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truly the key-note and whole tenor of the manual, so as HUXLEY'S MANUAL OF THE ANATOMY assuredly to prove one of its most valuable qualities in its



HIS long-expected work will be cordially welcomed by all students and teachers of Comparative Anatomy, as a compendious, reliable, and, notwithstanding its small dimensions, most comprehensive guide in the subject of which it treats.

To praise or to criticise the work of so accomplished a master of his favourite science would be equally out of place. It is enough to say that it realises in a remarkable degree the anticipations which have been formed of it; and that it presents an extraordinary combination of wide, general views, with the clear, accurate, and succinct statement of a prodigous number of individual facts. The extreme brevity, indeed, takes one in some degree by surprise; and it is only on repeated reading that one feels assured that the facts exposed have been stated with sufficient fulness.

It is a wholesome and encouraging sign of the scientific literature and teaching of the day, that men of the highest eminence devote a portion of their time to the composition of elementary manuals or short guides in their respective sciences. The abuses to which such short manuals are subject are well known, and have been often commented on; and they are no doubt serious when leading to the formation of imperfect knowledge and the exclusion of more extended study. The objections, however, have weight chiefly as applied to the inferior class of such treatises, which, certainly, have too much abounded in this country. A thoroughly good manual, even though strictly elementary, besides forming the first secure basis of correct knowledge, excites a desire for fuller reading, and serves at later periods for useful revisal of more complete information; while its small size obviously places it within the reach of many whose means do not enable them to become possessed of larger treatises, and has thus considerable influence in extending the study of the branch of science to which it is related.

Nor is Prof. Huxley's manual so very short as might at first be supposed from the unpretending form given to it; but rather the abundance of facts is surprising which the author has contrived to compress into the space, without any loss of that clearness and comprehensiveness of statement for which he is so well known. The amount of printed matter, indeed, is very nearly the same as that comprised in the portion devoted to vertebrate animals in the second edition of Gegenbaur's "Outlines," the most approved recent German elementary treatise on Comparative Anatomy.

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It is also deserving of note that there is an entire absence of speculation and theory, as well as of any vague generalities. The words "teleology," "design," "type of organisation," "descent," "natural selection," genesis of species," find no place in this manual, which deals simply with ascertained facts and principles. In most instances, where uncertainty prevails, the grounds of doubt are stated, or the subject is altogether omitted; but on the whole, as is perhaps right in a manual, the author leans to the side of positive statement of his own views, when he has made up his mind on any disputed point.

So much for the manner of the book. As regards the matter, it may be said that, while it presents a masterly and decided statement of the great principles of Vertebrate Morphology, the most characteristic and important feature which pervades the whole, is the constant reference of all anatomical description and zoological distribution to the facts and laws of organogenesis, as ascertained from the observation of fœtal development. This is well known to be one of the great merits of Prof. Huxley's researches and writings, and he has made it

"A Manual of the Anatomy of Vertebrated Animals." By Thomas H. Huxley, LL.D., F.R.S. (London: J. and A. Churchill. 1871.)

future influence on the study of Comparative Anatomy. The first two chapters of the manual, extending to one hundred and eleven pages, are devoted to an exposition of the general organisation of the Vertebrata, as exhibited in the skeleton (endoskeleton and exoskeleton), the muscular system, the nervous system with the organs of sense, the alimentary canal including the teeth, the sanguiferous and lymphatic systems, the respiratory organs, and the renal and reproductive organs. This is premised by a

statement of the distinctive characters of the vertebrate organisation, in which the double cavity of the body, neural and visceral, is taken as the most marked basis of distinction between vertebrate and invertebrate morphology; and a clear short sketch is added of the most prominent phenomena of foetal development.

