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father was, or where he resided. It was somewhere in the north of England, which is taking so wide an extent, as amounts to saying nothing. It is indeed said, that Dr. Porteus was born in Yorkshire: but that is a large county. It is owned "his father was a tradesman, of but little eminence." But (if it be a matter of any consequence, in such accounts, to know) let us enquire what sort of tradesman? Perhaps he was a barber also? Who can tell? It is prudently concealed, for such a shocking circumstance should not disgrace the annals of a bishop. "His grandfather," we are informed, "had repaired to this country," from Scotland, "at no distant period." Why mention his grand-father, without saying who he was? In truth, I suspect him to have been the identical Captain Porteus, whom the mob seized and murdered, in Queen Anne's time. But what are all such considerations to the purpose? If either of their fathers had been much lower still, or if, on the contrary, they had been ever so elevated, neither circumstance ought to be taken into a rational consideration of them. They are to be estimated only, as what they were in themselves. If they were good and useful, men, their memory should, on that account only, be cherished with respect and affection.

It is but a poor representation of Robinson, as an author, merely that he translated Saurin's sermons, (it should have been said, some few only) and Claude's Essay, and wrote a Vindication of Christ's Divinity. Did this gentleman never hear of his other works, left nearly, or quite ready for the press? viz. his Eclesiastical Researches; his History of Baptism; his Sermons, &c. ?-works that will prove his natural and acquired abilities; his very extensive reading, and deep application, as long as their language shall be understood.

Poor Robert Robinson's motives are also much misunderstood and misrepresented: "Happy," says this writer, "at the opportunity afforded by a dignitary of the established church; the aspiring dissenter readily entered the lists, and broke a lance against the mitre."

This is so far from being correct, that there never was a more unaspiring man: never was one who thought less of establishments and priests of all descriptions. A dignitary of the church was no more, in his view, than its poorest curate; and that poorest curate, no more than a Baptist teacher, or any other man. He had no more reverence for a mitre, than for a foolscap. And he indeed entertained his own peculiar-sentiment, that Christianity did not origiBut Robert Robinson, was once a nally countenance any distinct ministehearer of Whitfield.-True! Many a rial order. Such a circumstance, therebright sun hath risen from behind a fore, as opposing a bishop, could not cloud.__Luther was once a papist; and give him the smallest degree of happieven Dr. Tillotson, once a dissenting mess. Robinson wrote and spake only teacher. Perhaps Dr. Porteus may to be useful. He cared for nothing, but have heard Whitfield himself: and it disseminating what he thought to be seems, there was a party, who thought important truth. His views, indeed, there was "too much of the fanatical changed in after-life; and if we were to spirit of passed times" in the doctor's judge of Dr. Porteus from the beauexhortation, respecting the day which is tiful character which he has drawn of still popishly called Good-Friday. If the Redeemer, in (I think) one of his there was intolerance in it, that was a sermons, it seems as if he and Robinson pity: most likely the good bishop's ma were nearly congenial in sentiment. turer judgment would have rejected every thing of that kind in after-life.

I am as friendly as Dr. Porteus could be to a religious observance on that day; but not as a commanded observance; for I contend, that no man has a right to command another, in any religious matter whatever. Nor would I observe it with fasting. Such puerile foolery is not devotion: God cannot be more pleased with the prayers, or praises of those who have empty stomachs, than with those of his children, who more rationally receive his good gifts with thank fulness, and richly enjoy them.

But Robinson " was not fortunate enough to obtain an episcopal rejoinder to his reply." He would not have considered such a rejoinder as any thing fortunate, nor placed the smallest degree of more estimation on it for being episcopal, than if it had been written by a layman, or a tradesman. The truth most probably was, the bishop was convinced that he had the weakest side of the argument, and was too prudent to call for further discussion; for this gentleman says, "It must be allowed that Robinson handled his weapons with great skill." He had therefore a victory; and

even

even if that only had been his object, what could he wish for more?

