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orb. They were immediately pursued, however, seized, and committed to the Tower jail. Now came a singular turn of fortune. At the instigation of Buckingham, who was accused of having hired B to attack the Duke of Ormond, King Charles visited the dauntless miscreant in prison, and, dreading the threat that there were hundreds of B.'s associates banded together by oath to avenge the death of any of the fraternity, pardoned him, took him to court, gave him an estate of £500 a year, and raised him so high in favor that for several years Colonel B. was an influential medium of royal patronage. This scandalous disregard of public decency was heightened by the fact that the old jewel-keeper, who had risked his life in defense of his charge, applied in vain for payment of a small reward for his devotion. After the fall of the cabal' ministry, B. became hostile to Buckingham, and for a scandalous charge against him was committed to prison. He was bailed out, and died in his own house.

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BLOOD BIRD of New South Wales (Myzomela sanguinolenta): beautiful little species of Honey eater (q.v.), which receives its name from the rich scarlet color of the head, neck, breast, and back of the male. It inhabits thickets. A very similar species is found in Bengal.

BLOOD-BOLTERED, a. blud-bōlt'erd [OF. bloutre, a clod: Sw. plotter, a small portion: Dan. bultred, rugged]: in OE., matted or clotted with blood. Note.-Boltered is connected with ball, as the snow balling in horses' feet, that is, forming into lumps or small balls. The OE. baltered, from ball, is apparently the older form.

BLOOD-FLOWER (Hamanthus): genus of bulbousrooted plants, of nat. ord. Amaryllidea (q.v.), mostly natives of s. Africa, some of which are among the prized ornaments of green-houses. They take their name from the usual color of their flowers, which form a fine head or cluster, arising from a spathe of a number of leaves. The fruit is a berry, usually with three seeds. The leaves of the different species show considerable diversity of form, in some almost linear, in others almost round; in some also they are erect, in others, appressed to the ground. The bulbs of some of the finest species of B. being very slow to produce offshoots, a curious method of propagating them is resorted to by gardeners, which is occasionally practiced also with other bulbous-rooted plants, by cutting them across above the middle, upon which a number of young bulbs form around the outer edge.

The species of B. scem generally to possess poisonous properties. The inspissated juice of H. toxicarius is used by the natives of s. Africa for poisoning their arrows.

BLOOD-HOUND: a variety of hound (q.v.) remarkable for its exquisite scent and for its great sagacity and perseverance in tracking any object to the pursuit of which it has been trained. It derives its name from its original common employment in the chase, either to track a wounded animal or to discover the lair of a beast of prey. It was also formerly called, both in England and Scotland, sleut

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a, leaves and fruit of flower-stem, in miniature; b, flower; c, seed-bud, shaft, and summit; d, seed-bud cut transversely. round or sleuth-hound, from the Saxon sleut, the track of a deer. The B. was formerly common and much in use in Britain as well as on the continent of Europe, but is now rare. The poetical histories of Bruce and Wallace describe these heroes as occasionally tracked by blood-hounds, when they were skulking from their enemies. The B. was at a later period much used to guide in the pursuit of cattle carried off in Border raids; it has been frequently used for the pursuit of felons and of deer-stealers; and formerly, in the United States, for the capture of fugitive slaves, an employment which has tended to render its name odious. Terrible ideas are also, probably, suggested by the name itself, although the B. is by no means a particularly ferocious dog, and when employed in the pursuit of human beings, can be trained to detain them as prisoners without offering to injure them. The true B. is taller and also stronger in proportion, and of more compact figure, than a fox-hound, muscular and broad-chested, with large pendulous ears, large pendulous upper lips, and an expression of face variously described as 'thoughtful,' noble,' and 'stern.' The original color is said to have been a deep tan, clouded with black. The color appears to have been one of the


peroxide of hydrogen. (1) If insoluble in water, the stain is not blood. (2) If soluble, boil the solution. If a bloodit coagulates, loses its reddish color, and deposits a muddy, brown flocculent precipitate. No other red coloring matter is thus destroyed." (3) Taking the unboiled solution, add a few drops of weak aqua ammonia: if of blood, the red color is not changed. Other coloring matters are changed. -Add strong aqua ammonia; if of blood, the solution acquires a brownish tint. (4) A water solution of the red coloring matter of blood, when fresh tincture of guaiacum is added, causes a reddish-white precipitate of the resin: add to this precipitate an ethereal solution of peroxide of hydrogen, in a few seconds a beautiful blue is developed. No other red coloring matter shows these phenomena.

