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selves in desperation into the flames or the river. 12,000 dead bodies found on the shores of the river, when the ice thawed, attested the magnitude of the French disaster. The Russians took 16,000 prisoners and 25 pieces of cannon.

BERETTYO-UJFALU, ba-ret' yo-ô-ë-ƒâ'lô: market-town of Hungary, county Bihar. Pop. (1880) 6,122.

BEREZNA, ba-rěz ná: town of Russia, govt. of Tchernigov, on the Desna. Pop. (1880) 10,827.

BEREZOV, or BERESOFF, běr-ez-of" ('the town of birchtrees'): town of Siberia in the govt. of Tobolsk, on the left bank of the Sosva, a branch of the Obi, in lat. 63° 30′ n. It is a small place, but important as the sole fur and skin trading station in a vast extent of country. Its annual fair is largely attended. It is the favorite residence of the Ostiaks and Voguls. Prince Menschikoff, the favorite of Peter the Great, who was banished to B., died and was buried here 1731. His grave was opened 90 years afterwards, when his body, clothed in the uniform of the time, was found as free from decay as on the day it was buried, the frost, which at B. penetrates the soil to the depth of several feet, having preserved it. Pop. (1892) 2,000.

BERG, or BURG, or BURGH: roots entering into the composition of many names of places. Berg (Ger.), Beorg (Ang.Sax.), means 'hill,' 'mountain;' and burg, or burgh, means 'fort,' 'castle,' ' citadel,' probably from being situated on a hill or eminence. See BOROUGH: BURGH.

BERG, n. berg [Sw. berg; AS. beorh, a mountain]: a hill, generally of ice; a contr. of ICEBERG, which see, BERGMAHL, or -MEHL, berg-mal' [Sw. mountain-meal]: a recent infusorial earth of a whitish color and mealy grain, also called fossil farina, common in bog and ancient lake deposits. It is a powder of extreme fineness, composed almost entirely of the indestructible silicious frustules or cell-walls of Diatomacea (q.v.). From its resemblance to flour, it has been mixed with ordinary food, in seasons of scarcity, and thus used by the inhabitants of Norway and Sweden, who suppose it to be nutritious. When subjected to a red heat, it loses from a quarter to a third of its weight, the loss consisting probably of organic matter, and this would make it in itself nutritious; but it seems to dcrive its chief value from its increasing the bulk of the food, thereby rendering the really nutritious portion more satisfying. There have been experiments tending to show that B. does contain a very small proportion-3 or 4 per cent. of positive nutriment. Similar deposits occur at Dolgelly in North Wales, at South Mourne in Ireland, and in Mull and Raasay in the Hebrides. The contained organisms show that these beds have been deposited in fresh water.

BERG: formerly a duchy of Germany, now incorporated with the Prussian dominions, and divided into the circles of Düsseldorf, Solingen, Elberfeld, Lennep, and Duisburg. After various vicissitudes, B. had merged in the electorate of Bavaria. In 1806, Bavaria ceded it to France; and Napoleon the same year, adding to it large adjoining terri


tories, made its area about 6,700 sq. m., and erected it into a grand duchy, constituting his brother-in-law, Murat, sovereign. Two years afterwards, Murat being transferred to the throne of Naples, Napoleon's nephew, then crown prince of Holland, was made grand duke. The peace of 1815 gave B. to Prussia.

BERGA, běr gá: town of Catalonia, Spain, near the river Lobregat, 52 m. n.n. w. from Barcelona. Its streets are paved, but mostly narrow and crooked. It has five squares, three churches, several convents, a hospital, schools, etc. It is overlooked and defended by a castle with a strong battery. The people are employed mostly in husbandry and as muleteers; the produce of the fields, vineyards, and olive-yards of the neighborhood giving rise to a considerable trade. Cotton fabrics are also manufactured in B., and this branch of industry is on the increase. Pop. 5,000.

BERGAMA, běryш-pɓ, (ancient Pergamos): city of Asiatic Turkey, vilayet of Khodavendikhiar; in a beautiful and fertile valley, on the right bank of the Caicus, about 40 m. n.n e. of Smyrna; lat. 39° 4' n., long. 27 12' e. In early times, the city was the cap. of the kingdom of Pergamus (q.v.). Many ruins still exist to attest the former magnificence of B. Present pop. about 6,000, half Greeks, half Turks.

