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ART. 28. Uber national industrie und Staatswirthschaft, &c. On national Industry aad Oeconomy: founded on the Principles of A. Smith. Berlin. 1805.

The principles of Adam Smith are much too servilely copied ; and the author excels chiefly in the numerous instances he produces in support of his arguments. What particularly concerns Great Britain, and various digressions in Smith's work, pass in this properly unnoticed. It is laboured particularly in this work to shew that a government oversteps its end when it attempts by positive methods to insure the happiness of its subjects. Morality is the destined object, and this can flourish only in the bosom of liberty. Liberty is annihilated at the instant one man is to form the plan for another's happiness, and when actions which do no injury to the right of any man become dependent upon another's judgment. General happiness cannot be produced by the power of the state; and numerous instances are produced of the mistakes of sovereigns who, under the misconceived notion of producing happiness, introduced only misery and confusion. Hence to call a sovereign the father of his country is a great impropriety, and is always a fearful presage of approaching slavery. Who knows what a despot may choose to call the happiness of his subjects, or in what manner this father will act for the happiness of his children? Slavery is then painted in its most horrid colours, and the author's zeal leads him to forget that we should object to his ge neral system, that actions are not to be punished which do no injury to the right of any man. We do not wish to see expunged from our statute-book the punishment for some odious crimes which are not to be named without absolute necessity.


ART. 29.--Darstellung der Grosse der Missethapen, &c.

An Exposition of the Enormity of those Offences which in the new Statute-Book are punishable with Death. By G. I. Wenzel. 8vo. Leipzig.

When the new criminal code appeared in the Austrian states, it was particularly addressed to the ministers of religion, public and private teachers, heads of families, and magistrates. The author upon this has formed his work, and in a very judicious manner has interwoven a variety of remarks by which the minds of the lower classes may be impressed, with the enormity of the crimes which end in so fatal a sentence as death. The motives by which they are gradually led on to commit such crimes, and the means to defend themselves from the temptation when it falls in their way, are points not sufficiently enlarged upon; but still it is a useful work, and to guard against the commission of crime is much better than the severity of punishment.

APP. Vol. 4.


ART. 30.-Versuch einer systematischen Encyklopedie der Bergwerks wissenshaften. 800.

Attempt at an Encyclopedia for the Science of Mining. By Ernest Lehmann. Sco. Fryberg. 1805.

The intention of this work is to give à systematical arrangement of the necessary articles to be studied by him who wishes to apply himself to the study of mining. The attempt deserves credit, and with great propriety much use is made in the introduction of Krug's Encyclopedia of Sciences. The system of mining here laid down is divided into three parts: the first considers the prepa ratory knowledge necessary for a miner; the second, the art of mining; and the third, the sciences that are of assistance to the miner, In the first,'the mathematics and natural history are treated of rather too diffusely. In the second, directions are given with respect to the situation of mines, the mode of boring, the nature of machines to be employed, and similar circumstances. In the third part the miners' rights, the history of mines, the economical mode of treating them, the art of investigating and preparing models, are examined. On each of these articles is a concise explanation and review, which will be found satisfactory to, the amateurs of the mining art: and the chief works that have treated on these subjects are introduced to the acquaintance of the reader. We find in one place, that the German translation of Rinman's Lexicon, which has been so many years announced, and has lately been revised by Crusius, will soon make its appearance at Leipzig.

ART. 31.-Mahlerische darstellungen der Sitten Geträuche, &c. Picturesque Representations of the Manners, Customs, and Amuse ments of the Russians, Tatars, Monguls, and other Nations of the Russian Empire. With Forty coloured Plates. By J. G. Geissler. 8vo. Leipzig. 1805.

The author accompanied Pallas as an artist on his last journey to the southern departments; and the productions of his art which he has here presented to the public, manifest both his talents and industry. The work is an excellent supplement to Pallas's Travels; and at a time when Russia makes so considerable a figure in the political world, cannot but excite attention, and reward the artist for his labour.

ART. 32.-Deutschland oder der reisende Kaufman.

The Tradesman's Travels in Germany, Silesia, and Bohemia, By J. H. Meynier. 1805.

This is an instructive and amusing work, describing a game to be played, which brings to the recollection of the players all the remarkable objects that occur in a journey through Germany. A tradesman relates his travels, and at the end, questions are intro

uced on the most important circumstances that have occurred in his narration. There cannot be a doubt of the utility of such a game for young persons, if they can be brought, which is not often the case, to be interested in it; and this is partcularly

to be recommended to those who wish for a knowledge of the trade of Germany.

