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HIST. ANTIQ.

WALFORD 1^-3-4-E 711-776-129 ADD. VEL.

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

Association.

ASS

Α A a or SSOCIATION, the act of associating, or constituting a society, or partnership, in order to carry on some scheme or affair with more advantage.-The word is Latin, associatio; and compounded of ad, to, and socio, to join.

ASSOCIATION of Ideas, is where two or more ideas constantly and immediately follow or succeed one another in the mind, so that one shall almost infallibly produce the other, whether there be any natural relation between them or not. See METAPHYSICS.

Where there is a real affinity or connexion in ideas, it is the excellency of the mind, to be able to collect, compare, and range them in order, in its inquiries: but where there is none, nor any cause to be assigned for their accompanying each other, but what is owing to mere accident or habit, this unnatural association becomes a great imperfection, and is, generally speaking, a main cause of error, or wrong deductions in reasoning. Thus the idea of goblins and sprights, it has been observed, has really no more affinity with darkness than with light; and yet let a foolish maid inculcate these ideas often on the mind of a child, and raise them there together, it is possible he shall never be able to separate them again so long as he lives, but darkness shall ever bring with it those frightful ideas. With regard to this instance, however, it must at the same time be observed, that the connection alluded to appears far from being either unnatural or absurd. See the article AP

PARITION.

Such wrong combinations of ideas, Mr Locke shows, are a great cause of the irreconcileable opposition between the different sects of philosophy and religion: for we cannot imagine, that all who hold tenets different from, and sometimes even contradictory to, one another, should wilfully and knowingly impose upon themselves, and refuse truth offered by plain reason: but some loose and independent ideas are, by education, custom, and the constant din of their party, so coupled in their minds, that they always appear there together: these they can no more separate in their thoughts, than if they were but one idea, and they operate as if they were so. This gives sense to jargon, demonstration to absurdities, consistency to nonsense, and is the foundation of the greatest, and almost of all the errors in the world.

Association forms a principal part of Dr Hartley's mechanical theory of the mind. He distinguishes it into synchronous and successive; and ascribes our simple VOL. III. Part I. +

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and complex ideas to the influence of this principle Association. or habit. Particular sensations result from previous vibrations conveyed through the nerves to the medullary substance of the brain; and these are so intimately associated together, that any one of them, when impressed alone, shall be able to excite in the mind the ideas of all the rest. Thus we derive the ideas of natural bodies from the association of the several sensible qualities with the names that express them, and with each other. The sight of part of a large building suggests the idea of the rest instantaneously, by a synchronous association of the parts; and the sound of the words, which begin a familiar sentence, brings to remembrance the remaining parts, in order, by successive association. Dr Hartley maintains, that simple ideas run into complex ones by association; and apprehends, that by pursuing and perfecting this doctrine, we may some time or other be enabled to analyze those complex ideas, that are commonly called the ideas of reflection, or intel lectual ideas, into their several component parts, i. e. into the simple ideas of sensation of which they consist; and that this doctrine may be of considerable use in the art of logic, and in explaining the various phenomena of the human mind.

ASSOCIATION of Parliament. In the reign of King William III. the parliament entered into a solemn association to defend his Majesty's person and government against all plots and conspiracies; and all persons bearing offices civil or military, were enjoined to subscribe the association to stand by King William, on pain of forfeitures and penalties, &c. by stat. 7 and 8 W. III. c. 27.

ASSOCIATION, African. This is an institution which was formed in the year 1788, for the purpose of promoting discoveries in the interior parts of Africa. Out of the number of the members, of which this society consists, five are elected for the management of its funds and correspondence, and for the appointment of persons to whom the missions are assigned. Mr Ledyard was the first who was sent out, for accomplishing the object of the society. He undertook the adventurous task, of traversing from east to west, the widest part of the African continent, in the latitude which was ascribed to the Niger; and with this view he arrived at Cairo in August 1788. But before his projected journey commenced, he died, and the hopes that were entertained of this enterprising and persevering traveller were disappointed. Mr Lucas was next chosen by the A committee,

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Assuan

answer each other in a kind of assonant rhyme, having each an e in the penult syllable, and an a in the Assumps last. ASSUAN See SYENE.