BERGAMO, běr'gâ-mō (the ancient Bergomum): fortified town of Lombardy, on some low bills between the Serio and the Brembo, about 29 m. n.e. of Milan; lat. 45° 42′ n., and 9° 37' e. B. consists of two parts-the upper city, wherein the nobility, an exclusive class, reside; and the Borgo, a suburb where business is transacted. B. is well built, has a castle occupying the most elevated part of the town, and a cathedral. Silk, cotton, linen, woolen fabrics, and iron goods are manufactured. It has also an extensive trade in grindstones, quarried in the vicinity. Annually, in Aug., the largest fair in n. Italy is held here, at which money to the estimated amount of $6,000,000 is turned over. Under the Roman empire, B. became a municipal town of impor tance. It was destroyed by Attila, 452; and after the fall of the Roman empire, it became one of the chief towns of the Lombard kings in this part of Italy, and cap. of a duchy. After numerous changes, its inhabitants placed themselves under the protection of the Venetian Republic, 1427, and formed an integral portion thereof (with one exception of 9 years) until the subversion of the republic by Napoleon, 1797. Bernardo Tasso, the father of Torquato, and Tiraboschi, author of The History of Italian Literature, were natives of B. Pop. (1881) 23,819; (1891) 42,000.

B. is the cap. of the province of BERGAMO, 1,015 sq. m., having good pasturage for sheep and goats; also supplies of iron, marble, lignite, and whetstones. Pop. of province (1881) 391,580; (1890) 414,795.

BERGAMOT, n. bér gă-măt [F. and Sp. bergamote—from It. bergamotto]: species or variety of the genius Citrus (q.v.), called also B. ORANGE, or MELLAROSA; by some botanists regarded as a variety of the orange (C. Aurantium); by others


as a variety of the lime (C. Limetta); and elevated by Risso to the rank of a distinct species, under the name of C. Bergamia. Of its native country or origin nothing can be told, except that it was probably derived, like its congeners, from the East. It is now cultivated in the s. of Europe; and from the rind of its fruit the well-known OIL of B. is obtained, extensively used in making pomades, fragrant essences, eau de Cologne, liqueurs, etc. The fruit is pearshaped, smooth, of a pale-yellow color, and has a green, subacid, firm, and fragrant pulp. The essential oil is ob tained by distillation, or by grating down the rinds, and then subjecting them to pressure, which is the better method. The oil is also obtained from other varieties or species of the same genus. It is of a pale yellow color, or almost colorless. One hundred B. oranges are said to yield about 24 ounces of oil. Oil of B. is frequently employed for di luting or adulterating the very expensive blue volatile oil of chamomile (q. v.)

Tapestry of a coarse kind, first made at Bergamo, Italy, is called Bergamot.

B. is the name also of various kinds of pear, to which, however, no common distinctive character can be assigned. The proper B. pear is probably the B. Crasanne, a flattish, rough-skinned pear with a long stalk. It has a very juicy pulp, as soft as butter, of an extremely pleasant flavor, and is esteemed as one of the best dessert pears. Metzger, in his work on the pomaceous fruits (Kernobstsorten) of the s. of Germany (Frankfort, 1847), describes no fewer than 47 kinds of pears, which all bear the name of B., although some of them differ very widely from each other.

BERGANDER, n. ber-gån'der [berg, and gander]: European Shell drake or Burrow duck, Tadorna vulpanser.

BERGEDORF běrg'e-dorf: town of Germany, 10 m. e.s.e. from Hamburg. When Lübeck joined the Zollverein, 1868, it resigned to Hamburg, on payment of 200,000 thalers, its share in the government of B. and its small territory. Part of the territory is known by the name of the Four Lands (Vierländer). It is inhabited by a well-conditioned and industrious population, much occupied in the cultivation of fruit and vegetables for the market of Hamburg, and for that of London. Peach and apricot orchards, and fields of strawberries, extend over great part of the district. Cattle-husbandry is carried on, and much attention is given to the rearing of poultry. The people of the Four Lands are distinguished from their neighbors by peculiarity of dress, and even each of the four small communities from which the name has been derived has some distinguishing peculiarity of its own. Pop. of the town of B. about 6,000; district 16,368.

BERGEN, n. bér'gễn: in 8. Africa, a range of moun


BERGEN, berg'en: seaport town of Norway, province of B.; on a promontory at the head of a deep bay, called Vaagen: lat. 60° 24′ n., long. 5° 18 c. With the exception of the n.e. side, where lofty mountains enclose it, B. is sur


