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greater part of that class, and the other superior ranks, who were rich proprietors, being borne down by the weight of taxes and contributions, and unable to reimburse themselves for their losses by following any particular branch of industry, are wretchedly involved in debt, and many of them cannot conceal the evidence of the most deplorable poverty. On the other hand, as is generally the case in all revolutions, several of the lower classes have risen to opulence, and loll in their coaches, while others, long accustomed to ride in coaches, are now obliged to move very humbly on foot. Instances of this nature, are not, how ever, strikingly frequent.

The Neapolitans have certainly been reduced to a better state of order than formerly. That natural vivacity for which they were peculiarly distinguished, and which appeared so striking to every observer, has given way to an appear ance of reserve and fear-that fear, how ever, is not a sensation of slavish anxiety, but rather the result of a cautious judgment, arising from the natural perspicuity of a sharp-sighted people. That great advantages have been derived from the system pursued by the present Government, must be allowed by every person who gives credit to the official report of the minister, according to which the number of robberies has diminished one-third, and of murders twothirds, since the occupation of the country by the French.

It would be a great pity, if the natural bonhommie and original naivefé of the true Neapolitan, in short, his peculiar national character of mind, should be entirely lost, which seems to become the case more and more every day, though it can scarcely be supposed, that any external circumstances, operating upon a nation, should have so decided an effect on the national character. It is very difficult to bend any people to the adoption of foreign manners, or give them a foreign turn of mind. It is that originality of character, arising from the advantages of soil and climate, which the Neapolitans derive from nature, which will oppose the greatest obstacle to the admission of foreign intrusions.

- Two points have been remarked as the most striking traits in the character of the Neapolitans, viz. their vehement passions and the coolness of mind, with which they contrive their plans of vengeance, Both points seem to cast a dark shade upon their character; but in

reality, they prove no more, than that this people possess the original qualities of a noble and powerful nation. On a slender enquiry it will be impossible to refuse the Neapolitans our esteem, notwithstanding their real or apparent faults, on considering them in the various points of view in which they are represented in the latest historics.

In comparing them with their neigh bours, they are distinguished from them by a natural gaiety and ceaseless activity. In all his misery, the Neapolitan will not yield to despair; there always remains an energetic spark of animation in him, which glows in secret, and often suddenly revives into a flame, when it stems entirely extinguished; like the vegetative power in the vine-branch after it has been stripped of its leaf. Very often you behold him deprived of all, and reduced to the utmost want and misely, yet supporting all his privations. with a dignity which claims respect. Even on observing those miserable wretches formerly called Lazzaroni, you would be induced to suppose, they had never experienced any duficulties or disasters, so proudly, and with such a contemptuous look of indifference, do they seem to regard the world and their existence.

The attachment of this people to its former government is peculiarly striking, though they openly acknowledge its numerous imperfections, though the taxes increased every year; though the personal expenses of their sovereign wore enormous and oppressive; and though the wickedness of the government was not only conspicuous, but notorious; yet no where could there exist less apprehensions of an approaching revolu tion. The sensations produced by the impossibility of fulfilling their promises to Queen Caroline, were of the most poignant nature; but the violence of their emotions, by degrees, subsided into a calmer state of feelings.

In the year 1805, when Bonaparte had evacuated Turento, and withdrawn his troops, the unanimous prayer of the people, as if animated by one voice and spirit, was, "That it might please God to moderate the passions of the Queen ;" and yet after the consequences. had justified their apprehensions, and they had every right to consider themselves as the victims of a mistaken policy, they would have still continued to exert themselves to the utmost of their power for their old government, had there been. the smallest probability of success.


The conspiracies discovered in Calabria, and even in the city of Naples it self, are sufficient to demonstrate of what exertions the people would have been capable, had they been blest with a wise and equitable government. Time has fully unveiled the transactions of the former government, and yet a strong party still remains attached to the old dynasty. Ferdinand and Caroline have, indeed, reason to remember Naples with senti. ments of affection and feelings of regret: a people, like the Neapolitans, and a fidelity equal to theirs, they never will find again.

All the excesses which formerly prevailed at Naples, were but the natural consequences of a bad government, and a defective police; for had a different system been adopted, the people would have been managed with little or no difficulty: and indeed it is impossible, that any people could have manifested so sincere an attachinent to their government, without possessing an abundant portion of bonhommie.

For the Monthly Magazine. ACCOUNT of the STATE of the NAPOLEON MUSEUM, in the LOUVRE, at PARIS, in July. 1809.