The remaining six chapters contain a systematic exposition of the classification, organisation, and distribution of the several classes of vertebrate animals, under the three provinces of 1, Ichthyopsida, 2, Sauropsida, and 3, Mammalia; thus recognising the important approximations now established between Fishes and Amphibia under the first, and between Reptiles and Birds under the second of these provinces. In each class the position and organisation of extinct and fossil animals is also given. The third chapter begins with the statement of the anatomical characters of the three great provinces; after which the organisation of fishes is described under an arrangement which is a modification of Johannes Müller's in the following groups, viz., I, Pharyngobranchii (Amphioxus); 2, Marsipobranchii (the Myxines and lampreys); 3, Elasmobranchii (the sharks and rays); 4, Ganoidei (Lepidosteus, sturgeons, &c.); 5, Teleostei (osseous fishes); and 6, Dipnoi (Lepidosiren, transitional). In Chapter 4 the structure of the class Amphibia is similarly given, under the following distribution-viz., I. Saurobatrachia, including, 1, Proteida (Siren, Axolotl, &c.), 2, Salamandrida (newts, &c.); II. Labyrinthodonta; III, Gymnophiona (Cæcilia, &c.); and IV. Batrachia (Anura, frogs and toads).

In Chapter 5, after giving the distinction between Reptiles and Birds as included under the province of Sauropsida, the class Reptilia is distributed under the following groups-viz., I. Chelonia; II. Plesiosauria; III. Lacertilia; IV. Ophidia; V. Ichthyosauria; VI. Crocodilia; VII. Dicynodontia; VIII. Ornithoscelida (Megalosaurus, Iguanodon, &c., transitional; IX. Pterosauria (Pterodactyles); and the comparative osteology of these groups is described.

In Chapter 6 Birds are distributed, and their Osteology is described under the following classification-viz., I. Saururæ (Archæopterygidæ, the metacarpals not ankylosed together); II. Ratidæ, including birds with more or less rudimentary wings, and in which the sternum is without a keel; III. Carinatæ, the large tribe in which the sternum is keeled, including four groups, viz., I, Tinamomorphæ (Tinamous), 2, Schizognathæ, (the Plovers, Gulls, Penguins, Cranes, Hemipods, Fowls, Sand Grouse, Pigeons, Hoazin); 3, Ægithognathæ, (the Passerines, Swifts, and Woodpeckers); 4, Desmognatha (the Birds of Prey, Parrots, Cuckoos, Kingfishers, Anserinæ, Flamingoes, Storks, Cormorants).

In Chapter 7 the Muscles and Viscera of the Sauropsida are described together.

Chapter 8 (180 pages) is devoted to the Mammalia, distributed in three great groups, as follows:I. Ornithodelphia (1, Monotremata).

II. Didelphia (2, Marsupial animals).

III. Monodelphia, divided provisionally into twelve orders as follows-3, Edentata, 4, Ungulata, 5, Toxodontia, 6, Sirenia, 7, Cetacea, 8, Hyracoidea, 9, Proboscidea, 10, Carnivora, 11, Rodentia, 12, Insectivora, 13, Cheiroptera, 14, Primates. The first of these twelve orders is separated

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FIG. 1. The head of a foetal Lamb dissected so as to show Meckel's cartilage, M; the malleus, ; the incus, ; the tympanic, Ty; the hyoid, H; the squamosal, Sq: pterygoid, Pt; palatine, pl; lachrymal, L; premaxilla, pmx; nasal sac, N; Eustachian tube, Ex.

But however important the distinctions established upon that basis may be in themselves, it may fairly be doubted how far characters derived from parts which do not belong to the permanent organisation of the adult animal, the application of which is not yet fully known in one or two orders, and in which, too, there is much of a transitional nature, are preferable to signs of a more marked and easily observable kind deducible from other parts of the organisation.

In the description of structure all these orders are referred to; but in several of them particular familiar ani

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FIG. 3.-Diagrammatic horizontal section of a Vertebrate Brain. The following letters serve for both this figure and Fig. 4:-Mb, Mid-brain. What lies in front of this is the fore-brain, and what lies behind, the hind-brain. L. t. the lamina terminalis; Olf, the olfactory lobes; Hmp, the hemispheres; Th.E, the thalamencephalon; Pn, the pineal gland; Py, the pituitary body; FM, the foramen of Munro: CS, the corpus striatum ; Th, the optic thalamus; CQ, the corpora quadrigemina: CC, the crura cerebri; Cb, the cerebellum: PV, the pons varolii; MO, the medulla oblongata; I olfactorii; II. optici; III. point of exit from the brain of the motores oculorum; IV. of the pathetici; VI. of the abducentes; V-XII, origins of the other cerebral nerves. 1, olfactory ventricle; 2, lateral ventricle; 3, third ventricle; 4, fourth ventricle; +, iter a tertio ad quartum ventriculum.