rounded by water. It is walled, and additionally protected by several forts, mounting in all upwards of 100 guns. The entrance to the harbor is dangerous without a pilot; but within, it is safe and commodious. B is built in a semicircular form round the harbor, and has a picturesque ap pearance from the sea. A close inspection discovers it to be generally well and substantially built, but many of the streets are crooked and narrow. It has a cathedral, various churches, hospitals, refuges for the poor, public libraries, etc.; is the seat of a secondary judicial tribunal, of one of the three national treasuries, the diocese of a bishop, and the station of a naval squadron. Its chief manufactures are tobacco, porcelain, and cordage. It has numerous distilleries, and some ship-building yards. The principal trade of B., however, is its export of stock-fish (dried fish of the cod family) and cod-liver oil, which it obtains from the n. provinces. Twice a year the Norlandmen come to B. with their fish, receiving in exchange for them such articles of necessity or luxury as they require. In March and April, as many as 600 or 700 vessels are to be seen in the harbor of B. at once, laden with the produce of the winter-fishing, and with skins and feathers. The summer-fishing is not quite so productive. The annual value of the stock fish exported from B. is more than 2,000,000 specie dollars (£450,000). In addition, it exports about half a million barrels of herrings, and 20,000 barrels of cod liver oil, the finest of which is used for medicinal purposes and for lamps, the coarsest for dressing leather. The chief imports are brandy, wine, corn, cotton, woolens, hemp, sugar, coffee, etc. The climate of B. is exceedingly humid, but not unhealthful. B. was founded 1069 or 1070, by Olaf Kyrre, who made it the second city in his kingdom, and it was soon raised to the first rank. In 1135, King Magnus had his eyes put out here by his rival, Harald Gille, who was himself murdered in B. a year after. In 1164 the legate of the pope crowned King Magnus Erlingson here; and here, a century afterwards, King Hakon was crowned. The black pestilence, which ravaged Norway, first made its appearance in B., 1348, and the city has since been several times devastated by it. The first treaty entered into with any foreign nation by England, was made with B., 1217. But the English and Scottish traders were soon displaced by the merchants of the Hanse towns, who continued to exercise and abuse their monopoly until their supremacy was broken by an act issued by Frederick II. of Denmark, 1560; and in 1763 their last warehouse fell into the hands of a citizen of Bergen. B. was long the most important trading town of Norway, but has been recently surpassed by Christiania. Pop. (1885) 46,552; (1891) 53,686.

BERGEN-OP-ZOOM, berg'en-op-zōm: town, formerly strongly fortified, in the province of North Brabant, Nether lands, about 20 m. n. of Antwerp: on the little river Zoom, at its entrance into the e. branch of the Scheldt; lat 51° 29' n., long. 4° 17′ e. The importance of its position rendered it the object of many a contest. The Netherlanders made it one of their strongholds in their struggles with Spain. The


Prince of Parma besieged it in vain, 1588; three assaults by the Spaniards, 1605, also failed, as did the siege by the Marquis of Spinola, 1622, which, after a duration of 78 days and a loss of 10,000 men, was raised on the arrival of Prince Maurice of Orange. The fortifications were afterwards strengthened by the engineer Cochorn, so as to give it the reputation of being impregnable. Yet the French, under Count Löwendal, 1747, after a siege of two months, and the springing of 41 mines by the assailants, and 38 by the defenders, took the place by storm. In the winter of 1794, it capitulated to Pichegru. Being incorporated with France, 1810, it was blockaded by the English, 1814, who under Sir Thomas Graham attempted to surprise the fortress on the night of March 8, with a force of 4,000, but after carrying the greater part of the works, they were, through remissness in sending support, overpowered by the brave garrison, and either slain or forced to surrender. The French gave up the fortress under the Treaty of Paris. B. has manu. factures of earthenwares, and a large trade in anchovies. Pop. (1880) 10,419; (1890) 12,687.

BERGERAC, ber-zhe-rák': town of France, dept. of Dordogne, about 25 m. s.s.w. of Périgueux. It is in a fertile plain on the right bank of the river Dordogne, here crossed by a fine bridge of five arches. Its principal manufactures are paper, serges, hosiery, hats, earthenware, and iron and copper articles. It is the entrepôt of the trade of the dept. The dept. of Dordogne is celebrated for its wine, which is called B. wine, and also small champagne. It is both white and red in color, and takes a high place among the Garonne and Bordeaux wines. B. was taken and fortified by the English 1345, who, after being driven out by Louis of Anjou, again got possession of it, and retained it until 1450. B. suffered greatly in the religious wars. It was dismantled by Louis XIII., 1621. Pop. (1886) 11,867; (1891) 14,730.

BERGERET, n. bér ger-et [F. bergerette, a shepherd girl -from berger, a shepherd]: in OE., a pastoral song.

BERGH, berg, HENRY: philanthropist: 1823-1888, Mar. 12; b. New York. He attended Columbia Coll., without graduating; and after five years in Europe, was appointed sec. of legation at St. Petersburg, which position he held 1862-64. Returning to America he began a career of devotion to the care and protection of animal life, unexampled in history, the idea having occurred to him on account of cruelties to dumb creatures which he had witnessed in Europe. He framed a bill and secured its passage through the legislature of the state of New York, 1866, April 10, incorporating the first soc. for the prevention of cruelty to animals, of which he was pres. until his death (see ANIMALS, CRUELTY TO). B. succeeded by earnest personal endeavor in having similar socs. organized during his life in nearly every state in the Union, and in several foreign countries. In New York the soc. has several times received large sums by bequest.

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