, considering the antiquity of this poet, that they should have de scended to us so little impaired by time, or vitiated by the false taste of the have passed. The errors which are obgrammarians, through whose hands they servable in the most corrupt and defective copies, may be referred, some to the dialect, others to the metre. But no where is the sense so obscure and unin

telligible, as in some passages even of

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