Page images


During the residence of the court, the mine is sometimes illuminated, and its chambers are then seen to great advantage. Pop. (1885) 1,901; (1890) 2,300.

BERCY, ber-se:' town of France, dept. of the Seine, on the right bank of the river Seine. B. forms a suburb of Paris, and its population is reckoned as a portion of that of the capital." It has a large business in wines and other liquors.

BERDAN, HIRAM: inventor: about 1823-1893, Mar. 31; b. near Rochester, N. Y. He studied for a time at Hobart Coll., but his mind was interested in practical mechanics, and he entered a machine-shop in Rochester while a lad, on his own urgent request. Before he was of age he formulated the idea which resulted in the reaping-machine, and had made many other novel inventions or adaptations. He became interested in firearms and projectiles when the civil war broke out, and invented the ordinary metal cartridge still in use, besides the long-range rifle known by his name. B. was made col. and brev. brig.gen. during the war, and commanded a body of U. S. sharpshooters. He was promoted to maj.gen. of vols. for gallantry at the battle of Gettysburg.

BERDIANSK, ber-de-ånsk': well-built seaport town of southern Russia, govt. of Taurida, on the n. coast of the Sea of Azov. B. has the finest roads in the Sea of Azov, and is a place of commercial activity, being the entrepôt for the products of surrounding governments. It trades in fish, wood, hides, tallow, grain, coal, and salt; there are extensive coal-mines and salt-lakes in its vicinity. Pop. (1880) 18,180; (1892) 23,593.

BERDITCHEV, běr-de-chev': town of Russia, govt. of Kiev, famous for its five annual fairs. At these, cattle, corn, wine, honey, leather, etc., are disposed of. The average annual value of the sales is $3,000,000. Pop. (1880) 56,980, chiefly Jews; (1889) 78,287.

BERE, n. ber [AS. bore; Icel. barr; Meso-Goth. baris; L. bar, barley]: a variety of barley; bigg or barley-bigg. BEREAVE, v. bě-rev' [AS. bereafian, to deprive of: be, and reave, which see]: to deprive of; to take from; to render destitute. BEREAV'ING, imp. BEREFT, pp. be-rift, or BEREAVED, pp. bě-revd. BEREAV ER, n. one who. BEREAVEMENT, n. bě-rëv'měnt, a heavy loss, particularly of friends, by death.

BEREFT: pp. of BEREAVE, which see.

BERENGARIANS, běr-en-ga'ri-anz: the followers of Berengarius. Some held consubstantiation, but others anticipated the Zwinglian doctrine that the communion ele ments were only symbols and signs of the body and blood of Christ, and not that body and blood themselves.

BERENGARIUS OF TOURS bĕr-en-gā'ri-us: 9981088; b. Tours, France; distinguished scholastic theolo gian. His master, Fulbert of Chartres, is reported to have prophesied on his death-bed that B. would prove a dangerous man. In 1030 he was appointed preceptor of the school of St. Martin, in Tours, and 1040 made Arch


deacon of Angers. Here he continued to deliver his metaphysico-theological prelections, and drew upon himself the charge of heresy, in reference to the doctrine of transubstantiation. He held the doctrine of Scotus Erigena, that the bread and wine in the sacrament of the eucharist remained bread and wine, and that the faith of the believer who recognized their symbolic meaning only transformed them subjectively into the body and blood of Christ. This interpretation was condemned by Pope Leo IX, 1049-50, and also by King Henry I. of France. In 1054, he retracted his opinion before the Council of Tours, but what B. meant by 'retractation is not evident, for he immediately returned to his conviction, and recommenced the advocacy of it. For this he was cited to appear at Rome, where he repeatedly abjured his error,' but never seems to have really abandoned it. Hildebrand then pope, treated him with great moderation; and at last, when he discovered how hopeless it was to bind down B. by abjurations or declarations, he conceived it best to let him alone. Harassed and weakened by the attacks of the orthodox party headed by Lanfranc of Canterbury, he finally retired to the isle of St. Cosmas, near Tours, 1080, where he spent the last years of his life in devotional exercises. The greater number of his works are lost; such as are extant have been collected and published by the Vischers (Berlin, 1834).

