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theologians of the middle ages. He became a monk of Citeaux, 1113; founded a new branch of that order at Clairvaux, in Champagne, and became its first abbot, 1115. He was canonized by Alexander III., 1174. His ascetic life, solitary studies, and stirring eloquence made him, during his lifetime, the oracle of Christendom. He was honored with the title of the 'mellifluous doctor,' and his writings were termed 'a river of paradise.' He rejected the doctrine of the immaculate conception, which had been introduced into the French Church, and rose above the cruel prejudices of his age in repressing the monkish persecutions of the Jews in Germany. B. is perhaps most widely known in connection with the disastrous crusade of 1146. Charged by the pope to excite the religious zeal of the people of France and Germany, he accomplished his mission with fatally memorable success. Fields, towns, cities, and castles were in many places almost depopulated, and innumerable legions, fired by his prophetic eloquence, hurried to the East, nine-tenths of whom never saw their homes again.

Regarding B. in his more spiritual aspect, we may say that his mystic, but at the same time practical, Christian doctrine was a wholesome antidote to the dry and cold scholasticism which prevailed among the churchmen of his age, although the intolerance with which he treated Abelard (see ABELARD) and Gilbert de Porrée must be reprobated. Luther says of St. B.: 'If there ever lived on the earth a God-fearing and holy monk, it was St. B. of Clairvaux.' In the course of his life, he founded 160 monasteries. His writing are exceedingly numerous. They consist of epistles, sermons, and theological treatises. Of the first, there remain 439; of the second, 340; nd of the third, 12. They are all instinct with genius, though it is difficult for us now to appreciate their extraordinary influence. The best edition of the works of St. B. is that of Mabillon, Paris (6 vols.) 1667-90; and in Migne's Patrologie, 1851-2 (4 vols.). The monks of the reformed branch of the Cistercians, which he instituted, are often called, after him, Bernardines. He gave name also, in France, to the nuns of the Cistercian order, which his sister, St. Humbeline, is said to have founded. See Morison's Life and Times of St. B. (3d ed., Lond. 1877).

BERNARD DOG, GREAT SAINT: a race or variety of dog deriving its name from the hospice of St. Bernard, where it has been long kept by the monks for the purpose of assisting them in the rescue of perishing travellers. The Saint B. dog is remarkable for great size, strength, sagacity, noble appearance, and majestic gait. There are two sub-varieties having the same general characteristics save as to the coat-the long-haired dogs resembling the finest kinds of Newfoundland, and the short-haired ones. being much like a mastiff. Tawny and brindle are the usual colors; but some dogs have a skin more or less clouded with gray, liver-color, and black. Usually only six dogs are kept at the hospice, four being used daily. Avalanches or other accidents have frequently reduced the


number. The place of those which die or are lost, has been supplied by others from the valleys around, descendants of dogs originally sent from the hospice, so that the breed has been kept pure or nearly so till the pres ent time. Some of the handsomest dogs of both sub-varieties are seen in other countries, where they are much esteemed as pets and favorites. The origin of the breed is debatable; but the stock is generally said to have sprung from a Danish dog, left at the hospice by a traveller, and the native Alpine shepherd's dog.

The custom of the monks is to send out two of their number, accompanied by two servants (marronniers) daily, when the weather at all permits, for some distance down the pass on the Swiss side, and a similar party down the Italian side, to succor fatigued or worn-out travellers. The dogs are specially valuable for assisting the monks in keeping to the line of road, and in finding their way back. The monks may carry with them stimulants and clothing in case of emergency; but it is, to say the least, very unusual to burden the dogs by making them the bearers. And though the dogs have, according to the monks, sometimes gone out unaccompanied by men, it is almost needless to say that the tale of dogs regularly sallying forth two by two, without human attendants, and bearing kegs of spirits and clothing, shows plain marks of poetic license. Sometimes both dogs and men have been overwhelmed and lost in the snow; the lives of both are shortened by habitual exposure, which usually causes at last severe rheumatism. In the museum at Berne is the stuffed skin of the famous dog Barri, which helped in saving more than 20 human lives.

BERNARDIN, bér-nár-dăng', SAINT, of Sienna: 13801444; b. Massa-Carrara, of a distinguished family: famous by his rigid restoration of the primitive rule among the degenerate order of the Franciscans, of which he became a member 1404, after having already, 1397, joined the brotherhood of the Disciplinati Maria. In 1438, he was appointed vicar-gen. of his order for Italy. B. was unwearied and devoted in his activity during the great Italian plague of 1400, both as an impressive preacher and an attendant upon the sick and dying. He founded the Fratres de Observantia, a branch of the Franciscan order, which already during his day numbered more than 300 monasteries in Italy. B. was canonized by Pope Nicholas V. 1450, his festival being May 20. His eminently mystical works were published by Rudolf (4 vols., Venice, 1591), and by De la Haye (5 vols., Paris, 1636).