HE Louvre was originally a royal castle, surrounded with wood, and derived its name, according to some, from the Saxon word, louvear, which signifies a castle; and according to others, from the Latin lupara. Philip Augustus made it a kind of citadel, with broad ditches and towers. The keep was situated in the middle of the court. Three counts of Flanders, John de Montfort, and Charles of Navarre, were here confined. Francis I. ordered it to be demolished; and in 1528, erected the façade with the clock, after the designs of Pierre Liscot. The sculptures are by Jean Goujon. Here the Emperor Charles V. was Jodged. The Louvre was finished by Henry II, and the first monarch who resided in it, was Charles IX. In this edifice, the massacre of St. Bartholomew was planned and decreed. Louis XIII. constructed the angle on the left, parallel to that of Henry II. as well as the great pavilion over the principal entrance, after the designs of Jacques Lemercier; the Caryatides are by Sarraziu.

Measures have recently been adopted for COMPLETING THIS STRUCTURE, which had been so long abandoned. The present government intends to restore it to

the object for which it was designed, by devoting it to the arts and sciences. The museum of paintings will remain in the great gallery; that of statues is to be enlarged, and lengthened to the rez-dechaussée, facing the river. The imperial library, the cabinet of medals and engravings, will occupy the upper stories. The wardrobe will be in tite apartments of the great gallery; in short, this edifice will be the sanctuary, as it were, of the muses, and the most splendid monument of its kind, that can possibly be presented to the admiration of Europe.


As far back as the year 1778, the French government projected the formation of a Museum, and made various arrangements for that purpose; but it was not till the time of the Directory, that this measure was carried into effect. The victories of the French then enabled them to bring together the richest collection that now exists. It was thrown open to the public in 1798. It is impossible to see the whole of it, even at several visits; but after having admired the principal objects, and satisfied his Curiosity, the stranger, furnished with his passport, is at liberty to repair thither every day, (Friday excepted,) from ten o'clock till four.

The Museum is composed of 1. the Gallery of Antiques: 2. that of Paintings: S. that of Drawings: 4. the Cabinet of Engravings.


This part of the Louvre, formerly served for the apartments of Mary de Medicis: it was embellished by Louis XIV. The paintings are by Romanelli, and the stuccos, by Girardon. It received its present arrangement, after the designs of Huber, the architect, who was succeeded by M. Raymond. This gallery was opened, for the first time, in 1801. As the enu. meration of all the statues which it contains, would lead me into too great lengths, I shall merely notice some of the principal objects, to which the stranger's curiosity is first directed. At the Museum, may be procured a detailed catalogue of its contents.

Vestibule.-Over the door is a bassorelievo, representing Minerva, by Moite. The dome, painted by Barthelemy, exhibits man, formed by Prometheus, and animated by Minerva. Four medallions represent the four schools of sculpture: the Egyptian and Greek, by Lange; the Italian and French, by Lorta. The Genius of the Arts, and the Union of the


Three Arts of Design, are by Chaudet. We here distinguish the Hermaphrodite, (No. 221); the Pallas of Velletri, (16); and a Diana, (2); which is considered the finest of all the existing representations of that goddess. Many artists are of opinion, that it is by the same hand as the Apollo. It is of Parian marble, and was repaired with great skill, by Lange. We are alike ignorant whence it came, and when and how it found its way to France. So much, however, is certain, that it has been in that country ever since the reign of Henry IV. and that it was in the gallery of Versailles. It is intended to be placed in the hall of Diana.

Hall of the Emperors.-The ceiling is by Meiner, as well as the two bassorelievos, in imitation of bronze. The four rivers are, the Eridanus, by Gois; the Tiber, by Blaise; the Nile, by Bridan; and the Rhine, by Le Sueur. Above the arcade, is a basso-relievo, by Roland. In this hall we remark, Julian the Apostate, (20); and Melpomene.

Hall of the Seasons. In the middle, is a representation of Apollo and Diana, by Romanelli; and around are four pic tures, relative to those deities. Facing is Parnassus, with the Moses and Apollo; on the opposite side, Diana and Acteon; on the left, the punishment of Marsyas; on the right, Diana and Endymion: in the angles, the four Seasons. This hall is completely painted: the subjects are handled with much grace and expression. Here are seen Venus coming out of the Bath, (52); Cupid, (54); and Ariadne, distinguished by the addition of Cleopatra, (60).