BERENGELLITE, n. běr-ĕng gěl-it [from St. Berengelă in Peru, S Amer., where found abundantly; Gr. lithos, a stone]: an asphaltum-like mineral, of a dark-brown color with a green tinge, having a disagreeable odor and bitter


BERENGER, běr' én-jer, I. King of Italy: 9th c.; son of Eberhard, Duke of Friuli, and of Gisela, dau. of the emperor Louis the Pious. He and Guido, Duke of Spoleto, were the two most powerful and ambitious nobles then in Italy. After the deposition of Charles the Fat, 887, B., Guido, and Adalbert, Count of Tuscany, became candidates for the Carlovingian throne. B. was crowned king of Italy at Pavia, 888, while Guido attempted to secure the realm of France. The former soon irritated the nobles against him by condescending to hold his territory in fief from Arnulf, King of Germany. against whom he found it vain to maintain his independence; and when Guido returned from his unsuccessful expedition to France, he was persuaded to put himself in opposition to B., and was chosen king of Italy. With the help of Arnulf, however, B ultimately prevailed. After the death of Guido, 894, his son Lambert compelied B. to share with him the sov ereignty of n. Italy; but, on the assassination of Lambert. 998. B contrived to obtain possession of the whole of Lombardy. His influence quickly sank. He could check neither the plundering incursions of the Hungarians across the Alps in the. n., nor those of the Arabs, who laid waste the shores of the s. The nobies now called in Louis, King of Lower Burgundy, who was crowned at Rome, 901; but


he proved no better, and was finally overpowered by Ber enger. In 915 B. was crowned emperor by Pope John X.; but the nobles, who appear to have kept themselves dur ing his reign in a state of chronic disaffection, again revolted, and, 919, placed themselves under the banner of Rodolf of Burgundy, who completely overthrew B., 923, Jul. 29. The latter, in his extremity, called in the Hungarians to his aid, which unpatriotic act alienated the minds of all Italians from him, and cost him his life, for he was assassinated in the following year.

BERENGER II., King of Italy: (d. 966); son of Adalbert, Count of Ivrea, and grandson of Berenger I., succeeded to his father's possessions 925, and married Willa, niece of Hugo, King of Italy, 934. Incited by his ambitious and unscrupulous wife, he conspired against Hugo, and in consequence was compelled to flee to Germany, where he was received in a friendly manner by the em peror Otto I. In 945, he recrossed the Alps at the head of an army. The nobles and the townspeople both welcomed him; but, instead of assuming the crown himself he handed it over to the weak Lothaire, the son of Hugo. On the death of Lothaire, who was probably poisoned by Willa, B. allowed himself to be crowned along with his son Adalbert, 950. To establish himself firmly in his new position, he wanted Adelheid, the youthful widow of Lothaire, to marry his son. She refused, and was subjected to a most cruel imprisonment, but ultimately found a helper and husband in the emperor Otto himself, who, at the imperial diet of Augsburg, 952, compelled B. to acknowledge Italy a fief of the German empire. B. soon afterwards engaged in war with the emperor, who sent his son Ludolf against him. Ludolf was successful, but died 957, of poison administered, as was believed, by Willa. again mounted the throne, but behaved with such intolerable tyranny that his subjects and Pope John XII. called in the aid of the emperor, who marched into Italy 961, and took possession of the country. B. took refuge in a mountain fortress, where he held out till 964, when hunger compelled him to capitulate. He was sent as a prisoner to Bamberg, in Bavaria, where he died. His wife, Willa, retired into a convent, and his three sons died in exile.


BERENICE (modern name, Sakáyt-el-Kublee, 'Southern Sakáyt'): town of Egypt, on a bay in the Red Sea, 20 m. s.w. of Ras Benass. It was founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus, and was in ancient times the emporium of the trade with India, but it is now ruined, and interesting only for its antiquities, which include hieroglyphics, sculptures, and a temple dedicated to Serapis. There are emerald mines in its vicinity that have been worked since the time of the ancient Egyptians.

BERENICE, ber-é-ni'se: the name of several celebrated women of ancient times.

BERENICE, dau. of Lagus and Antigone, and second wife of the Egyptian king, Ptolemy I. (Soter); (B.C. 323-284). She is described by Plutarch as the first in virtue and wis


dom of the wives of Ptolemy. Theocritus celebrates her beauty, virtue, and deification in his Idyls, 15 and 17.

BERENICE, dau. of Ptolemy II. (Philadelphus) and Arsinoe; married to Antiochus II. of Syria, after he had divorced his wife Laodice, whom, however, he took back, putting B. away. Laodice, having no faith in her husband, poisoned him, and caused B. and her son to be murdered.

BERENICE, dau. of Magas, King of Cyrene, granddaughter of B. No. 1, was to have been married to Demetrius the Fair, but he having slighted her for her mother, she caused him to be murdered, and then went to Egypt and married Ptolemy III. (Euergetes), in accordance with the terms of a treaty between her father and Ptolemy II. During the king's wars in Asia, the Queen B. made a vow to offer her beautiful hair to the gods when her husband returned safely-a vow which she fulfilled. The hair was suspended in the temple of Venus, whence, it is said, it was taken away to form a constellation, Coma Berenices. B. was put to death by her son, Ptolemy IV. (Philopator),

when he succeeded to the throne.

