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Page 22 - Thermal springs, charged with carbonic acid and with hydrofluoric acid (which last is often present in small quantities), are powerful causes of decomposition and chemical reaction in rocks through which they percolate. If, therefore, large bodies of hot water permeate mountain-masses at great depths, they may, in the course of ages, superinduce in them a crystalline structure ; and, in some cases, strata in a lower position and of older date may be comparatively unaltered, retaining their fossil...
Page 233 - ... before they meet in the furnace, and there add to the carried heat, that due to their mutual chemical action. It is considered that when the furnace is in full order, the heat carried forward to be evolved by the chemical action of combustion is about 4000°, whilst that carried back by the regenerator is about 3000", making an intensity of power which, unless moderated on purpose, would fuse furnace and all exposed to its action. " Thus the regenerators are alternately heated and cooled by the...
Page 338 - ... first indication of choking of the worm is a partial or entire stoppage of the stream of liquid which normally flows steadily from the end of the worm into the retort. Any interruption or unsteadiness of this flow would indicate too rapid ebullition. As a rule, other things being equal, the greater the difference between the temperature of the bath and that of the retort, the slower the products will come off, and the more effectual will be the separation. I think it possible, however, that the...
Page 16 - This gas, he remarks, is not only characteristic of hot springs, but is largely disengaged from volcanic craters during eruptions. In both cases he suggests that the nitrogen may be derived from atmospheric air, which is always dissolved in rain-water, and which, when this -water penetrates the earth's crust, must be carried down to great depths so as to reach the heated interior. When there, it may be subjected to...
Page 24 - Volcanoes, insisted on the important part which water plays in an eruption, when intimately mixed up with the component materials of lava, aiding, as he supposed, in giving mobility to the more solid materials of the fluid mass. But when advocating this igneo-aqueous theory, he never dreamt of impugning the Huttonian doctrine as to the intensity of heat which the production of the unstratified rocks, those of the plutonic class especially implies.
Page 4 - About the time when Mr. Silliman was appointed a professor (1804) , the entire mineralogical and geological collection of Yale College was transported to Philadelphia in one small box, that the specimens might be named by Dr. Adam Seybert, then fresh from Werner's School at Freiberg, the only man in this country who could be regarded as a mineralogist scientifically...
Page 35 - Every well-trained philosophical judgment is accustomed to observe illustrations of the most sublime phenomena of creation in the most minute and familiar operations of the Creator's laws, one of the most characteristic features of which consists in the absolute and wonderful integrity maintained in their action whatsoever be the range as to magnitude or distance of the objects on which they operate. " For instance, the minute particles of dew which whiten the glass-blade in early morn are, in all...
Page 21 - ... the rocks at corresponding levels on each side of the lode. The almost entire absence of magnesium raises an obvious objection to the hypothesis of this spring deriving its waters from the sea ; or if such a source be suggested for the salt and other marine products, we should be under the necessity of supposing the magnesium to be left behind in combination with some of the elements of the decomposed and altered rocks through which the thermal waters may have passed.
Page 35 - ... certain conditions, and thence infer the existence of some fundamental arrangement which, for the bringing about of these events, has a force and certainty of action similar to, but more precise and unerring than those arrangements which human society makes for its own benefit, and calls laws. It is remarkable of physical laws, that we see them operating on every kind of scale as to magnitude, with the same regularity and perseverance. The tear that falls from childhood's cheek is globular, through...
Page 16 - When there, it may be subjected to deoxidating processes, so that the nitrogen, being left in a free state, may be driven upwards by the expansive force of heat and steam, or by hydrostatic pressure. This theory has been very generally adopted, as best accounting for the constant disengagement of large bodies of nitrogen, even where the rocks through which the spring rises are crystalline and unfossiliferous. It will, however, of course be admitted, as Prof.