of view may be the description of the variations of form and structure in the different organs taken separately in the whole series of animals, the results of this mode of teaching and study are inferior to those obtainable from the method of description of the whole organisation in successive groups or individual animals, as regards pro

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FIG. 2.-Diagram of the skeleton of the first and second visceral arches in a
Lizard (A), a Mammal (B), and an Osseous Fish (C).
The skeleton of the first visceral arch is shaded, that of the second is left
nearly unshaded. I. First visceral arch. Mck. Meekel's cartilage. Art.
Articulare. Qu. Quadratum. Mpt. Metapterygoid; M. Malleus; p.g.,
Processus gracilis. II. Second visceral arch. Hy. Hyoidean cornu.
St. H Stylohyal. S. Stapedius. Stp. Stapes. S. Stp. Supra stapedial.
HM. Hyomandibular. The arrow indicates the first visceral cleft. Pc.
The periotic capsule. Ptg Tne pterygoid.

mals are happily selected for the fuller illustration of the more important systems; as for example, the horse, pig, dog, rabbit, hedgehog, seal, ox, porpoise: thus suggesting to the student the means by which a more practical and

FIG. 4.-A longitudinal and vertical section of a Vertebrate Brain. The letters as before. The lamina terminalis is represented by the strong black line between FM and 3,

gress in morphological attainments, the determination of zoological affinities, and their application to the solution of the great biological problems of the day.

The latter part of this chapter treats of the Primates, which are divided into-1, the Lemuridæ, 2, the Simiada, and 3, the Anthropida. The Simiada are thrown into three groups, viz., 1, Arctopithecini, or marmosets; 2, Platyrrhini, or American monkeys; and 3, Catarrhini, or monkeys of the Old World, including two sub-groups,

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tion of the volume of the brain of the orang and chimpanzee to that of man, when he rates it at about half the minimum size of the normal human brain. Taking thirty-three ounces as the lowest weight of the latter consistent with a natural condition in the adult male, the brain of the orang and chimpanzee may be stated at a third of that weight.

At p. 487 this subject is summed up as follows:-" Of the four genera of the Anthropomorpha, the gibbons are obviously most remote from man, and nearest to the Cynopithecini.

"The orangs come nearest to man in the number of the ribs, the form of the cerebral hemispheres, the diminution of the occipito-temporal sulcus of the brain, and the ossified styloid process; but they differ from him much more widely in other respects, and especially in the limbs, than the gorilla and chimpanzee do.

"The chimpanzee approaches man most closely in the character of its cranium, its dentition, and the proportional size of the arms.

"The gorilla, on the other hand, is more man-like in the proportions of the leg to the body, and of the foot to

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FIG 5.-A diagram intended to show the manner in which the aortic arches become modified in the series of the Vertebrata. A. A hypothetically perfect series of aortic arches, corresponding with the nine postoral visceral arches, of which evidence is to be found in some Sharks and Marsipobranchii A.C. Cardiac aorta; A.D. Dorsal or subvertebral aorta. 1.-IX. the aortic arches, corresponding with M., the mandibular; Hy., the hyoidean, and Br.1-Br.7, the seven branchial visceral arches. I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII., the seven branchial clefts. The first visceral cleft is left unnumbered, and one must be added to the number of each branchial cleft to give its number in the series of visceral clefts.

B. Hypothetical diagram of the aortic arches of the shark Heptanchus, which has seven branchial clefts. Sp. The remains of the first visceral cleft as the spiracle. Branchia are developed on all the arches. C. Lepidosiren -The first arch has disappeared as such, and the first visceral cleft is obliterated. Internal branchia are developed in connection with the second, fifth, sixth, and seventh aortic arches; external branchia in connection with the fourth, fifth, and sixth. P.A. the pulmonary artery. The posterior two visceral clefts are obliterated. D. A Teleostean Fish.-The first aortic arch and first visceral cleft are obliterated, as before. The second aortic arch bears the pseudo-branchia (Ps. B.), whence issues the ophthalmic artery, to terminate in the choroid gland (Ch.). The next four arches bear gills. The seventh and eighth arches have been observed in the embryo, but not the ninth, and the included clefts are absent in the adult.

