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BERWICKSHIRE.

session of England, 1482. The town has an antiquated and somewhat decaying appearance. It is girded with old fortifications, and has large barracks. Tweedmouth and Spittal (the latter a favorite watering-place), on the s. side of the Tweed, both within the municipality of B. are reached by an old stone bridge, and a magnificent viaduct of 28 arches spans the river, and connects the Northeastern with the North British railway. The ship. ping belonging to the port in 1880 was 22, tonnage 1,893, and over 500 fishing-boats. A wet dock has been constructed at a cost of £40,000. Of recent years the salmon fishings have improved, but the herring fishing has de clined. For the manufacture of agricultural implements B. stands high, and in Spittal there are several large artificial-manure works. It has 20 places of worship, four belonging to Church of England, three to Church of Scotland, four Eng. Presbyterian, four U. P., and five of other denominations; 14 day-schools, including corporation's academy. Public institutions include infirmary and dispensary, museum, literary institute, and subscription library. Pop. (1871) 13,282; (1881) 13,995; (1891) 13,378.

BERWICKSHIRE, běr'rik-sher: maritime and border county in the s.e. extremity of Scotland; bounded n. by Haddington; s. and s.e. by Roxburgh and Northumberland, having a detached portion of Durham on its s.e. limits; e. by the German Ocean and Berwick-on-Tweed; and w. by Mid-Lothian and Roxburgh. It extends from e. to w. 35 m., from n. to s. 22 m.; 464 sq. m., or 297,161 statute acres. B. is divided into three districts-the Merse, the Lammermoors, and Lauderdale. The largest and most fertile district is the luxuriant valley of the Merse, believed to be the most extensive and richest piece of level land in Scotland, extending to nearly 130,000 acres. The Lammermoors, consisting of 90,000 acres, chiefly pastoral, divide the valley of the Tweed from Mid-Lothian and Haddington. Lauderdale, in extent about 67,000 acres of hill and dale, runs along the banks of the Leader Water. From its commencement at Lamberton to St. Abb's Head, the coast line of B. extends to 8 m., or allowing for headlands, 9. The coast is rocky and bold, with only two bays, at Eyemouth and Coldingham respectively. Geologically, as well as topographically, B. has numer ous interesting features-the Lammermoors (the principal summits of which are Lammer Law, Crib Law, Sayer's Law, and Clint Hill, ranging from 1,500 to 1,600 ft. high), consist of Silurian strata, stretching to St. Abb's Head: in the s., carboniferous rocks are found, while an extensive bed of red sandstone extends easterly from the centre of the county to the sea-coast. On the coast porphyry is found, and some traps and syenite in the interior. Ironstone and thin seams of coal occur, as well as gypsum, clay, and shell-marl. The streams, Blackadder, Whitadder, and Leader, the river Eye being the only exception, are tributaries of the Tweed. Agriculturally, B. is prominent: in 1881, 194,413 acres were under cultivation, of which 64,217 were under corn crops, and 34,292 under

BERYL.

green crops. In 1875, 192,480 statute acres were farmed by 983 tenants or owners. B. is, however, almost entirely without centres of manufacturing industry. Principal towns are Dunse, or Duns, the most populous, the birthplace of Thomas Boston, Dr. M'Crie, and, as some contend, of Duns Scotus; Greenlaw, the county town; Lauder, a royal burgh; Eyemouth, a prosperous fishing-station; Coldstream, where General Monk first raised the Coldstream Guards; Ayton; and Earlston, the Ercildoune of Thomas the Rhymer. Dunse being more central than Greenlaw, the great bulk of the county business has been transferred thither. Many names famous in Scottish annals are closely associated with B.; among others, ancestors of the royal Stuarts; the noble family of Douglas; the Earl of Bothwell; the Duke of B.; and many Scottish judges. The chief antiquities are the ruins of Dryburgh Abbey, Coldingham Priory, Fast Castle, and the remains of British and Roman camps, and barrows. Pop. (1881) 85,392; (1891) 32,398; parishes, 31; inhabited houses, 7,103; constituency (1882) 1,846; upward of 70 places of worship, of which about one-half belong to the Established Church, and the remaining half is divided between the Free and U. P. denominations. B. returns one member to parliament.