Association Committee. In October 1788, he embarked for Tri" poli; and he was instructed to proceed over the desert Assonant of Zaara to Fezzan, to collect all the information that could be obtained, respecting the interior of the African continent, and to transmit it by way of Tripoli. He was then to return by way of Gambia, or the coast of Guinea. But his peregrinations terminated at Mesurata. The difficulties and dangers which presented themselves deterred him from proceeding farther. He transmitted to the society only the result of his conferences with the traders to Fezzan, with whom he was travelling; and soon after returned to England.

The society still persevered in its object, and in the year 1790, appointed Major Houghton, with instructions to sail for the mouth of the Gambia, and to traverse the country from west to east. He arrived on the coast in November the same year, immediately commenced his journey, ascended the river Gambia to Medina, 900 miles distant from his mouth, and thence proceeded to Bambouk, and to the adjoining kingdom of Kasson, where, in September the year following, he unfortunately terminated his travels with his life, near to the town of Jarra.

Mr Park was engaged by the society in the same service in 1795, and pursuing the route of Major Houghton, more successfully explored the banks of the Niger, to Sego and to Silla, the first of that great line of populous cities which divide the southern from the northern deserts of Africa. The information which Mr Park collected, during his adventurous journey, was communicated to the society in 1798. In a second journey, commenced in 1805, this enterprising traveller perished, after having reached the Niger; but the circumstances of his death have not been ascertained with perfect certainty.

Mr Horneman, who had offered himself to the committee in 1796, departed from London in July 1797, and proceeding by Cairo, commenced his journey westward with the caravan, in September 1798. In November following, he arrived at Mourzouk in Fezzan, from which his last despatches to the society were transmitted by way of Tripoli, but no accounts of his death ever reached the society.

John L. Burckhardt, the son of a citizen of Basle in Switzerland, was engaged by the society in 1808. After some preparatory steps, he set out in March 1809. He remained two years and a half at Aleppo; thence he went to Egypt. Unfortunately no caravan set out for the interior of Africa for a series of years. He was thus disappointed in his leading object; but he made two journeys up the Nile, and visited Mecca, Medina, and Mount Sinai. Diseases brought on by fatigue and the climate, at length put a period to his life in September 1817. See AFRICA, SUPPLEMent. ASSOILZIE, in Law, to absolve or free. ASSONANCE, in Rhetoric and Poetry, a term used where the words of a phrase or a verse have the same sound, or termination, and yet make no proper rhyme. These are usually accounted vicious in English; though the Romans sometimes used them with elegancy; as, Militem comparavit, exercitum ordinavit, aciem lustravit.

ASSONANT RHYMES, is a term particularly applied to a kind of verses common among the Spaniards, where a resemblance of sound serves instead of a natural rhyme. Thus ligera, cubierta, tierra, mesa, may

ASSUMPSIT, in the Law of England, a voluntary or verbal promise, whereby a person assumes, or takes upon him to perform or pay any thing to another.

A promise is in the nature of a verbal convenant, and wants nothing but the solemnity of writing and sealing to make it absolutely the same. If therefore it be to do any explicit act, it is an express contract, as much as any covenant; and the breach of it is an equal injury. The remedy indeed is not exactly the same: since, instead of an action of covenant, there only lies an action upon the case, for what is called an assumpsit or undertaking of the defendant; the failure of performing which is the wrong or injury done to the plaintiff, the damages whereof a jury are to estimate and settle. As, if a builder promises, undertakes, or assumes to Caius, that he will build and cover his house within a time limited, and fails to do it; Caius has an action on the case against the builder for this breach of his express promise, undertaking, or assumpsit; and shall recover a pecuniary satisfaction for the injury sustained by such delay. So also in the case of a debt by simple contract, if the debtor promises to pay it and does not, this breach of promise entitles the creditor to his action on the case, instead of being driven to an action of debt. Thus likewise a promissory note, or note of hand not under seal, to pay money at a day certain, is an express assumpsit; and the payee at common law, or by custom and act of parliament the indorsee, may recover the value of the note in damage, if it remains unpaid. Some agreements indeed, though never so expressly made, are deemed of so important a nature, that they ought not to rest in verbal promise only, which cannot be proved but by the memory (which sometimes will induce the perjury of witnesses. To prevent which, the statute of frauds and perjuries, 29 Car. II. c. 3. enacts, that in the five following cases no verbal promise shall be sufficient to ground an action upon, but at the least some note or memorandum of it shall be made in writing, and signed by the party to be charged therewith: 1. Where an executor or administrator promises to answer damages out of his own estate. 2. Where a man undertakes to answer for the debt, default, or miscarriage, of another. 3. Where any agreement is made upon consideration of marriage. 4. Where any contract or sale is made of lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or any interest therein. 5. And lastly, where there is any agreement that is not to be performed within a year from the making hereof. In all these cases a mere verbal assumpsit is void.