E. The Axolotl (Siredon), a perennibranchiate amphibian. The third, fourth, fifth, and sixth aortic arches, and the anterior four branchial clefts, persist. The first visceral cleft is obliterated.

F. The Frog -The three anterior aortic arches are obliterated in the adult. The place of the third, which is connected with the anterior external gill in the Tadpole, is occupied by the common carotid and the rete mirabile (carotid gland, Ca.G) which terminates it. The fourth pair of aortic arches persist The fifth and sixth pair lose their connection with the subvertebral aortic trunk, and become the roots of the cutaneous and pulmonary arteries. The first visceral cleft becomes the tympanum, but all the others are obliterated in the adult.

An interesting synopsis is given of the anatomical peculiarities of these animals, and of the circumstances in which they most differ from, or resemble, man. Among these the author has inadvertently overstated the propor

FIG. 6.-A, the stomach of a Sheep. B, that of a Musk-deer (Tragulus). a, oesophagus; Rn, rumen; Ret., reticulum; Ps., psalterium; A., Ab abomasum; Du., duodenum: Py., pylorus.

the hand; further, in the size of the heel, the curvature of the spine, the form of the pelvis, and the absolute capacity of the cranium."

The work is concluded with a brief statement of the characteristics of the human organisation. Among these the superior size of the head of the male infant at birth might perhaps have received a more prominent place. The short statement of variations in structure connected with difference of race is of peculiar interest. The various races of mankind are placed in two groups according to the character of the hair, viz., a, the Ulotrichi (crisp or woolly-haired), who are almost all dolichocephali, and b, Leiotrichi (straight-haired), who are distributed in four sets, viz., I, Australioid, 2, Mongoloid, 3, Xanthochroic, or blue-eyed whites, and 4, Melanochroic, or dark whites.

It will now be proper to place before the reader some illustrations, taken from the "Manual," of Prof. Huxley's mode of treatment of individual topics.

The first of these which is selected (Fig. 1) relates to the intricate but deeply interesting subject of the homology of the os quadratum of birds and reptiles, a bone which was

compared by Cuvier to the tympanic bone of mammals, but which more lately, in consequence of the embryological researches of Reichert and Rathke, was held to correspond rather with the incus,-a view in which Prof. Huxley formerly concurred. Later observations, however, (detailed in a paper published in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 1869) have led him to alter his opinion, and to form the opinion that the os quadratum may, with the greatest probability, be regarded as representing the malleus.

In explaining this morphological point, Prof. Huxley refers as follows (at p. 27) to the osteogenetic process connected with the formation of the lower jaw and hyoid bone, or mandibular and hyoid arches.

"Two ossifications commonly appear near the proximal end of Meckel's cartilage, and become bones moveably articulated together. The proximal of these is the quadrate bone found in most vertebrates, the malleus of mammals; the distal is the os articulare of the lower jaw in most vertebrates, but does not seem to be represented in mammals. The remainder of Meckel's carti

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lage usually persists for a longer or shorter time, but does not ossify. It becomes surrounded by bone, arising from one or several centres in the adjacent membrane, and the ramus of the mandible thus formed articulates with the squamosal bone in mammals, but in other vertebrata is immoveably united with the os articulare.

"Hence the complete ramus of the mandible articulates directly with the skull in mammals, but only indirectly, or through the intermediation of the quadrate, in other vertebrata. In birds and reptiles, the proximal end of the quadrate bone articulates directly (with a merely apparent exception in Ophidia), and independently of the hyoidean apparatus, with the periotic capsule. In most if not all fishes, the connection of the mandibular arch with the skull is effected indirectly, by its attachment to a single cartilage or bone, the hyomandibular, which represents the proximal end of the hyoidean arch."