(c) A blood solution gives by spectrum analysis certain unmistakable lines in the spectrum.

The tests by microscope are always reliable, but can be used most successfully on recent stains. Chemical and spectro-analytical tests are reliable and are efficient for stains many years old, sometimes even when the articles stained have been well washed; they do not, however, distinguish between blood of different animals.-B.-S. on wallpaper and elsewhere can often be found by candle-light, though not seen by daylight.-Expert scientific testimony as to the nature of stains has had great weight in many criminal trials. (See Taylor's Medical Jurisprudence, ed. by Reese, Phila. 1880.)


BLOOM, n. blóm [Icel. blomi; Dut. bloeme; Ger. blume, a flower (see BLOW)]: blossom; the flower of any plant; the bright color of the cheeks; the beginning of youth or manhood; life; vigor; beauty; bright or blue color on fruit, as on the peach or grape; a clouded appearance which varnish sometimes assumes upon the surface of a picture; a whitish waxy secretion produced on the surface of some leaves and fruits: V. to put forth blossoms; to flower; to be in a state of vigor; to have the freshness and beauty, of early life. BLOOM ING, imp.: ADJ. putting forth blossoms; healthful; fresh-colored. BLOOMED, pp. blomd. BLOOM'. INGLY, ad. -. BLOOM'INGNESS, n. BLOOM'Y, а. -, full of bloom.

BLOOM, n. blóm [AS. bloma, a mass, a lump]: the rough mass of iron from the puddling-furnace after undergoing the first hammering. BLOOM ARY or -ERY, n. -er-i, the furnace in which cast is converted into malleable iron. BLOOM'ING, n. the process of converting cast into malleable iron.

BLOOM: an appearance on paintings resembling in some measure the bloom on certain kinds of fruit, such as peaches, plums, etc. (hence the name), produced, in all probability, by the presence of moisture in the varnish, or on the surface of the painting when the varnish is laid on. The B. destroys the transparency, and is consequently very injurious to the general effect of a picture. It is best prevented by carefully drying the picture and heating the varnish before applying it; and best removed by a sponge dipped in


hot camphine, after which a soft brush should be employed to smooth the surface of the picture, which should be finally placed in the sunshine to dry.


BLOOM ERISM: a new and fanciful fashion of women's dress, partly resembling male attire, which arose out of what is termed the Woman's Rights' Movement,' that began in the United States about 1848. The claim was that women should take their place in the world as fellow-workers with men, and ought not to be under the disadvantage of having a dress that hampered their movements, requiring much muscular power for its support. In 1849, Amelia (Jenks) Bloomer, of Seneca Falls, N. Y. (b. 1818), adopted the costume, and lectured in various places on its advantages. The bloomer dress consisted of a jacket with close sleeves, a skirt falling a little below the knee, and a pair of Turkish trousers. Though a few ladies followed the example of Mrs. Bloomer, the dress was extremely unpopular, and exposed its adherents to a degree of social martyrdom which the more prudent, timid, or amiable declined to brave. A very elegant modification of the Bloomer dress was achieved by a New York lady-a Polish jacket, trimmed with fur, and a skirt reaching to within a few inches of the ground, and showing off merely the trim furred boot, but still sufficiently short to avoid contact with the dirt of the street. In England, B. failed to gain entrance into respectable society, and speedily disappeared. Still, the desire for dress reform has not died out on either side of the Atlantic. It is felt that the changing fashions, always imperious, are liable to be sometimes inconvenient and unhealthful, sometimes dirty, and often ridiculous; but the prejudice with which any innovation is sure to be met greatly discourages every attempt to introduce a reform.