Robinson was not held in low estimation, by many of his cotemporaries in the establishment. They knew and acknowledged his value, as a man of sterling abilities. And more than once had he proposals made to him, of reception into that establishment, accompanied with flattering offers of preferment therein. But his honest soul never hesitated. He always refused what was contrary to his conscience.

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I need not say more about Robert Robinson, excepting, that he was staunch friend to human liberty, and not only thought, but always avowed his sentiments. He had put himself out of the way of temptation to the contrary. He wore no shackles: and loaves and fishes could not seduce him. Let the respect and affection of the virtuous linger on his memory.

The eulogist of Dr. Porteus mentions a singular circumstance, as matter of praise. He tells us, that "fully persuaded himself of the truth of those doctrines, so earnestly recommended by him, he more easily succeeded in persuading others." More easily than who? Surely he doth not mean other bishops. In the idea of a bishop we include that of a Christian, and must hope that there are no such hypocrites as deists upon that bench.

Dr. Porteus was a man of liberal thought; and as such he could not relish the Calvinism of the Thirty-nine Articles; nor the quibbling explanations of them by Dr. Burnett. Much less could he like subscription to them. It is no wonder, therefore, that when a young man, he was one of the petitioning clergy at the Feathers Tavern, as the writer of this, who also had his own name in that honourable list, can aver. He was something of a sufferer on this account. The late Dr. Owen, of St. Olave's, Hart-street, who was also one of that association, declared, that Dr. Porteus stood still in his preferment for three years, on that

account.

- Dr. Porteus, I believe, always continued liberal in his sentiments. That very respectable man, the late J. How lett, vicar of Dunmow, being appointed to preach on a public occasion, took Confirmation for his subject, and very ingeniously said every thing plausible, that could be said for a merely human fancy. He represented, that it could

not do harm; and perhaps, in some cases, might do good, by exciting proper considerations of duty. He was expected to present his sermon, when published, to his bishop. He had some degree of reluctance, as expecting a reprimand, for not maintaining the matter on a different ground. But he was agreeably surprised at receiving very great commendations, and his bishop was his friend to the day of his death.

In the case of Mr. Stone, I believe no blame can be be justly imputed to Dr. Porteus. Mr. Stone had certainly been indiscreet : and after the decision of the spiritual court, I think the bishop was obliged to act as he did, er officio, in Mr. Stone's degradation. We should like to know who was the bishop, that Mr. Stone said, bude him preach so explicitly.

How much more honourable would it be to those clergymen who disbelieve the Trinitarian articles to withdraw; as Mr. Lindsey, and some few other honest men, have done! Would all of this description openly avow themselves, and honestly withdraw, they would form no small phalanx, to oppose orthodox absurdity.

One thing is to be lamented, that Dr. Porteus, good and amiable as his general character appears to have been, should have always, right or wrong, voted with such ministers as this unhappy country has had for above twenty years. But he was a bishop; and most bishops, like most other men, are frail creatures, in some respect or other: besides, he was the queen's bishop; of her own choice and appointment; on which account, she has often been called the head of the church.

The writings of Dr. Porteus are not many, but are truly valuable. I cannot think he hath been too studious to avoid ornament. The sweet chaste correctness of his composition is, to a judicious reader, exceedingly captivating.

Should the writer of the article which I have animadverted upon, think I have said any thing wrong, I am ready instantly to bow to rational conviction. I have not intended personal offence. Should he wish to know my real sig nature, let him first give the public his own, and mine shall immediately succeed it. Till then, Sir, I only subscribe myself, as I have done before, Edmonton, June 8, 1809.

P.

To

For the Monthly Magazine. AR ACCOUNT of the COLONY of CAYENNE, in SOUTH AMERICA; with ANECDOTES of the celebrated VICTOR HUGUES from the FRENCH of PITON.