This last "is often united, more or less closely, with the outer extremity of the bone, called columella auris, or stapes, the inner end of which, in the higher vertebrata, is attached to the membrane of the fenestra ovalis."

FIG. 7.-THE Skeleton of the Horse.

A fuller and most interesting account of the origin and relations of these bones in connection with the changes occurring in the development of the first and second visceral arches, and with the formation of the external and middle parts of the ear is given at pp. 83-85; but there is only space here to reproduce the diagrammatic figure of the Manual (Fig. 2), which places very clearly in comparison their probable homology in fishes, reptiles, and mammals.

The main point on which the question hinges seems to be the separate connection ascertained to exist between the periotic capsule and the two rods contained respectively in the first and second visceral arches; the proximate part of the first becoming the quadrate bone, or malleus; that of the second becoming the incus in the part above the attachment of the stapes to the rod, and stapedius muscle below; while the stapes itself, or columella auris, is an offset, as it were, from the second rod proceeding to the fenestra ovalis. The subject, however, is one o' so great difficulty, especially as connected with the existence and relations of the tympanic bone in birds and reptiles, to the proof of which the researches of Peters have been directed, that it would be hazardous to attempt any decision of the question at issue without

an opportunity of going very fully and minutely into the whole investigation.

The third illustration from the earlier part of the Manual (Figs. 3, 4) gives a clear view of the relations now very generally recognised between the rudimentary parts of the foetal brain and those forming the adult encephalon of the different classes of Vertebrata; and it is enough to refer to the diagrammatic figures, with their description.

The exposition which follows of the modifications in the form and organisation of the brain in different animals, together with the comparative views of the brains of the rabbit, pig, and chimpanzee, in figs. 21 and 22 of the Manual, is most instructive and worthy of attentive study.

The next illustration extracted from the Manual (Fig. 5) is diagrammatic, like the preceding ones, being intended to explain the changes by which, in fishes and amphibia, the permanent arterial vessels nearest the heart are derived from the common typical aortic arches, which, in the fœtus of all vertebrate animals, surround the first part of the alimentary canal.

The illustration might advantageously be extended to show the parallel changes in reptiles, birds, and mammals; these, however, may be better given from the ventral than from the lateral aspect.

The figure here inserted of the skeleton of the horse (Fig. 7) is a very good example of the wood engraving, in which, notwithstanding the small scale, there is remarkable clearness of detail; and the succeeding figures, representing several details of the osteology of the same animal, are all to be commended for beauty and delicacy of execution.

The illustration given in Fig. 6 is one in explanation of the structure of the stomach of the ruminant, in connection with which the following statement of recentlyestablished points regarding rumination may be quoted (p. 381):

"1. Rumination is altogether prevented by paralysis of the abdominal muscles, and it is a good deal impeded by any interference with the free action of the diaphragm.

2. Neither the paunch nor the reticulum ever becomes completely emptied by the process of regurgitation. The paunch is found half full of sodden fodder, even in animals which have perished by starvation.

"3. When solid substances are swallowed, they pass indifferently into the rumen or reticulum, and are constantly driven backwards and forwards, from the one to the other, by peristaltic actions of the walls of the stomach.

"4. Fluids may pass either into the paunch and the reticulum, or into the psalterium, and thence at once into the fourth stomach, according to circumstances.

"5. Rumination is perfectly well effected after the lips of the œsophageal groove have been closely united by wire


"It would appear, therefore, that the cropped grass passes into the reticulum and rumen, and is macerated in them. But there is no reason to believe that the reticulum takes any special share in modelling the boluses which have to be returned into the mouth. More probably, a sudden and simultaneous contraction of the diaphragm and of the abdominal muscles compresses the contents of the rumen and reticulum, and drives the sodden fodder against the cardiac aperture of the stomach. This opens, and then the cardiac end of the œsophagus, becoming passively dilated, receives as much of the fodder as it will contain. The cardiac aperture now becoming closed, the bolus thus shut off is propelled by the reversed peristaltic action of the muscular walls of the œsophagus into the mouth, where it undergoes the thorough mastication which has been described."

In connection with this it may be remarked that fuller illustration by figures of the organs of digestion, circulation, and respiration in different animals seems desirable

in the Manual.

