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action active added aluminium ammonium amount atomic weight bases basic becomes bismuth boiling bromide calcium called carbon dioxide cent chemical chloride color combination completely compounds concentration contains copper crystals cupric decomposed decomposition dilute displaced dissolved easily effect electricity elements employed equal equation example excess fact flame formula gases given gives heat Hence hydrochloric acid hydrogen chloride hydroxide insoluble interaction ionized ions iron known latter lead less liberated liquid magnesium material melts mercury metals mixed mixture molecular molecules namely nature negative nitrate nitric acid nitrogen obtained occurs oxide oxygen passes phosphorus physical positive potassium powder precipitate prepared present pressure produced properties proportion pure quantity reduced remains removed result salts shows silver sodium solid soluble solution substance sulphate sulphide sulphuric acid takes temperature tion union unit valence vapor volume whole zinc
Page 183 - Oj +± 2H2O + 2C12 + 28,000 calories. and in this action raising the temperature drives the equilibrium backwards, and a lowering in the temperature is required to increase the yield of chlorine. The rule is obvious, and applies to all reversible reactions : When the temperature of a system in equilibrium is raised, the equilibrium point is displaced in the direction which absorbs heat.
Page 184 - If some stress (eg, by change of temperature, pressure, or concentration) is brought to bear on a system in equilibrium, the equilibrium is displaced in the direction which tends to undo the effect of the stress. Thus, raising the temperature furthers the change which absorbs heat — and therefore would tend to lower the temperature. Increasing the concentration of the molecules pushes the action in the direction which uses up these very molecules (p.
Page 82 - ... passing from the solid to the liquid, and from the liquid to the gaseous form, or the contrary, occasioning endless vicissitudes of temperature over the globe.
Page 81 - The specific heat of any substance being the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of the substance one degree, the average specific heat of water throughout this temperature range is 1.
Page 171 - This reaction is found to come to rest at 345° C., for example, when 20 percent of the interacting substances still remain unchanged. Presumably, the materials remaining are no less capable of interacting than were the parts which have already reacted. Thus, two changes, one of which undoes the work of the other, are going on simultaneously. In consequence of this, neither action can react to completion. It is apparent that a chemical action must remain more or less incomplete when the reverse action...
Page 171 - ... reacted. Thus, two changes, one of which undoes the work of the other, are going on simultaneously. In consequence of this, neither action can react to completion. It is apparent that a chemical action must remain more or less incomplete when the reverse action also takes place to an appreciable extent under the same conditions. Two arrows pointing in opposite directions are used in equations representing reversible changes. b. The reaction mentioned in a above is started with the materials on...
Page 86 - For example, when the temperature of liquid water is raised in the previous case, the motion of its molecules is increased, the rate at which they leave its surface becomes greater, the vapor tension increases, and hence a greater concentration of vapor can be maintained. The system, therefore, quickly reaches a new state of equilibrium at which a higher vapor pressure exists. Avogadro's Hypothesis. — From the previous study we have found that all kinds of molecules possess the same average kinetic...
Page 292 - Nd 60 11 61 Sm 62 Eu 63 Gd 64 Tb 65 Dy 66 Ho 67 Er 68 Tu 69 Yb 70 Lu 71...
Page 226 - Hence it may be said that univalent ions all possess equal quantities of electricity, and other ions bear quantities greater than this in proportion to their valence. An ion is, therefore, an atom or group of atoms bearing an electric charge, or a number of such charges.
Page 444 - ... leaving the salt behind. The common salt of commerce is obtained, in the United States, from deposits in New York, Kansas, Utah, Michigan, Louisiana, and numerous other districts. In many places the salt is dissolved in water, forming brines* which are evaporated to obtain the solid salt. When the brine is allowed to evaporate slowly by the help of the sun's heat, it forms large crystals which are sold in the FIG. 49. Mining rock salt. market as