BERNARDINE, n. bér'nar-din, or -din: one of the Cistercian monks, a branch of the old Benedictines, from St. Bernard, considered its second founder: ADJ. pertaining to the monks of the order of St. Bernard. See CISTERCIANS.

BERNAUER, ber'now-er, AGNES: d. 1435, Oct. 12: the Deautiful daughter of a poor citizen of Augsburg, whose sad story is like a romance. Duke Albrecht of Bavaria


only son of the reigning Duke Ernst, saw the maiden at a tournament at Augsburg, given in his honor by the nobility, and fell violently in love with her. Albrecht was young, handsome, and manly, and Agnes was not insensi ble to his attractions and his rank; but she was too pure to listen to his overtures till he promised to marry her. They were then secretly united, and Albrecht carried his young wife to the castle of Vohburg, which he inherited from his mother. Here they enjoyed their matrimonial happiness undisturbed, till Albrecht's father formed the plan of marrying his son with Anna, daughter of Erich, Duke of Brunswick. The determined. opposition which he met soon made him aware of his son's attachment to the Augsburger's daughter, and of the strength of his passion for her; and he resolved on energetic measures to break it off. He accordingly contrived that, at a tournament at Regensburg, the lists were shut against his son, as one that, against the rules of chivalry, was living with a woman in licentiousness. Albrecht swore that Agnes was his wife, but in vain; he was still excluded. He now caused Agnes to be openly honored as Duchess of Bavaria, gave her a numerous retinue of servants as a princess, and the castle of Straubing for a residence. She, full of sad forebodings of a dark fate, erected in the Carmelite convent of the place an oratory and a tomb. As long as Duke William, Albrecht's uncle, lived, who was greatly attached to his nephew, nothing further was attempted against the happiness of the lovers. But after his brother's death, Duke Ernst, in the absence of Albrecht, ordered Agnes to be arrested and executed without delay. Accused of sorcery, by which she was alleged to have bewitched Albrecht, she was carried, bound hand and foot, by the executioners to the bridge of the Danube, and in the presence of the whole people thrown into the river. The current having floated her again to the side, one of the executioners ran with a long pole, and, fastening it in her golden hair, held her under the water till she was drowned. Maddened at this atrocity, Albrecht took up arms against his father, and, in league with Ernst's other enemies, wasted the country. It was in vain that Duke Ernst entreated his son to relent. It was not till the emperor Sigismund, and the other friends of the family, united their exhortations, that Albrecht at last returned to his father's court, where, after a time, he consented to marry Anna of Brunswick. To regain the forfeited regard of his son, Duke Ernst had a chapel erected over the grave of the murdered lady, and Albrecht founded in the year of her death daily masses for her in the Carmelite monastery at Straubing; even after twelve years he renewed the foundation, and had the bones of his honored wife' transferred to the tomb provided by herself, and covered with a marble monument. The unhappy loves of Albrecht and Agnes were long the theme of popular song; and the story has been made the subject of at least three tragedies, one by Jul. Körner (Leip. 1821), another by A. Böttger (3d ed. Leip. 1850).

BERNAY, bĕr-nā': town of France, dept. of Eure


pleasantly situated on the right bank of the Charentonne, 26 m. w.n.w. of Evreux. Woolen, linen, and cotton manufactures are actively carried on, also paper-making, bleaching, dyeing, and tanning. There is a considerable trade not only in the products of these manufactures, but in grain, cider, horses, and cattle. B. is the seat of the greatest horse-fair in France, which is held on Wednesday of the fifth week in Lent, and is attended by nearly 50,000 persons, from all parts of France, chiefly to purchase post and diligence horses, for which Normandy has long been celebrated. B. is the seat of a tribunal of commerce. The church of St. Croix has a large and magnifi cent altar, and marble statues and sculptures: the church of La Conture was formerly celebrated for the cure of persons possessed of evil spirits. The grain-market occupies part of the remains of an interesting old abbey church. B. has a communal college, and a hospital. Pop. (1881) 6,931; (1891) 8,016.

BERNBURG, bėrn'burg or bĕrn'bûrg: town in the German duchy of Anhalt, till 1863 cap. of Anhalt-Bernburg; on the Saale, 23 m. s. of Magdeburg, lat. 51° 47′ n., long. 11° 45' e. Two parts of B., surrounded by walls, lie on the left bank of the river, and are united by a bridge with the third part on the opposite side, which has a castle, but is not walled. B. is well built, has several literary and charitable institutions, and manufactures of porcelain, paper, and starch. Pop. (1880) 18,593; (1891) 28,257.