G

UIANA, or Grand Terre, is a part of America, properly so called, comprehending about ten degrees of latitude; bounded on the East by the North Atlantic Ocean; on the West, by the Mountains of the Cordeliers; on the North, by the River Oronoco; and on the South, by the river of the Amazons, or the Line.

French Guiana is divided into districts, which take their names from the princi pal rivers or capes. The Maroni and Ogopoe are the only rivers which have their source in the great chain of mountains, which, in this part of the world, separate the waters which flow towards the ocean, from those which fall into the Ama zon. The rivers Mana, Synnamari, Oyac, and Appronague, spring from the mountains of the second class; the others, less considerable, from the mountains of the inferior order-all have several branches, more or less rapid, encreased by a great number of smaller streams.

The chief place of the colony of Cay enne is generally known by the name of the Island of Cayenne; but no just idea can be formed of this island, if it is represented as being separated at a dis tance from the continent, and surrounded by a sea, navigable for vessels of all descriptions; on the contrary, when the navigator first makes this land, it appears to him as forming a part of Terra Firma: possibly it might have been so formerly; at present it is only separated from it by a river, or strait, which rises and falls with every tide, and which can be only navigated by boats, or vessels of very little burthen.

The greatest breadth of the Island of Cayenne, measured on a line running from east to west, is four leagues, or twelve English miles; its greatest length from north to south is sixteen miles and a half; and its circumference, taking in all its windings, is about fifty miles: that part of the circumference bordered by the ocean, and which is to the northeast, may, perhaps, be about eleven or twelve miles.

The town of Cayenne, situated at the north west extremity of the Island, at the mouth of the river of the same name, is fortified, and might be capable of being advantageously defended by a small mountain which is close to it. Its lati MONTHLY MAG, N9, 188.

tude is 4 degrees 56 minutes, and lon gitude 54 degrees 35 minutes, from the meridian of Paris, according to the observations of M. de la Condamine, in 1744.

The days and nights are equal through out the year, with the exception of about half an hour, which we lose from Septeinber to March, but gain in the six other months. Day appears at half-past five; and at six the sun darts from the bosom of the ocean, surrounded with clouds of brilliant purple. We have two summers, two equinoxes, two winters, and two sol stices. The heat is tempered by abun dant rains, which fall during the winter solstice, from the middle of December to March, and return again from May to the end of July, when the summer commences, and continues to December, The sun is twice vertical here-the 20th of April, and the 20th of August; it is but little felt the first time, owing to the rains by which the earth is so moistened and cooled. Its return, however, gives about six weeks of fine weather, which dries up the ground a little; but the fickleness of these climates often deceives the planters, who would be able to reap two abundant crops, if the summers and winters were regular. Europeans will smile at hearing of summer and winter in the torrid zone. The summer is a scorch‐ ing sun, which, for several months, is only refreshed by a sort of breeze, which blows constantly from the east, or northeast, during the day; this wind comes from the sea, and gets the better of the land-breeze; this latter is only felt on the coast at certain hours, almost always morning and evening, just at sun. rise and at sun-set.

The winter is one continued fall of rain, so heavy and abundant, as often to inundate whole plantations, and cover them entirely with a sheet of water. The rain sometimes falls for fifteen days successively, without the slightest intermission; it was this which made the Abbé Raynal say, that the shore, where the colony of 1763 had disembarked, was a land under water. The winter is sometimes, however, dry and warm; then the plants and the trees wither; the north wind, with its dry, cold, nitrous breath, burns and parches up the flowers, fruits, and tender buds: such is the north wind of warm climates, more destructive than a scorching sun in a dry summer in Eu rope.

