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about 226 m. of sewers, great pumping works, and a reservoir of nearly 25,000,000 gals. on an island in the harbor. In 1890 there were reported in B. proper 252 manufacturing industries and 7,915 establishments, which employed $116,644,490 capital and 90,198 hands, paid $54,636,695 for wages, $104,631,879 for materials, and $21,399,162 for miscellaneous expenses, and had products valued at $208,104,683. The principal industries according to capital employed were: wholesale manufacture of men's clothing, $15,792,768; printing and publishing, $12,663,647; foundry and machine-shop products, $9,060,211; furniture, $3,602,009; musical instruments, $3,581,714: cordage and twine, $3,488,419; confectionery, $2,746,029.

The city auditor reported 1893, Jan. 31, city debt proper $36,081,374.06; co. debt $3,576,000; Cochituate water debt $16,758,773.98; Charlestown debt $51,000; Mystic water debt $441,000-total funded debt $56,908,148.04; sinking funds and other means of redemption $25,999,268.80; net debt $30,908,879.24. The city then had a right by law to borrow $3,910,618 for municipal expenses 1893-4. The receipts from all sources 1892-3 were $32,184,015.74; expenditures $29,965,097.07; balance 1893, Jan. 31, $2,218,918.67. The assessed valuation 1893, May 1, was, real $707,762,300; personal $216,372,000; total $924,134,300; tax-rate $12.80. In 1893, May, B. had 55 national banks, which had $53,100,000 capital; $19,664,223 surplus; $98,125,482 deposits; $142,975,348 in loans. There were also 15 savings banks; 9 loan and trust cos.; 2 state and 45 private banks. There were 18 fire-insurance cos., which had total income $4,961,482; losses 1892, $2,606,172; losses paid $2,484,256.

The commerce of B. in the calendar year 1892 was, imports $75,593, 561; exports $88,806,672.

B. was founded by English colonists, led by Winthrop, 1630, and named from Boston in England. During the colonial period it was famous as the headquarters of New England Puritanism, and as a centre of resistance to royal authority. Many of the exciting events preceding the Revolution took place here, such as the Boston Massacre 1770, and the Tea Party 1773. The measures of the British government were directed especially against it. In 1775 it was occupied by Gen. Howe, and invested by Gen. Washington, who compelled its evacuation 1776. A city government was conferred 1822. B. was the centre of transcendentalism and of the anti-slavery movement. In its early politics it adhered to the Federalist and Whig parties, but is at present Democratic. In 1872 a great fire burned over 65 acres of valuable business property; the number of buildings burned was 776, total loss $75,000,000.

East B. is an island n.e. of B., important for its wharves and docks. South B. is a peninsula s.e. of B., and the seat of some of its most important manufacturing industries. Charlestown, a peninsula opposite B. on the n., contains Bunker Hill and a United States navy -yard. Brighton, w. of B. on the mainland, contains an extensive abattoir. Roxbury, West Roxbury, and Dorchester, to s.w. and s., are very attractive suburbs, occupied mainly with residences;

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Bosses.-1, From Wells Cathedral, Lady Chapel. 2, From St. Mary's Church, Bury St. Edmunds.

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the parts of them more remote from B. abound in charming rural scenery, and are adorned by many villas and much tasteful landscape gardening. Of suburban cities not annexed, adjoining B., the chief are Cambridge, Somerville, Chelsea, Newton, and Malden, with populations of from 60,000 to 17,000 respectively; most of these are inhabited chiefly by persons doing business in B.

The population of Boston was, by the United States cen sus of 1880, 362,839, of which 248.943 was native, 114,796 Pop. (1880) 362,839; (1890) 448,477; (1897) 520,000.

See Bacon's Dictionary of Boston, tenth census, vol. xviii.; the City Auditor's Reports; the Memorial History of Boston, 4 vols., ed. J. Winsor; N. B. Shurtleff, Topographical and Historical Description of Boston; S. G. Drake, Old Landmarks of Boston.