BERNESE, n. bër-nëz': an inhabitant or inhabitants of Bern: ADJ. pertaining to Bern or to its people.

BERNHARD, bern' hârt, Duke of Weimar: 1604, Aug. 6-1639, July 8; youngest son of John, 3d duke. On the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War, he took the side of Protestantism. In 1631, when Gustavus Adolphus ap-i peared in Germany, B. supported his cause; but his career was cut short by death; as many believe, from poison administered by his physician.

BERNHARDT, bẻrn-hârt, ROSINE (called SARAH): actress b. Paris, 1844, Oct. 22. She entered the Paris Conservatoire 1858; appeared publicly first at the Théâtre Français in Iphigénie and Valérie; withdrew from the stage for a short time; then reappeared at the Gymnase and Porte-Saint-Martin in burlesque parts; and returned to high art at the Odéon. She visited London 1879, 86, 88, and 89, appearing at the Gaiety Theatre in La Dame aux Camélias' and 'Fédora,' and at the Lyceum as La Tosca; and 1890, Oct. 23, made her first appearance in Sardou's new Cleopatra at the Porte-St.Martin, Paris. She has made successful tours through the United States, Italy, Algeria, and S. America, and received the order of the French Academy.

BERNI, FRANCESCO, called also BERNA or BERNIA: abt. 1490-1536; b. Campovecchio, Tuscany: Italian poet, from whom comic or jocose poetry has the name of Vers Berneschi. He first entered the service of Cardinal Dovizio da Bibbiena, and was afterwards for several years sec. to


Ghiberti, chancellor to Clement VII., and Bp. of Verona. About 1533, he betook himself to Florence, where he was made a canon, and lived in favor with the two Medici, Duke Alessandro, and Cardinal Ippolito, till his death. His Opere Burlesche (2 vols., Flor. 1548; Lond. 1721) are to be found in the Classici Italiani (Mil. 1806). His recast or rifacimento of Boiardo's Orlando Innamorato was received with such favor that it was thrice reprinted, 154145. A critical edition was published at Florence, 1827. Berni's version is still read in Italy (and justly so) in preference to the original.-COUNT FRANCESCO BERNI, 1610– 93, dramatic and lyric poet, is a different person.


BERNICLE, n. bèr'ni-kl: see BARNACLE.

BERNIER, ber-ne-ā', FRANÇOIs: b. Angers, France; d. Paris, 1688, Sept. 22: physician and traveller. Having taken his degree of Doctor at Montpellier, he departed for the East about 1654, and visited Syria, Egypt, Arabia, and India, in the last of which countries he resided twelve years in the capacity of physician to Aurungzebe. On his return to France, he published an account of his travels in India in 1670-71. The work is delightful in style, accurate in the delineation of manners and customs, and in the descriptions of places, and clear in the exposition of the causes of those political events that carried Aurungzebe to the throne. He visited England in 1685. The titles of his chief works are as follows: Voyages de M. Bernier contenant_la_Description des Etats du Grand Mogol, de l'Indoustan, du Royaume de Cachemire, etc.; Mémoire sur le Quiétisme des Indes; Abrégé de la Philosophie de Gassendi; Sentiment de M. Descartes.

BERNINA, ber-ne'ná: mountain of the Rhætian Alps, upward of 13,000 ft. high, in the Swiss canton of Grisons. with a remarkable and extensive glacier, Morteratsch, The B. Pass, with an elevation of 7,695 ft., over which a carriage-road has been made, unites the valleys of the Engadine and Bregaglia on the n. with the Valteline on the s., but is dangerous an account of avalanches.

BERNINI, běr-në'ně, GIOVANNI LORENZO: 1598-1680, Nov. 28; b. Naples: Italian sculptor and architect. In his eighteenth year he finished his admired group of Apollo and Daphne, which gave promise of greater excellence than was afterwards reached. Pope Urban VIII. employed B. to produce designs for the embellishment of the Basilica of St. Peter at Rome. The bronze baldacchino, or canopy, covering the high-altar of that edifice, the palace Barberini, the front of the College de Propaganda Fide, the church of Sant' Andrea à Monte Cavallo, and numerous ornaments in St. Peter's, are by B. His greatest work in architecture is the colossal colonnade of St. Peter's. In 1665, B. accepted the flattering invitation of Louis XIV., and travelled to Paris with a numerous retinue and great pomp. In Paris, he resided above eight months; but not wishing to interfere with the designs of Claude Perrault for the Louvre, he confined himself entirely to sculpture

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