BERYL, n. ber'il [F. beryl-from L. beryl'lus: Pers. bulur, a crystal]: a precious stone of a deep rich green color. BERYLLINE, a. běr il-in, like the beryl; a lapidary's term for the less brilliant and colorless varieties of the emerald. BERYLLIUM n. ber-il'li-um, an elementary body, a rare metal resembling magnesium, occurring as a silicate in beryl, etc.—also called Glucinum (q.v.).

BERYL, ber': an aluminium and glucinum silicate; with varieties, Ordinary B. and Precious B. or Emerald (q.v.)-not the Oriental Emerald. The color of B. varies from yellowish through green to blue. The finer varieties, transparent and of beautiful color, are distinguished as

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Precious B., sometimes called Aquamarine. These occur in crystals similar in form to those of emerald; but the regular hexagonal prism is more frequently modified by truncation on the angles or edges, acumination, etc. The prisms are often long. Their sides are longitudinally striated, often deeply so; but the truncating or terminating planes

BERZELINE-BERZELIUS.

are smooth. The coarser varieties of B. (Common B.) are also found crystallized, but often massive. B. occurs chiefly in veins that traverse granite or gneiss, or imbedded in granite; sometimes in alluvial soils formed from such rocks. Common B. is found in a number of places in Europe; Rubislaw, near Aberdeen, is a British locality. The mountains of Aberdeenshire, and those of Mourne in Ireland, yield Precious B., which is also found in several parts of Europe and the United States-very large in N. C. A crystal of B. 32 in. in diam. weighing 2,900 lbs. was found at Grafton, N. H.

BERZELINE, n. ber'zèl-in [after Berzelius, a Swedish chemist]: a mineral, selenite of copper, occurring in thin dendritic crusts of a silver-white color and metallic lustre. BERZELITE, n. běr zēl-it, a name applied to several minerals.

BERZELIUS, bér-ze'li-us, JOHANN JACOB, Baron: 1779, Aug. 20-1848, Aug. 7; b. Westerlösa, in East Gothland, Sweden. While studying for the medical profession at the Univ. of Upsala, he was more attracted by the preparatory natural sciences, especially chemistry. After some medical practice and lecturing, he was appointed (1806) lecturer on chemistry in the Military Acad. of Stockholm, and in the following year prof. of medicine and pharmacy. He was shortly afterwards chosen president of the Stockholm Acad. of Sciences; and from 1818 till his death, held the office of perpetual secretary. The king raised him to the rank of baron; other honors from learned societies were conferred on him; and the directors of the Swedish Iron-works, in consideration of the value of his researches in their particular branch of industry, bestowed on him a pension for life. In 1838, he was made a senator; but he took little part in politics. The field of his activity lay in his laboratory, where he acquired a name of which his country is justly proud. His services to chemistry are too vast to be described here. The science of chemistry, as at present organized, rests in a great measure upon the discoveries and views of B., although in not a few points he has been controverted, or found wrong. His multiplied and accurate analyses established the laws of combination on an incontrovertible basis; and to him we owe the system of chemical symbols. He discovered the elements selenium and thorium, and first exhibited calcium, barium, strontium, columbium or tantalum, silicium, and zirconium, in the metallic form. The blowpipe in the hands of B. became a powerful instrument in the analysis of inorganic substances. The multitude and accuracy of his researches in every branch of chemical inquiry make it difficult to conceive how one man could have accomplished so much. Of his numerous writings, the most important is his Lärebok i Kemien (Text-book of Chemistry, 3 vols., Stock. 1808-18), which has since passed through five large editions, on each occasion being almost wholly rewritten. The best-known edition is in 8 vols. (Brussels, 1835). The book has been translated into every European language. His essay On the Use of the Blowpipe

BESANÇON-BESANT.

exhausts the subject, while his Annual Reports on the Progress of Physics, Chemistry, and Mineralogy, undertaken at the request of the Acad. of Sciences, 1822, have proved very valuable to science. Scarcely less so have been the Memoirs Relative to Physics, Chemistry, and Mineralogy, of which he was one of the originators and conductors, and to which, during the 12 years they were published, 1806-18, he contributed 47 original papers.