BOSTON: ancient English borough and seaport in Lincolnshire, on both sides of the Witham, 28 m. s. e. of Lincoln. It is supposed identical with the Icanhoe, where St. Botolph founded an abbey, 654, destroyed 870 by the Danes. Under the Normans, B. became a place of importance, and in 1204 it paid the largest dues (£780) of any English port except London (£836). In the reign of Edward III., many foreign traders settled, and the merchants of the Hanseatic League established a guild in B. After their departure, the town declined, and the suppression of the monasteries by Henry VIII. further injured it; but his grant of a charter of incorporation, and Mary's subsequent grant of extensive lands, partly compensated for this. modern town consists chiefly of two good streets, one on each side of the river. The parish church of St. Botolph (1309), 245 by 98 ft. is one of the largest without cross aisles in England, and has a fine tower 300 ft. high, surmounted by a lantern visible 40 m. at sea. The church was partially restored 1857 at the expense of the inhabitants of Boston, Mass., which was named from the English city. The clearing of the river of silt and the closing of the adjacent fens have greatly promoted the trade of B. Vessels of 300 tons can reach the heart of the town. The chief export is corn. Pop. of muni. Þor. (1871) 14,526; of parl. borough, 18,279; (1891) 14,593 and 18,478. Since the passing of the Distribution of Seats Act, 1885, B. returns only one member to parliament. B. is a great market for cattle and sheep, and manufactures canvas, iron, brass, ropes, leather, bricks, whiting, and hats. In 1880, 471 vessels, of 35,651 tons, entered, and 476, of 34,968 tons, cleared the port.

BOSTON: a game at cards, played by four persons; named after the city of Boston, some features of the game being said to have reference to its siege. B. has been called the North American whist. There are three varieties. Fifty-two cards are used. Five cards to each player are dealt twice round, then three cards to each. A second pack is cut for the trump. The counters are kept in fine baskets, one for each player, and one placed upon the centre of the table. If the first player judges that he can take five tricks, he announces, 'I go Boston.' The others may overbid, saying, 'I go 6,' ',' '8,' etc. Any failure to take the announced number of tricks involves å forfeit.



BOSTON, THOMAS: 1676, Mar. 7-1732, May 20; b. Dunse, Berwickshire, Scotland; of poor parents. As early as his 12th year he was concerned about the state of his soul, and while only a boy at the grammar-school, he formed a society of three for religious conference and prayer. After a hard struggle, he succeeded in entering Edinburgh Univ. 1691. He received license as a preacher, 1697, and was greatly appreciated by the serious portion of the community; though his uncompromising character prevented him from receiving a clerical charge for two years. He was then ordained minister of Simprin, and 1707 was translated to Ettrick, where he died. Of his voluminous works the best known is the Fourfold State, 1720, discoursing of man's paradisiacal integrity, his ruin by the fall, his begun regeneration on earth, and consummate bliss or woe hereafter. An excellent little treatise of B.'s is entitled The Crook in the Lot. As a pastor, B. was eminently laborious, and deservedly popular. In the ecclesiastical courts he distinguished himself by his zeal in defense of the church's independence, and in the controversy regarding the Marrow of Modern Divinity (which was objected to as being too free in its offers of salvation), he was one of the ten ministers who declared their approval of that work: see MARROW CONTROVERSY. As a theologian B. is perhaps the most 'Representative Man' in the whole list of Scottish divines. His peculiar modes of expressing the Calvinistic psychology have colored the style of Scottish preaching more than any other writer has done. Although often showing what is now called narrowness, B. shows also flashes of insight and beauty, quaint felicities of diction and an occasional shrewdness of thought, even yet worth studying. B.'s autobiography has been a great favorite with the Scottish peasantry.

BOSTON PUBLIC LATIN SCHOOL: oldest educational institution in the United States, founded 1635. John Cotton, minister of the First Church, bequeathed to it half of his estate. It has always been a free school, supported by private gifts and public funds from the town of Boston. Its first master was Philemon Pormont. Notable are the long terms served by headmasters Ezekiel Cheever (q.v.) (master 1670-1708), John Lovell (1730-76), and Francis Gardner (1831-76): Moses Merrill, now (1894) headmaster, was appointed 1877. Pupils (1892) 507; instructors 18. The school is of very high grade, and prepares boys for college. Many distinguished names are on the long roll of its pupils.

BOSTON UNIVERSITY: institution of learning in Boston, Mass., chartered 1869. Its nucleus was the Boston Theol. Seminary of the Meth. Episc. Chh., founded 1839, which was adopted as one of the schools' of B. U. 1871: the property of the seminary, amounting to abt. $250,000, was conveyed to the corporation of the university. The other schools' were founded successively as follows: School of Law 1872, School of Medicine 1873, and School of All Sciences 1874: these schools' are intended to follow a collegiate training. Those departments of the university

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