Hall of illustrious Men.-On the vaulted ceiling, are Mars, Mercury, and Minerva, with the Olive-branch; in front, Peace; and a figure writing the words: De bello par; and at the farther end, Ceres and Neptune. Here we find, Demosthenes, (72); Phocion, (75); and Alcibiades, (79).

"Hall of the Romans.-In the centre is the triumph of Minerva, surrounded by Apollo, and several other deities. On the side next to the Laocoon, stands Mutius Scævola; on the opposite side, Cincinnatus, with messengers bringing the insignia of the dictatorship. On the third side is the Continence of Scipio; and on the fourth, the Rape of the Sabines.

Hall of Laocoon-Above the groupe is Esther, and on the opposite side, Judith, by Romanelli; on the left, a picture by

Perron, representing the Study of Glory; above, two Genii, by Prud'hon; on the right, the Arts, consecrating themselves to the glory of the armies, by Letiers; above, two Genii, by Guerin; in the middle, a picture representing the French Hercules, by Hennequin. The rest are by Romanelli, viz. the three theological Virtues, with Immortality; and the four Cardinal Virtues, Justice, Fortitude, Pru dence, and Temperance, with apprɔ. priate Genii.

Pliny informs us, that the Laocoon is the work of three statuaries of Rhodes, named Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodes. This groupe was found at Rome, in the ruins of Titus's palace, in 1586. What a sublime expression of grief! It is displayed even in the smal lest fibres, the writhing of which depicts the moral and physical agony of this unfortunate father.

The Venus de Medicis (203) is of Parian marble. It is attributed to Cleomenes, whose name is inscribed on the plinth. When and where it was found, is not known. In the 16th century, it adorned the garden of Medicis at Rome; in the 17th, it was placed in the gallery of Florence, built by that family; whence it was, a few years since, removed to embellish that which France owes to Buonaparte.

This apartment also contains a bust of Alexander the Great.

Hall of the Apollo Belvidere.-Here is the most perfect figure that has escaped the wreck of time, the only one which answers to the imposing image of Apollo, delineated by Homer; in stature exceeding the human standard, in attitude expressing all the majesty of a god. Eter. nal youth heightens the manly beauty of his body, and beans forth from its pure and graceful contours. Figure to your self supernatural perfections; elevate your mind to the conception of a celestial nature, for here is nothing material, nothing indicative of the human condition: this aerial.form, exhibits neither veins nor muscles. An impassible spirit circulates, like a tranquil current, throughout every part of this figure, and impresses upon it the stamp of majesty and immortality.

The unerring shaft of the son of Latona has just inflicted the mortal stroke ; but his looks denote rather the certainty of his triumph, than exultation on account of it. The serenity of conscious power is seated on his brow; his eye expresses unalterable sweetness of temper. All the beauties of the other deities are

here combined together; the eye-brows announce command; the eyes are those of the queen of Olympus, and the lips of the goddess of Pleasure. Golden locks curl, like celestial flames, around this divine head, and seem to wave accord ing to its motions. At the sight of this miracle of art, the spectator forgets every thing about him, and involuntarily assumes a more dignified position to contemplate its excellencies. His admiration swells to rapture; his bosom heaves, and his heart throbs, for the figure scems to move, and to command reverential homage.

This statue was probably removed, about the time of Nero, from Delphi to Antium, where it was discovered at the conclusion of the fifteenth century. Pope Julius II. who purchased it while a cardinal, placed it at the beginning of the sixteenth, in the part of the Vatican, called Belvidere, from which it was afterwards named. Thence it was taken on the 8th of April, 1797, and sent off to France on the 9th of May following, with other works of art, which, on their arrival at Paris, were escorted in triumph to the Champ de Mars. The Apollo was placed in its present situation on the 11th of April, 1800.

The statue is seven feet in height, in eluding three inches of plinth. Its proportion is exactly eight heads from the crown to the plinths, measuring in front, upon the white line, to the sole of the right foot. The marble has a nearer resemblance to panthclica, which is rather coarse-grained, than to any other species of marble; it is very much like greghetto. It is very fine, and without spot in the upper part; but, in the lower extremities, there a few spots, in which inay be perceived calcedony, intermixed with metallic particles, similar to those usually met with in Luni marble. These spots, however, are not very striking, and do not produce a disagreeable effect upon

the eye.

The statue is wholly antique, excepting the right fore-arm, and the left wrist; it is in perfect preservation, and is still as firm and fresh, as when it proceeded from the hands of its inimitable sculptor. It has no cracks, but at the knees, and in the forearm; the legs only have been multilated, especially the right, on which it bears.

