A Short History of the Progress of Scientific Chemistry in Our Own Times

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Longmans, Green and Company, 1899 - 276 pages
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Page 8 - Newton generalized the law of attraction into a statement that every particle of matter in the universe attracts every other particle with a force which varies directly as the product of their masses and inversely as the square of the distance between them; and he thence deduced the law of attraction for spherical shells of constant density.
Page 62 - Avogadro's law states that equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules...
Page 127 - Without offering any hypothesis regarding the cause of this symmetrical grouping of atoms, it is sufficiently evident, from the examples just given, that such a tendency or law prevails, and that, no matter what the character of the uniting atoms may be, the combining power of the attracting element, if I may be allowed the term, is always satisfied by the same number of these atoms.
Page 243 - On partially liquefying carbonic acid by pressure alone, and gradually raising at the same time the temperature to 88° F., the surface of demarcation between the liquid and gas became fainter, lost its curvature, and at last disappeared. The space was then occupied by a homogeneous fluid, which exhibited, when the pressure was suddenly diminished or the temperature slightly lowered, a peculiar appearance of moving or flickering strias throughout ita entire mass. At temperatures above 88...
Page 129 - On the Constitution and Metamorphoses of Chemical Compounds, and on the Chemical Nature of Carbon...
Page 38 - Doubts and Paradoxes, touching the Experiments whereby Vulgar Spagirists are wont to endeavour to evince their Salt, Sulphur and Mercury, to be the true principles of things.
Page 42 - whiteness, and all grey colours between white and black, may be compounded of colours," and that "all homogeneal light has its proper colour answering to its degree of refrangibility, and that colour cannot be changed by reflections or refractions." This represents the extent of knowledge regarding the nature of sunlight which remained for upwards of a century. What Newton saw in the spectrum upon the wall was a series of images of the sun so close together that they overlapped at their edges, forming...
Page 213 - Passing to the consideration of electro-chemical decomposition, it appears to me that the effect is produced by an internal corpuscular action, exerted according to the direction of the electric current, and that it is due to a force either superadded to, or giving direction to the ordinary chemical affinity of the bodies present.
Page 8 - Chemical analysis and synthesis go no farther than to the separation of particles one from another, and to their reunion. No new creation or destruction of matter is within the reach of chemical agency. We might as well attempt to introduce a new planet into the solar system, or to annihilate one already in existence, as to create or destroy a particle of hydrogen.
Page 226 - We are thus forced to admit that, in an aggregate of molecules of any compound, there is an exchange constantly going on between the elements which are contained in it.

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