The Rise and Development of the Liquefaction of Gases
Macmillan, 1899 - 250 pages
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allowed Andrews apparatus appeared applied atmospheres becomes boiling point Cailletet called carbon monoxide carbonic acid chlorine closed Colorless complete compressed condensed condition connected considerable considered constant constructed contained continuous cooled critical point critical temperature curves cylinder density determined Dewar employed equal equation ether evidence expansion experimenters experiments Faraday figure gaseous given glass glass tube heat high pressures hydrogen increased later liquefaction of gases liquefied liquid air liquid ethylene liquid oxygen low temperatures lower Lussac matter means measured mercury method mixture molecules nitrogen observations obtained Olszewski opened ordinary oxide passes perature Pictet placed portion present pressure Proc produced properties pump quantity receiver reduced Reference refrigerant remained rend represents says shown similar solid solidified subjected substance suggested sulphurous acid tempera tion tube ture vapor vessel volume
Page 72 - On partially liquefying carbonic acid by pressure alone, and gradually raising at the same time the temperature to 88° Fahr., the surface of demarcation between the liquid and gas became fainter, lost its curvature, and at last disappeared. The space was then occupied by a homogeneous fluid, which exhibited, when the pressure was suddenly diminished or the temperature slightly lowered, a peculiar appearance of moving or flickering striae throughout its entire mass.
Page 96 - The ordinary gaseous and ordinary liquid states are, in short, only widely separated forms of the same condition of matter, and may be made to pass into one another by a series of gradations so gentle that the passage shall nowhere present any interruption or breach of continuity.
Page 80 - In this process its volume will steadily diminish as the pressure augments, and no sudden diminution of volume, without the application of external pressure, will occur at any stage of it. When the full pressure has been applied, let the temperature be allowed to fall till the carbonic acid has reached the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere.
Page 10 - There can scarcely be a doubt entertained respecting the reducibility of all elastic fluids of whatever kind into liquids; and -we ought not to despair of effecting it in low temperatures, and by strong pressure exerted upon the unmixed gases.
Page 72 - ... its curvature, and at last disappeared. The space was then occupied by a homogeneous fluid, which exhibited, when the pressure was suddenly diminished or the temperature slightly lowered, a peculiar appearance of moving or flickering striae throughout its entire mass. At temperatures above 88°, no apparent liquefaction of carbonic acid or separation into two distinct forms of matter could be effected, even when- a pressure of 300 or 400 atmospheres was applied. Nitrous oxide gave analogous results...
Page 45 - Thilorier, have left a constant desire on my mind to renew the investigation. This, with considerations arising out of the apparent simplicity and unity of the molecular constitution of all bodies when in the gaseous or vaporous state, which may be expected, according to the indications given by the experiments of M. Cagniard...
Page 85 - ... physical properties of the carbonic acid which has collapsed into the smaller volume, and of the carbonic acid not yet altered. There is no difficulty here, therefore, in distinguishing between the liquid and the gas. But in other cases the distinction cannot be made; and under many of the conditions I have described it would be vain to attempt to assign carbonic acid to the liquid rather than the gaseous state.
Page 85 - J^30 of the volume it occupied under a pressure of one atmosphere; but if any one ask whether it is now in the gaseous or liquid state, the question does not, I believe, admit of a positive reply.
Page 55 - M. CAGNIARD DE LA ToUR has shown that at a certain temperature, a liquid, under sufficient pressure, becomes clear transparent vapour or gas, having the same bulk as the liquid. At this temperature, or one a little higher, it is not likely that any increase of pressure, except perhaps one exceedingly great, would convert the gas into a liquid. Now the temperature of...
Page 55 - ToUR point or not is not known, and therefore it cannot well be anticipated whether the coming on of that state sooner or later with particular bodies will influence them in relation to the more general law referred to above. The law already suggested gives great encouragement to the continuance of those efforts which are directed to the condensation of oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen, by the attainment and application of lower temperatures than those yet applied. If to reduce carbonic acid from the...