BERENICE, also called Cleopatra, dau. of Ptolemy IX. (Lathyrus), was, on her succession to the throne, married to Alexander II., by whom she was murdered 19 days after marriage.

BERENICE, dau. of Ptolemy XI. (Auletes), eldest sister of the renowned Cleopatra, was raised to the throne after her father's deposition, B.C. 58, but was put to death when her father was restored, B.C. 55. She was first married to Seleucus, whom she caused to be poisoned, and afterwards to Archelaus, who was put to death with her.

There were, besides, two Jewish BERENICES: one, dau. of Salome, sister of Herod the Great and Costobarus, and mother of Agrippa I.: the other, more famous, was dau. of this monarch. She was three times married first, at a very early age, to Marcus, son of Alexander the Alabarch; afterwards to her uncle, Herod, King of Chalcis, who dying, left her for the second time a widow, at the age of 20; and again to Polemon, King of Cilicia, whom she soon deserted to return to her brother. King Agrippa II., the same before whom Paul defended himself at Cæsarea. After the capture of Jerusalem she went to Rome, and Titus, who was much in love with her, would have married her but for the opposition of the people. The intimacy of B. and Titus forms the subject of a tragedy by Racine.

BERESFORD. běr és-ford, WILLIAM CARR, Viscount 1768, Oct. 2-1854, Jan 8; nat. son of the first Marquis of Waterford: distinguished military commander He en tered the army, 1785; served in various parts of the world: was conspicuous in the reconquest of the Cape of Good Hope, 1806, and with the rank of brig gen., was with the British force that took possession of Buenos Ayres. In 1808, Aug., he joined the British army in Portu gal, and proceeded into Spain with Sir John Moore's force was present at the battle of Corunna and after covering the embarkation of the troops, returned with them tc England


In 1809, Feb. Maj.gen. B. was ordered a second time to Portugal, to take the command of the Portuguese army, with the local rank of lieut. gen. Appointed Marshal of Portugal in March, at the head of 12,000 men he attacked the French in the n. of that kingdom, crossed the river Douro, drove Loison's division back to Amarante, and uniting with the force under Sir. Arthur Wellesley, pursued it in its retreat till it was utterly disorganized. For his services at the battle of Busaco, 1810, Aug. 27, B. was nomi nated a Knight of the Bath. He commanded at the bloody battle of Albuera, 1811, May 16: and for the victory there gained over Soult, he received the thanks of parliament. He was present at Badajoz; at Salamanca, where he was severely wounded; at the various battles on the Pyrenees; at Nivelle, where he led the right of the centre; at Nive; and at Orthez. He was in command of the British troops which took possession of Bordeaux, and subsequently distin guished himself at the battle of Toulouse In 1814, May, he was created Baron, and in 1823 Viscount Beresford. By the Portuguese government, he was sent, 1814, to Rio Janeiro, to suppress a formidable revolt there. In the Wellington administration, 1828, Jan -1830, Nov., he was master-gen. of the ordnance. He bore the title of Marquis of Campo Mayor and Duke of Elvas in Spain, Conde de Francoso in Portugal, and was knight of several foreign orders. He died without issue, and the title became extinct.

BERESINA, or BEREZINA, běr-é-zẽ nâ: river of Russia, having its rise in the n. of the govt. of Minsk. It flows s. for about 240 m. to the Dnieper, which it joins above Redchitzka. It is connected with the Düna, or Dwina, by a canal, a communication between the Black and Baltic seas being thus established. The B. is memorable on account of the disastrous passage of the French army, 1812, Nov., during the retreat from Moscow. Two bridges over the B.-one for troops, the other for baggage and artillery -were hastily constructed. Many of the pontoniers died from the hardships endured in making these bridges. On the 27th, the passage of the French commenced, and was continued during the whole of the day. Victor's rear-guard of 7,000 men, under Partonneaux, were, however, intercepted by the Russians, and had to capitulate On the 28th, a vigorous attack was made by the Russians on the French on both sides of the river, but too late to prevent the latter securing the road to Zembin. The Russians, however, established a battery of twelve pieces to command the bridge; and the panic and confusion of their enemies now became dreadful. The artillery bridge broke, and all rushing to the other, it was soon choked; multitudes were forced into the stream, while the Russian cannon played on the strug gling mass. On the 29th, a considerable number of sick and wounded soldiers, women, children, and sutlers, still remained behind, despite the warnings of Marshal Victor and General Eblé, until preparations were made for burning the bridges. Then a fearful rush took place; and as the fire seized the timbers, men, women, and children threw them

« PreviousContinue »