The Old Town of Cayenne has a very miserable appearance; the houses are nothing more than wretched cabins, with

sastes

sashes without glass; a heap of buildings,
erected, or rather huddled together,
without art or taste; sloping streets,
dirty and narrow; and paved, one would
felt in
suppose, from the pain we
walking through them, with the points of
bayonets. In place of carriages and
phaetons, old sorry-looking jades, more
lean and wretched than the animals
which drag our hackney-coaches, seven
or eight fastened to a vehicle meant for
a cart, drag slowly along some barrels of
salt beef or fish. In the old town houses
of two stories high are palaces, and
stores, which are let out for eight or ten
thousand francs per annum, (trom 350 to
450 pounds British), as magazines for the
different productions of the colonies, or
of Europe.

The New Town is more regular, more lively, although built in the same style, on a Savannah, or marshy meadow, drained about fifteen or twenty years ago; the whole, taken together, is less considerable than a large village in France. The houses appear empty, or, for the most part, occupied by people of colour, who have nothing, do nothing, trouble themselves about nothing, and who live more at their ease than our respectable tradesmen in France, whom the sun never shines upon in bed, and who labour hard all day. Here every one sells, exchanges, buys, and re-sells the same thing again; every thing is almost at the price of its own weight in gold, and every one procures it without scarcely knowing how. This paradox is very easily understood, when we come to know the colonies. Those who inhabit them, spend with profusion the money they acquire without trouble; their indolence is so great, that sooner than incommode themselves, they will pay a servant to pluck the fruits which are under their hands, and another to carry them to their mouths. Those who arrive from Europe pay for all; and when vessels are delayed, and do not arrive at the usual time, the famine becomes general without alarming any person.

Population-There are as many different races of men here, as there are distinctions under a monarchy. The whites, or planters, who differ from the Euro peans by their light hair, their pale and sometimes lead-like countenances; the negroes, by the shades more or less grounded in their skins, of bronze, of ebony, or a reddish copper, approaching to a sort of brownish red. The mixture of all these colours gives a race of people not unlike the jacket of harlequin. An

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Each

Indian and a white woman will have a
child, whose skin is of a reddish white.
A negro and an Indian woman, one of a
copper hue, tinged with brown. A white
man and a negress, a Mulatto. A Mu-
latto and a white woman, a Mestee. A
Mestee and a white, a Quadroon.
species has its various shades of singula-
rity, and often partakes of the influence
of their country. The Indian has all the
cunning, the jealousy, and the ferocity, of
the wandering tribes of the three Ara
bias. The negroes, the idle, crafty, ma-
licious, yet shallow and confined ideas of
the savages of Africa. The others spring
from the mixture of the different races,
with the vices of the climate, and the stu
pidity of their ancestors; indeed, it is a
matter of doubt, whether it were not to
be wished, that there were more blacks
than those half-whites in our colonies.

That part of Cayenne which is on the continent is but partially cultivated. The principal plantations are there; but they are situated at a great distance from each other. The post of Synnamari owes its name to a fountain about two leagues to the south-east, near the river, remarkable for the salubrity of its waters: there formerly was an hospital there; but it does not now exist. Synnamuri is at the north-west extremity of a large Suvannd of 15 or 16 miles long, and eight or ten wide. It consists of 15 or 16 huts, the melancholy remains of the colony of 1763. Konamana, the place allotted for the banished deputies and others, is six leagues further on. Some merchants of Rouen landed there in 1626. The shore, from which the sea has retired full two leagues and a half, was then under water almost to the mountains. The Konamana appeared to them a proper situation to found a colony, Cayenne and its environs being then peopled only by savages: they settled upon the summit of the rocks, in order to carry on a war against the Indians. At the end of three weeks, three-fourths of them were carried off by pestilential fevers, and the remainder got on board their vessels, and set sail for France.

The chief productions of Cayenne are sugar, coffee, cotton, indigo, roucou.The sugar-cane originally came from Asia, whence it was carried to Europe, and the island of Madeira: this lat ter place furnished a part of what the Europeans brought into America. There are two sorts; the one yellow, the other violet: the last sort was cultivated here by the Indians, before we discovered the

New World. North America produces a tree not unlike our maple, from which sugar is obtained by making incisions in it. The process of curing it is much less expensive than that from the cane; it is tapped twice a year, and yields a white agreeable sugar, but less solid than that from the cane.