As this statue was repaired, at a period when this kind of operation was not much practised, none of the parts supplied was in its proper place. They have been re-fitted at Paris, with great skill; so that the defects, which formerly spoiled the

contours, especially in the legs, are not now perceptible.

It has been a considerable gainer by its removal, as it is in a better light than at the Vatican; and has been restored, as nearly as possible, to its original state. It would be easy to finish it in such a manner, that it would have no occasion for support, and night be turned at pleasure.

The hall of Apollo, contains also the Egyptian Antinous, Trajan, Tiberius, Demosthenes, Nero.

Hall of the Muses.-Here are Homer, Socrates, Virgil, the Venus of the Capi tol, Hippocrates, Euripides.


The stair-case was built during the reign of Louis XV. by M. Brebion, the architect. It leads to the exhibitionroon, which communicates on the right with the picture-gallery, and on the left with that of Apollo.

The exhibition of new paintings of the French school, was instituted in 1740; it takes place every two years, at the end of August.

The total number of ancient paintings in this gallery, amounts to 945. A complete catalogue of the Masters of the French, Flemish, and Italian schools, by whom they were executed, may perhaps prove interesting to the English reader.

French School.

1, Boullongue; 2 to 8, Bourdon; 9 to 22, Lebrun; 23, Chardini; 21, Colombel; 25 to 27, Courtois le Bourguignon ; 28 to 30, Cospel; $1 to 34, Desportes; 35, Dufresnoy; S6 to 38, La Fosse; 39, Castiels; 40 to 46, Claude Lorrain; 47 to 31, La Ire; 52 to 54, Jouvenet ; 55, Largillière; 56, Licherie; 57 to 68, Mignard; 61, Le Nain; 62, Parrocel; 63 to 65 Patel; 66 Pesne; 67 to 85, Poussin; 86, Le Prince; 87, Raoux; 88, Restout; 89 to 91, Rigaud; 92, Santerre; 93, Stella; 94 to 97, Subleyras; 98 to 106, Le Sueur; 107, Theolon; 103, Troy; 109 to 115, Valentin; 116 to 118, the Vanloos; 119 to 187, Vernet; 138, Vignon; 139 to 141, Vouet; 142, Wateau.

Flemish School.

160 and 161, Aeist; 162 to 165, Assehuisen; 170 and 171. Bamboche; 172 lyn; 166, Backer; 167 to 169, Backto 180, Berghem; 181. Berckheyden; ́ 182, Bergen; 183, Bernaert; 184, Blomaert; 185, Bochs; 186 to 187, Bol; 188 and 189, Both; 190, Bourdewyns; 191, Brauwer; 192 to 195, Breenberg; 196, Bretelenkamp; 197, Paul Bril; 198 and 199, Old Breughel; 209, Hellish Breughel; 201 to 211, Vel


vet Breughel; 212 to 217, Champagne;
218 to 219, Claissens; 220 to 222, the
Conings; 223, Coxcie; 224 and 225,
Craesbeke; 226 and 227, Crayer; 228
to 251, Cuyp; 232, Delen; 233, Die-
trich; 234 to 245, Dow; 247 and 248,
Duc; 249 to 251, Albert Durer; 252 to
269, Anthony Vandyck; 270 to 274,
Philip Vandyck; 275 to 277, Elzhey-
mer; 278 to 282, Eyck; 283 and 284,
Faes; 285 and 286, Flemael; 287,
Flinck; 288, Flore; 289 to 292, Franck;
293, Glauber; 294, Goyen; 295, Gyzen;
296, Grimoux; 297, Hagen; 298, Hals;
299 to 303, Heem; S04 to 305, Helst;
306, Hemmelinck; 307, Hemmessen;
S08, Heus; 309 to 312, Heyden; 313
to 324, Holbein; 325 to 328, Hon
Roeter; 329, Honthorst; 380, Hooge;
331, Houbraken; 332 and 333, Hug-
tenburch; 334 to 340, Van Huysun;
341 to 348, Carl du Jaidyn; 319 to
353, Jordaens; 354, Kalf; 355, Kes-
sel; 356 and 357, Keyser; 358 to 361,
Lairesse; 562 and 363, Lievens; 864
and 365, Limborch; 366 and S67, Lin-
gelback; 368, Loo; 369 and 870, Lu-
cas van Leyden; 371 to 375, Meel;
376 to 382, Metzu; 383 to 385, Mat-
sys; 386 to $91, Meulens; 392, Mi-
chau; 393 to 400, Mieris, sen.; 401 to
401, Mieris, jun.; 405 to 407, Mignon;
408, Mol; 409 to 413, Moro; 414,
Moucheron; 415 to 418, Neefs; 419 and
420, Neer; 421 to 423, Netcher, sen.;
424, Netcher, jun.; 425, Van Oost;
426 to 436, the Van Oostades; 437 to