From these express contracts the transition is easy to those that are only implied by law. Which are such as reason and justice dictate, and which therefore the law presumes that every man has contracted to perform ; and, upon this presumption, makes him answerable to such persons as suffer by his non-performance.

Thus, 1. If I employ a person to transact any business for me, or perform any work, the law implies that I undertook, or assumed, to pay him so much as his labour deserved; and if I neglect to make him amends, he has a remedy for his injury by bringing his action on the case upon this implied assumpsit: wherein he is

at

Assumpsit. at liberty to suggest that I promised to pay him so much as he reasonably deserved, and then to aver that his trouble was really worth such a particular sum, which the defendant has omitted to pay. But this valuation of his trouble is submitted to the determination of a jury; who will assess such a sum in damages as they think he really merited. This is called an acsumpsit on a quantum meruit.

2. There is also an implied assumpsit on a quantum valebat, which is very similar to the former; being only where one takes up goods or wares of a tradesman, without expressly agreeing for the price. There the law concludes, that both parties did intentionally agree that the real value of the goods should be paid; and an action on the case may be brought accordingly, if the vendee refuses to pay that value.

3. A third species of implied assumpsit is when one has had and received money belonging to another without any valuable consideration given on the receiver's part; for the law construes this to be money had and received for the use of the owner only; and implies that the person so receiving, promised and undertook to account for it to the true proprietor. And, if he unjustly detains it, an action on the case lies against him for the breach of such implied promise and undertaking; and he will be made to repair the owner in damages, equivalent to what he has detained in such violation of his promise. This is a very extensive and beneficial remedy, applicable to almost every case where the defendant has received money which ex æquo et bono he ought to refund. It lies for money paid by mistake, or on a consideration which happens to fail, or through imposition, extortion, or oppression, or where undue advantage is taken of the plaintiff's situation.

4. Where a person has laid out and expended his own money for the use of another at his request, the law implies a promise of repayment, and an action will lie on this assumpsit.

5. Likewise, fifthly, upon a stated account between two merchants, or other persons, the law implies that he against whom the balance appears has engaged to pay to the other; though there be not any actual promise. And from this implication it is frequent for actions on the case to be brought, declaring that the plaintiff and defendant had settled their accounts together, insimul computassent (which gives name to this species of assumpsit); and that the defendant engaged to pay the plaintiff the balance, but has since neglected to do it. But if no account has been made up, then the legal remedy is by bringing a writ of account, de computo; commanding the defendant to render a just account to the plaintiff, or show the court good cause to the contrary. In this action, if the plaintiff succeeds, there are two judgments; the first is, that the defendant do account (quod computet) before auditors appointed by the court; and when such account is finished, then the second judgment is, that he do pay the plaintiff so much as he is found in arrear.

6. The last class of contracts, implied by reason and construction of law, arises upon this supposition, that every one who undertakes any office, employment, trust, or duty, contracts with those who employ or intrust him, to perform it with integrity, diligence, and skill: and if by his want of either of those qualities any injury accrues to individuals, they have therefore their

tive.