The cotton tree is a shrub, which the planters are obliged to keep in a dwarfish state, in order to render it more productive. It is not certain, whether it is a natural plant of the country: it is not to be met with in the woods of Guiana; and yet before our discovery, the Indians cultivated it to make hammocks and other articles. The leaf is broad, octagonal, smooth, and soft, on the inside, and a little woolly on the out; the flower is of a beautiful yellow, shaped like a bell, and not unlike that of our gourd or pumpkin; when the flower falls off, a large pod, something in the shape of an egg, appears, which contains the cotton and the seed: when this egg is fully grown, the heat opens it, and it shews four or five sinall black grains about the size of our vetches; from this grain is made an oil: the cattle are very fond of them, and will often destroy the fences to get at them. The cotton tree bears in a year; it gives two crops annually; but that of the month of March, which is but trifling, is frequently destroyed by the caterpillars, which always spring up after the first rains. The cotton of Cayenne is more esteemed in trade than that of other colonies, as much from its superior quality, as from the care they bestow upon its culture.

The origin of the discovery of coffee, and the transportation of it from Arabia into Europe and America, is thus reJated:-It is said, that a flock of sheep having discovered a wood of coffeetrees, loaded with the berries full ripe, began to browse upon them, and that very evening the shepherd was surprised to see his flocks returning home to the fold, frisking and leaping: he followed them; tasted the berries; found himself more lightsome and cheerful; and was surprised to find the same flavour in the kernel as in the pulp of the fruit: he dried and roasted some of them; smelt the perfume, and related his discovery to a Morlack, or priest, who took it to prevent his falling asleep during his long meditations. The use of coffee soon passed from Asia to Africa, Europe, and to both the Worlds. The Dutch suc seeded in raising the plants in Europe

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in hot houses; and having shared them with France, these sorts of magazines furnished the first seeds which were sent to America. The Island of Martinique got hers from the Botanical Garden at Paris; but if we are to believe a tradition pretty generally known, those of Cayenne were brought from Surinam, It is said, that some soldiers of the gar rison having deserted, and gone over to the Dutch colony, soon repented of their fault, and wishing to return to their colours, they brought to the government of Cayenne some grains of coffee, which then began to be cultivated in the colony of Surinam; that they obtained their pardon in consequence of the service they thereby rendered to Cayenne, and the great advantages she would derive from its culture; it is also said, that this happened so late as the years 1715 or 1716, when Mons. de la Motte Aigron was commander in chief.

The coffee of Cayenne is of an excellent quality; it thrives in all lands which are in an elevated situation; it very soon degenerates in a poor soil, and never ar rives at perfection but in that which is good: as there is but little of the latter in the colony, there are but few coffeeplantations of any extent. The trees being planted, and attended to, with all the care which this sort of culture requires, thrive as well as those of the Dutch at Surinam and Demera; but the quality of the coffee is inferior,

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Towards the summit of the mountains, the cocoa-tree extends its scattered branches; and, under its large leaves, conceals its brown fruit, surrounded with a soft pulpy sap, inclused in a spherical streaked kind of cap. There is reason to believe the cocoa is a native of Guiana; at least, it is certain, that a forest of it, of considerable extent, is known here: it is situated beyond the sources of the Oyapok, on the borders of a branch of the Yari, which runs into the river of the Amazons. It is generally believed, that the species of cocoa cultivated in the colony originally came from this forest, because the natural inhabitants of the country, settled on the banks of the Oyapok, made several journeys to this part, either for the sake of visiting other nations, or when they sent expressly, to bring the seeds of cocoa, when the price of this article could easily support the expenses of these journeys, which were never much to these people.

Indigo thrives very well in some parts of the colony, more especially on

the

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