ART. 33.-Die wichtigsten Kunstpradwele der fabriken & manufàcturen vorzuglich in Europa, von J. C. Moller. 8vo. Hamburg. The most important Productions of the Workshop and Manufactures, par ticularly in Europe. A Manual for Instructors of Youth in Technology and Geography.

This is a very useful publication. The author has collected with great industry a variety of materials from the many very costly works on the same subject. The objects are arranged according to the kingdoms of nature to which they respectively belong. On each production is given the art of cultivating and ma-nufacturing it, and then the various places are mentioned where it is produced or manufactured to the best advantage. Thus the article gold is treated of under the following heads: The obtaining of it from the mines: its natural qualities: the places whence it is "procured: the uses of gold, particularly in coinage: manufactures of gold, as by goldsmiths, goldbeaters, gold-wire drawers. Every part is treated concisely, but sufficiently at large for instruction. Some articles, as may be expected in such a work, are omitted; but this can scarcely be said to detract materially from the utility of a work which will be found very useful in the early part of edu cation.

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These Travels are not of great extent, but comprehend many. statistical details of importance. The account of Bernstorff and his nephew, and of the property near Copenhagen settled by the king on this family, contains many curious particulars; and the history of the extinction of servitude which does this family so much honour, is particularly worthy of attention. Estates that used to be sold at four or five hundred rix-dollars, have risen to ten thousand; and on many of these estates, which have come into the hands of citizens of Copenhagen, very considerable improvements have been made. For a property of this kind twenty thousand rix-dollars were lately asked, and eighteen thousand bid for it: and in fact Denmark, by the new ordinance, seems to be a new creation.. All are in action; the labour is infinitely more productive; and the peasantry are approaching fast to the old state of English yeomanry.

ART. 35. Antangs grunde der unbestimmlrn Analytik, &c. Principles of Unlimited Equations, for the Use of those who have no Instructor. By D. J. C. L. Hellig. Jena.

This part of the mathematics is one of the most interesting, but it is much less cultivated than from its importance it deserves. More would perhaps apply themselves to this branch of knowi Nn 2

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ledge, if its merits were more extensively known, and if the pre judices against it from obscurity and imagined difficulties were removed. The unlimited analysis, which it is the intention of this writer to explain in an easy manner, is a part only of the higher arithmetic, or rather a practical application of it to the solution of unlimited equations, by whole or at least rational numbers. The principles of the art depend on the arithmetical theory of the functions of two or more variable quantities, provided they can be expressed in whole or rational values. From the great improvement made in later times in the higher arithmetic, the solution of unlimited equations is brought to a considerable degree of - perfection: but it was not the object of this writer to enter far anto this subject; he wished only to introduce the student to the easier processes, and he has so well succeeded, that with a very slight degree of attention, every difficulty will be overcome by a novice at first in the art; and on finishing the work he will be qualified to enter upon the most abstruse enquiries. The work is divided into two parts: the first containing equations of one, the other of two dimensions; and the instances, taken chiefly from Euler, are numerous and well calculated for a young beginner.


ART. 36.Porta Foglio Militare, &c.

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Military Port-folio: under the Patronage of the Government of the Italian Republic. Milan. 1805.

This is a monthly publication on an excellent plan, but most miserably executed. The intention is to introduce, even into the lower classes of the army, knowledge and instruction. The table of contents will shew what the work would lead us to expect; but every part is so negligently performed, that the Italian army is not likely to receive much benefit from the production. 1. On patriotism. 2. Instruction and knowledge necessary for a soldier. 3. Patience a quality requisite in an officer exercising a recruit. 4. The duty of a common soldier. 5. Brief instructions for subalterns in the light troops. 6. Life of Montecuculli. 7. The duty of an adjutant. 8. Thoughts on the tactics of infantry and cavalry. 9. Definition of the word soldier, with a muster-roll and dedication to officers. 10. Proper bits for soldiers horses. II. General Schauinburg's instructions for the French infantry.

ERRATA in our last Number.

Page 349, line 27, for Fabricius read Fabius.-P. 374 I. 38, for Luke's read Laines's—P. 447, 1, 26. for coltor read collector.

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