BESANÇON, be-zong-săn' (Vesontio): cap. of the French dept. of Doubs, formerly cap. of Franche-Comté; on the river Doubs, which divides it into two parts; about 45 m. e. of Dijon; lat. 47° 14' n., long. 6° 3' e. It was strongly but irregularly fortified by Vauban, the citadel being considered impregnable. Since that time, the fortifications have been extended and strengthened, and B. is now considered one of the strongest military positions in Europe. It was the ancient Vesontio, Besontium, or Visontium, and was a considerable place even in the time of Cæsar, who, B.C. 58, expelled from Vesontio the Sequani, and in the neighborhood of the city gained a victory over Arlovistus. It then became an important Roman military station. In modern times, after undergoing many changes, it finally came into the possession of France, 1674. Several streets and places in B. still bear old Roman names; and in the neighborhood are found ruins of a triumphal arch of Aurelianus, an aqueduct, an amphitheatre, and a theatre which must have been large enough to contain 20,000 spectators. Among the modern structures, the Cathedral and the churches of St. John and the Magdalen, with the Prefecture and the halfGothic, half-Roman palace of Cardinal Granvella, are most remarkable. B. has considerable manufactures, chiefly watches (of which more than 400,000 are made annually), porcelain, carpets, iron-wire, and beer, and is an important entrepôt for the produce of part of Switzerland and the s. of France. 600,000 bottles of seltzerwater are annually manufactured. Pop. (1881) 57,039; (1891) 56,055.

BESANT, be'sănt, ANNIE: socialist: b. England. She married, 1867, the Rev. Frank Besant, of the Established Church, bro. of the well-known novelist Walter Besant; but her wide departure from orthodox views led to their separation 1873. The following year she became associated with Charles Bradlaugh, and came prominently before the public as a rationalistic writer. In 1875 she commenced delivering atheistic lectures, which she continued till 1880, when she announced her adhesion to Socialism. Then, till 1890, she was prominently identified with the socialistic movement, speaking in meetings, organizing unions, editing a newspaper, etc. For a time she was an efficient member of the London school board. Having joined the Theosophical Soc. 1889, she succeeded Mme. Blavatsky as head of the English branch 1891. She visited the United States and lectured on Social Reform and Theosophy 1891-2-3. She has been before the courts for the alleged immorality of her book, Fruits of Philosophy (which she has since repudiated), and in 1889 she lost a suit for libel.

BESANT BESEECH.

BESANT, be'sănt, Sir WALTER: b. Portsmouth, England, 1838: novelist. He was educated at King's Coll., London, and Christ's Coll., Cambridge, and graduated with mathematical honors. Abandoning his original intention of taking clerical orders, he was appointed to a professorship in the Royal Coll. of Mauritius; but ill health compelled him to resign that post and return to England. He then adopted literature as a profession; and his first book, Studies in Early French Poetry, was Other pub. 1868; 1870 appeared his French Humorists. works of B. containing the fruit of his studies of French literature are: Rabelais (1877), in the series of Ancient and Foreign Classics; Readings from Rabelais (1879); and Coligny (1879), the latter belonging to the New Plutarch Series, of which B. is one of the editors. He entered into a literary partnership with James Rice 1871; their first novel, Ready Money Mortiboy (1872), was followed by My Little Girl; With Harp and Crown; This Son of Vulcan; The Golden Butterfly; The Monks of Thelema; By Celia's Arbor; The Chaplain of the Fleet; The Seamy Side (1881). James Rice died 1882. Since then, Mr. B. has written: All Sorts and Conditions of Men; The Captain's Room; All in a Garden Fair; Dorothy Forster; Children of Gibeon; The World Went Very Well Then; Herr Paulus; The Inner House; The Lament of Dives; The Bell of St. Paul's; For Faith and Freedom; Armorel of Lyonesse. As a writer of fiction, B. shows knowledge of very many different phases of life, grasp of character, constructive skill, and humor at once shrewd and genial. In many of his novels, he has in view schemes of philanthropy and social reform, notably in All Sorts and Conditions of Men, in which is described a 'People's Palace '-now happily realized in the institution of that name in the e. end of London. B. has for several years been sec. to the Palestine Exploration Fund, and was first chairman of the London Incorporated Soc. of Authors. He was knighted 1895.

BESANTS, n. plu.: see BEZANTS.

BESCREEN, v. bě-skrēn' [be, and screen]: in OE., to cover, as with a screen; to shelter.

BESEECH, v.,bě-sech' [OE. beseeke; AS. be, and secan, to seek]: to seek something from a person; to ask for earnestly; to entreat; to implore. BESEECH'ING, imp. BESOUGHT, pp. and pt. bě-saut'. BESEECH'ER, n. one who. BESEECH INGLY, ad. -.-SYN. of 'beseech': to entreat; solicit; implore; ask; beg; request; supplicate; adjure;

сгате.

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