Of the 110 woodcuts contained in the Manual, twothirds are original, while the remaining third (37) are borrowed from other authors, whose names are mentioned in the preface.

For so complex a subject as the osteology of the skull, as well as perhaps in several other parts, some extended table of the bones, with the letters of reference employed throughout the work, would afford considerable assistance to the student.

It might also be advantageous in an elementary work of this kind to have added select references to works for fuller study, and a glossary of (at least unusual) terms.

In concluding this notice we repeat that the Manual is in every way worthy of its learned author, and calculated to be extremely useful in promoting the study of Comparative Anatomy and Zoology on sound principles. The work cannot fail soon to go to a second edition, when the author will have considered the expediency of such additions as we have ventured to suggest, or of others of which he approves, and which he has doubtless been deterred from including in the present work from the desire to bring it within as narrow a compass as possible. We may also express the hope that the publishers have made arrangements for the speedy publication of a similar Manual of the Anatomy of the Invertebrate Animals. ALLEN THOMSON


M. JANSSEN has addressed to the French Academy of Sciences the following letter, on the principal consequences to be drawn from his observations on the solar eclipse of 12th December last; it is dated Sholoor, December 19, 1871 :-"I had the honour," he says, "of sending you on the very day of the eclipse a few lines to inform the Academy that I had observed the eclipse under an exceptional sky, and that my observations led me to assume a solar origin for the Corona (see NATURE, vol. v. p. 190). Immediately after the eclipse I was obliged to busy myself with the personal and material arrangements for my expedition into the mountains, and hence I have been unable to complete any detailed account, but I take advantage of the departure of this courier to give some indispensable details as to the announced results. Without entering into a discussion, which will form part of my narrative, I shall say, in the first place, that the magnificent Corona observed at Sholoor showed itself under such an aspect that it seemed to me impossible to accept for it any cause of the nature of the phenomena of diffraction or reflection upon the globe of the moon, or of simple illumination of the terrestrial atmosphere. But the arguments which militate in favour of an objective and circumsolar cause, acquire invincible force when we inquire into the luminous elements of the phenomenon. fact, the spectrum of the Corona appeared in my telescope, not continuous, as it had previously been found, but remarkably complex. I detected in it, though much weaker, the brilliant lines of hydrogen gas, which forms the principal element of the protuberances and chromosphere; the brilliant line which has already been indicated during the eclipses of 1869 and 1870, and some other fainter ones; obscure lines of the ordinary solar spectrum, especially that of sodium (D); these lines are much more difficult to perceive. These facts prove the existence of matter in the vicinity of the sun; matter which manifests itself in total eclipses by phenomena of emission, absorption, and polarisation. But the discussion of the facts leads us still further. Besides the cosmical matter independent of the sun which must exist in its neighbourhood, the observations demonstrate the existence of an excessively rare atmosphere, with a base of hydrogen, ex


tending far beyond the chromosphere and protuberances, and deriving its supplies from the very matter of the latter-matter which is projected with so much violence, as we may ascertain every day. The rarity of this atmosphere at a certain distance from the chromosphere must be excessive; its existence, therefore, is not in disagreement with the observations of some passages of comets close to the sun."

WE earnestly call the attention of all men of science who may have influence with the French Government, to the letter on behalf of Elisée Reclus by Mr. H. Woodward, which will be found in another column.

We have to record the death of the Rev. Canon Moseley, F. R. S., on Saturday last in his 71st year. Born in 1801, he went to St. John's College, Cambridge, where he graduated seventh wrangler in 1826. He was for a time Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy at King's College, London, and was afterwards appointed one of Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools, and was a member of the Ordnance Select Committee. Canon Moseley was well known for his writings on various physical subjects, in particular on the phenomena connected with the freezing of water, and the molecular constitution of glacial ice.

THE Photographic News notices the death of one of the most eminent continental photographers, Johannes Grasshoff, of Berlin, at the early age of thirty-six. At the recent exhibition of the Photographic Society in Conduit Street, his studies were among those most admired in the whole collection, and not least his group of thirty different pictures from one and the same

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