remedy in damages by a special action on the case. A Assumpsit few instances will fully illustrate this matter. If an officer of the public is guilty of neglect of duty, or a Assump palpable breach of it, of non-feasance, or of mis-feasance; as, if the sheriff does not execute a writ sent to him, or if he wilfully makes a false return thereof; in both these cases the party aggrieved shall have on action on the case for damages to be assessed by a jury. If a sheriff or gaoler suffers a prisoner who is taken upon mesne process (that is, during the pendency of a suit) to escape, he is liable to an action on the case. But if, after judgment, a gaoler or sheriff permits a debtor to escape, who is charged in execution for a certain sum; the debt immediately becomes his own, and he is compellable by action of debt, being for a sum liquidated and ascertained, to satisfy the creditor in his whole demand. An advocate or attorney that betray the cause of their client, or, being retained, neglect to appear at the trial, by which the cause miscarries, are liable to an action on the case, for a reparation to their injured client. There is also in law always an implied contract with a common innkeeper, to secure his guest's goods in his inn; with a common carrier or barge-master, to be answerable for the goods he carries; with a common farrier, that he shoes a horse well, without laming him; with a common taylor, or other workman, that he performs his business in a workmanlike manner in which if they fail, an action on the case lies to recover damages for such breach of their general undertaking. Also, if an innkeeper, or other victualler, hangs out a sign and opens his house for travellers, it is an implied engagement to entertain all persons who travel that way; and upon this universal assumpsit an action on the case will lie against him for damages, if he without good reason refuses to admit a traveller. In contracts likewise for sales, if the seller doth upon the sale warrant it to be good, the law an nexes a tacit contract to this warranty, that if it be not so, he shall make compensation to the buyer; else it is an injury to good faith, for which an action on the case will lie to recover damages.

ASSUMPTION, a festival in the Romish church, in honour of the miraculous ascent of the Virgin Mary into heaven the Greek church, who also observe this festival, celebrate it on the 15th of August with great

ceremony.

ASSUMPTION, in Logic, is the minor or second proposition, in a categorical syllogism.

ASSUMPTION is also used for a consequence drawn from the proposition whereof an argument is composed. ASSUMPTION, an island in North America, in the gulf of St Lawrence, at the mouth of the great river of the same name. It is covered with trees. W. Long. 60. 40. N. Lat. 49. 30.

ASSUMPTION, a large and handsome town of Proper Paraguay, on the river of the same name in South America. It is a bishop's see, is well peopled, and seated in a country fruitful in corn and fruits, whose trees are always green. There is likewise a quantity of pasture, and the air is temperate and salutary. W. Long. 58. 40. S. Lat. 24. 50.

ASSUMPTIVE ARMS, in Heraldry, are such as a person has a right to assume, with the approbation of his sovereign, and of the heralds: thus, if a person. who has no right by blood, and has no coat of arms, A 2.

shall

MENT.

Assurance shall captivate in any lawful war any gentleman, no- Egypt, &c. If he did so, the effects of his conquests Assyria. bleman, or prince, he and his heirs are, in that case, were of no duration; for in the days of Abraham, we Assyria. entitled to bear the shield of that prisoner for ever. do not find that any of the neighbouring kingdoms ASSURANCE, or INSURANCE, in Commerce. See were subject to Assyria. He was succeeded by SeINSURANCE. See also ASSURANCE in the SUPPLE- miramis; a princess of an heroic mind; bold, enterprising, fortunate; but of whom many fabulous things have been recorded. It appear, however, that there were two princesses of the same name, who flourished at very different periods. One of them was the consort of Ninus; and the other lived five generations before Nitoeris queen of Nebuchadnezzar (Euseb. Chron. p. 58. Herod. lib. i. c. 184.). This fact has not been attended to by many writers.

ASSUROR, a merchant, or other person, who makes out a policy of assurance, and thereby insures a ship, house, or the like.

ASSUS, or Assos, in Ancient Geography, a town of Troas (though by others supposed to be of Mysia), and the same with Apollonia (Pliny); but different from the Apollonia on the river Rhyndacus. Ptolemy places it on the sea-coast, but Strabo more inland; if he does not mean the head of an inland bay, as appears from Diodorus Siculus. It was the country of Cleanthes the Stoic philosopher, who succeeded Zeno. St Luke and others of St Paul's companians, in his voyage (Acts xx. 13. 14), went by sea from Troas to Assos: but St Paul went by land thither, and meeting them at Assos, they all went together to Mytelene. It is now called Bairam. E. Long. 26. 20. N. Lat. 39. 10.