BLOOM FIELD: town in Essex co., N. J.; 4 m. n.n.w. from Newark, 12 m. n. w. of New York; on Morris canal, Montclair and Greenwood Lake R. R., Newark and Bloomfield R. R., and connected with Newark by horse-cars. It has five churches, a Presb. theol. seminary for the education of German ministers, one weekly newspaper, a savingsbank, and manufactures of organs, woolen goods, etc.; B. is the residence of many business men of New York and Newark; it was one of the earliest settlements in the state, and named from Gen. Joseph Bloomfield, a revolutionary officer, member of congress, and gov. of New Jersey. Pop. (1880) 5,748; (1890) 7,708.

BLOOM'FIELD, ROBERT: 1766-1823: b. Honington, near Bury St. Edmund's: son of a poor tailor, who died, leaving Robert an infant. His mother with difficulty subsisted by teaching a school, where B. learned to read. At the age of 11 he was hired to a farmer, but ultimately became a shoemaker in London, where, in a poor garret, he wrote his Farmer's Boy, published 1800. It had extraordinary popularity, and was translated into a number of languages. He subsequently published Rural Tales, Wild Flowers, and other pieces. Though efforts were made for him by per


sons of rank, his health broke down, and he died nearly insane, at Shefford, Bedfordshire.

BLOOM FIELD, SAMUEL THOMAS, D.D.: 1790-1869: clergyman of the Church of England: graduate of Cambridge; rector at Bisbrooke, Rutland; translator of Thucydides' Peloponnesian War; author of many annotations to the New Testament, and of English notes to the New Tes tament in Greek-the latter much used in England and America.

BLOOM'INGTON: prosperous city of central Ill., co. seat of McLean co., 59 m. n.n.e. of Springfield, 126 m. s.s.w. of Chicago; on n. div. Chicago and Alton R. R., n. div. Illinois Central R. R., Indianapolis Bloomington and Western R. R., and w. terminus of Bloomington div. of Wabash R. R.—thus an important railroad centre. It has court-house of Illinois marble, costing $100,000, 15 churches, the Major College for women, a Rom. Cath. academy, a high school, an opera house, 5 banks, the Chicago and Alton R. R. machine shops, employing nearly 1,000 men, various mills and factories, also coal-mines. B. has two daily, five weekly newspapers, one being in German; has gas supply, and water-works deriving water in abun dance from a well in the prairie, and using a stand-pipe 204 ft. high; is also the seat of the Ill. Wesleyan Univ. (Meth. Episc.), having over 500 students in 1885. The Ill. State Normal Univ. is a large and flourishing institution at Normal, 2 m. n. of B. See NORMAL. Pop. (1870) 14,590; (1880) 17,184; (1890) 20,484.

BLOOMINGTON: city of Indiana, co. seat of Monroe co., 60 m. s.s. w. of Indianapolis; on Louisville New Albany and Chicago R. R.; between branches of White river. It has a court house, nine churches, a national bank, two weekly newspapers, a foundry, limestone quarries, manufactures of woolen goods, staves, etc. Indiana Univ. is here, with buildings and apparatus worth $200,000, 12 endowed professorships, and state support. Pop. (1890) 4,018.

BLOOMS BURG: borough of Penn., seat of Columbia co.; 56 m. w.s. w. of Scranton, 80 m. by railroad, n. n.e. of Harrisburg; on Fishing creek, one m. n. of the n. branch of the Susquehanna river, on Lackawanna and Bloomsburg R R., and a canal connected with the Susquehanna river. It has 10 churches, a national bank, two other banks, good hotels, iron furnaces, four foundries, and three weekly newspapers. B. state normal school has partial state support and buildings, etc., $150,000 in value. Pop. (1890) 4,635.

BLOSSOM, n. blõs′sŭm [AS. blostma, and blosma; Dan. blusse, to blaze: Dut. blosem, a blossom: L. flos or florem, a flower]: the flower of any plant, especially when it precedes fruit: V. to put forth flowers before the fruit begins to grow. BLOSSOMING, imp.: N. the flowering of plants. BLOSSOMED, pp. -sumd. BLOSSOMY, a. -sum-i, full of blossoms. BLOS'SOMLESS, a.

BLOT, v. blot [Dan. plet, a stain; blat, a portion of any

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