441, Poclemburg; 442, Poel; 443,
Pourbus, sen.; 444 and 445, Pourbus,
jun.; 446 to 451, Paul Potter; 452 and
453, Pinacker; 454, Quellyn; 455 to
473, Rembrandt; 475, Rommein; 476,
Roos; 477 and 478, Rottenhaminer;
479 to 535, Rubens; 536 to 539, Ruis-
dael; 5-40, Safileven; 541, Salaert; 542
to 548, Schalken; 519 to 551, Seghers;
552, Seibold; 553 and 554, Slingelandt;
555 to 564, Suyders; 565 and 566,
Steen; 570, Steinwick, sen; 571, Stein-
wick, jun.; 572, Storck; 573 and 574,
Swaneveldt; 575 to 588, David Teniers ;
589, Old Teniers; 590 to 592, Terburg;
593, Thulden; 504, Veen; 595 to 602,
Velde, sen.; 603 and 604, Velde, jun. ;
605, Venne; 606, Verkolie; 607 and
608, Ulit; 609; Vlieger; 610, Vliet;
611 to 613, Vois; 614, Vos; 615,
Weenix, sen; 616, Weenix, jun.; 617
to 624, Werff; 625, Witte; 626 to 644,
Wouvermans; 645 to 648, Wynants;
649, Zustris.

Italian School.

669 to 685, Albano; 686 to 688, Ba-
roche; 689 to 695, Bengedetto; 696,

Bolognese; 697, Burrini; 700 and
701, Cagnacci; 702, Capucino; 703 to
742, the Caracci; 748 to 748, Caravaggio;
749 and 750 Cavedone; 751 and 752, Cig-
nani; 753 to 760, Corregio; 761, Crespi;
762, Creti; 763 to 779, Domenichino; 780
to 782, Dossi ; 783, Fassolo; 785 and 785,
Ferrari; 786 to 792, Garofolo; 795 to
795, Gennari; 796, Gobbo; 797 to 827,
Guido; 829 to 851, Guerchino; 852 and
853, Lana; 854 to 858, Lanfranc; 859,
Lelio Orsi; 860 and 861, Luini; 862 and
863, Manfredi; 864 to 868, (1) Man-
tegne; 868, (2) Mazzola; 869 to 874,
Mola; 875 to 881, Pannini; 882 to 385,
Parmegiano; 886, Pesarese; 887, Poli-
doro da Caravaggio; 888, Primaticcio;
889 to 891, the Procaccini; 892 and 893,
Schidone; 894, Sirani; 895 and 896, So-
lario; 897 to 900, Spava; 901 to 903,
Tiariai; 910, Alex. Veronese; 911, Dan.
de Volterra; 912, Feti; 913 and 914,
Fra Bartolomeo; 915 to 929, Julio Ro-
mano; 921 to 923, Leonardo da Vinci;
921 to 924, Murillo; 923, Paul Vero-
nese; 928, Pierino del Vaga; 929, Pe-
ruzzi; 939, Pietro di Cortona; 931 to 938,
Raphael; 939, Sebastian del Piombo;
940 to 943, Titian; 944 and 945, Guer.


is thus denominated, because it is in-
tended to contain a representation of
Apollo, and is adorned with several pic-
tures, relative to that deity. Here has
been deposited a magnificent collection
of drawings, in which the man of taste
will be highly gratified, to contemplate
the first expression of the artist's idea.
A printed Notice of these drawings is sold
at the door.

You here find the cartoon of the School
of Athens, and some of the cartoons of
Julio Romano; besides superb Etruscan
vases, tables, and other mosaics, of hard
stones, made at Florence; and lastly, the
colossal bust of Buonaparte.



This collection is in the court, contigu
ous to the grand stair-case of the Muse-
It comprehends about 3000 sub-
jects, of which the public may pro-
cure impressions, from ten o'clock till
three. Among them are the battles of
Alexander, Darius's Tent, by G. Audran,
after Lebrun; Raphael's Holy Family,
engraved by Edelinck; and many others.
The catalogue is annually enriched by
the premiums offered by government,
and the new plates, which are executed
by artists, for the director of the Mu-

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