ASSYRIA, an ancient kingdom of Asia, concerning the extent, commencement, and duration of which, historians differ greatly in their accounts. Several ancient writers, in particular Ctesias and Diodorus Siculus, have affirmed, that the Assyrian monarchy, under Ninus and Semiramis, comprehended the greater part of the known world. Had this been the case, it is not likely that Homer and Herodotus would have omitted a fact so remarkable. The sacred records intimate, that none of the ancient states or kingdoms were of considerable extent; for neither Chedorlaomer, nor any of the neighbouring princes, were tributary or subject to Assyria; and we find nothing of the greatness or power of this kingdom in the history of the judges and succeeding kings of Israel, though the latter kingdom was oppressed and enslaved by many different powers in that period. It is highly probable, therefore, that Assyria was originally of small extent. According to Ptolemy, it was bounded on the north by Armenia Major; on the west by the Tigris; on the south by Susiana; and on the east by Media.

It is probable, that the origin and revolutions of the Assyrian monarchy were as follows.-The founder of it was Ashur, the second son of Shem, who went out of Shinar, either by the appointment of Nimrod, or to elude the fury of a tyrant; conducted a large body of adventurers into Assyria; and laid the foundation of Playfair's Nineveh (Gen. x. 11.). These events happened not Chronolo long after Nimrod had established the Chaldæan mozy.

narchy, and fixed his residence at Babylon. The Persian historians suppose that the kings of Persia of the first dynasty were the same with the kings of Assyria, of whom Zohah, or Nimrod, was the founder of Babel. (Herbelot Orient. Bibl. v. Bagdad). It does not, however appear, that Nimrod reigned in Assyria. The kingdoms of Babylon and Assyria were originally distinct and separate (Micah, v. 6.); and in this state they remained until Ninus conquered Babylon and made it tributary to the Assyrian empire. Ninus the successor of Asher (Gen. x. 11. Diod. Sic. lib. 1.), seized on Chaldæa, after the death of Nimrod, and united the kingdoms of Assyria and Babylon. This great prince is said to have subdued Asia, Persia, Media,

Whether there was an uninterrupted series of kings from Ninus to Sardanapalus, or not, is still a question. Some suspicion has arisen, that the list which Ctesias has given of the Assyrian kings is not genuine; for many names in it are of Persian, Egyptian, and Grecian ex

traction.

Nothing memorable has been recorded concerning the successors of Ninus and Semiramis. Of that effeminate race of princes it is barely said, that they ascended the throne, lived in indolence, and died in their palace at Nineveh. Diodorus (lib. ii.) relates, that, in the reign of Teutames, the Assyrians, solicited by Priam their vassal, sent to the Trojans a supply of 20,000 foot and 200 chariots, under the command of Memnon, son of Tithonus president of Persia: But the truth of his relation is rendered doubtful by the accounts of other writers.

Sardanapalus was the last of the ancient Assyrian kings. Contemning his indolent and voluptuous course of life, Arbaces, governor of Media, withdrew his allegiance, and rose up in rebellion against him. He was encouraged in this revolt by the advice and assistance of Belesis, a Chaldean priest, who engaged the Babylonians to follow the example of the Medes. These powerful provinces, aided by the Persians and other allies, who despised the effeminacy, or dreaded the tyranny of their Assyrian lords, attacked the empire on all sides. Their most vigorous efforts were, in the beginning, unsuccessful. Firm and determined, however, in their opposition, they at length prevailed, defeated the Assyrian army, besieged Sardanapalus in his capital, which they demolished, and became masters of the empire, B. C. 821.

After the death of Sardanapalus, the Assyrian empire was divided into three kingdoms, viz. the Median, Assyrian, and Babylonian. Arbaces retained the supreme power and authority, and fixed his residence at Ecbatana in Media. He nominated governors in Assyria and Babylon, who were honoured with the title of kings, while they remained subject and tributary to the Median monarchs. Belesis received the government of Babylon as the reward of his services; and Phul was intrusted with that of Assyria. The Assyrian governor gradually enlarged the boundaries of his kingdom, and was succeeded by Tiglath-pileser, Salmanasar, and Sennacherib, who asserted and maintained their independency. After the death of Assar-haddon, the brother and successor of Sennacherib, the kingdom of Assyria was split, and annexed to the kingdoms of Media and Babylon. Several tributary princes afterwards reigned in Nineveh; but no particular account of them is found in the annals of aucient nations.

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