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Questions for Exercise in Spherical Trigonometry.

Ex. 1. In the right-angled spherical triangle BAC, rightangled at A, the hypothenuse a = 78°20', and one leg c = 76°52', are given to find the angles B, and c, and the other leg b.

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where b is less than 90°, because a and c both are so.

Ex. 2. In a right-angled spherical triangle, denoted as above, are given a 78°20′, B = 27°45'; to find the other sides and angle.

Ans. b 27° 8', c = 76°52′, c = 83°56'. Ex. 3. In a spherical triangle, with a a right angle, given b = 117°34', c = = 31°51'; to find the other parts.

Ans. a 113°55', c = 28°51′, B = 104° 8'.

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Ex. 4. Given b 27°6′, c = 76°52′; to find the other parts. Ans. α = 78°20′, B = 27°45′, c = 83°56'.

Ex. 5. Given b = 42°12′, B = 48°; o find the other parts. Ans. a 64°10', or its supplement,


c = 54°44', or its supplement, c = 64°35′, or its supplement.

Ex. 6. Given B = 48°, c = 64°35′; required the other 42°12′, c = 54°44′, a = 64°40'}


Ans. b =

Ex. 7. In the quadrantal triangle ABC, given the quadrantal side a = 90°, an adjacent angle c = 42° 12', and the opposite angle a = 64° 40′; required the other parts of the triangle?

Ex. 8. In an oblique-angled spherical triangle are given the three sides, viz, a = 56° 40′, b = 83° 13', c = 114° 30′: to find the angles.

Here, by the fifth case of table 2, we have

sin A =

sin (†s—b) . sin (3s —c).

sin b. sin c

Or, log sin A= log sin (48~6)+ log sin (¿s—c) + ar. comp. log sin bar. comp. log sin c: where s = =a+b+c.

log sin (-6)= log sin 43° 58'
log sin (38-c)

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log sin 12° 41'i A. c. log sin b = A. c. log sin 83° 13′ A. c. log sin ca c. log sin 114° 30′

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19 2274413

log sin 24° 15'9.6137206

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83°13' log -99969492
62°56' log 9.9495770


And so is, sin c ... sin 1:4°30′ ... log = 9·9590229
To, sin c... sin 125°19' log 99116507.
So that the remaining angles are, B = 62°56', and c = 125°19/


2dly. By way of comparison of methods, let us find the angle A, by the analogies of Napier, according to case 5 table 3. In order to which, suppose a perpendicular demitted from the angle c on the opposite side c. Then shall we have tan tan (b+a). tan }(b—a)

diff seg. of c =

This in logarithms, is

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log tan (ba) = log tan 69°56′

log tan (6



= 9.3727819

log tan 13°16′} =
Their sum 19.8103420

Subtract log tan jc = log tan 57°15′ = 10-1916394
Rem. log cos dif. seg. = log cos 22°34′ = 9.6187026
Hence,the segments of the base are 79°49, and 34°41′.

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The sum rejecting 10 from the index log cos A = log cos 48032

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The other two angles may be found as before. The preference is, in this case, manifestly due to the former method.

Ex. 9. In an oblique-angled spherical triangle, are given two sides equal to 114°40′ and 56°30' respectively, and the angle opposite the former equal to 125°20'; to find the other parts. Ans. Angles 48°30′, and 62°55'; side, 83°12′. Ex 10 Given, in a spherical triangle, two angles, equal to 48°30', and 125°20', and the side opposite the latter; to find the other parts.

Ans. Side opposite first angle, 56°40'; other side, 83°12 third angle, 62°54′.

Ex. 11. Given two sides, equal 114°30', and 56°40′; and their included angle 62°54': to find the rest.

Ex. 12. Given two angles, 125°20' and 48°30', and the side comprehended between them 83°12': to find the other parts.

Ex. 13. In a spherical triangle, the angles are 48°31', 62°56', and 125°20': required the sides?

Ex. 14. Given two angles, 50° 12', and 58° 8'; and a side opposite the former, 62° 42'; to find the other par's.

Ans. The third angle is either 130°56 or 156°14′. Side betw. giv. angles, either 119°4′ or 152°14′ either 79°12′ or 100°48'.

Side opp. 58°8′,

Ex. 15. The excess of the three angles of a triangle, measured on the earth's surface, above two right angles, is 1 second; what is its area, taking the earth's diameter at 7957 miles?

Ans. 76.75299, or nearly 762 square miles.

Ex. 16. Determine the solid angles of a regular pyramid, with hexagonal base, the altitude of the pyramid being to each side of the base as 2 to 1.

Ans. Plane angle between each two lateral faces 126°52'11". between the base and each face 66°35′12′′. Solid angle at the vertex 14-497682 The max. angle Each ditto at the base 222-34298 being 1000.


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ART. 1. In the treatise on Land Surveying in the first volume of this Course of Mathematics, the directions were restricted to the necessary operations for surveying fields, farms, lordships, or at most counties; these being the only operations in which the generality of persons, who practise this kind of measurement, are likely to be engaged: but there are especial occasions when it is requisite to apply the principles of plane and spherical geometry, and the practices of surveying, to much more extensive portions of the earth's surface; and when of course much care and judgment are called into exercise, both with regard to the direction of the practical operations, and the management of the computations. The extensive processes which we are now about to consider, and which are characterised by the terms Geodesic Operations and Trigonometrical Surveying, are usually undertaken for the accomplishment of one of these three objects. 1. The finding the difference of longitude, between two moderately distant and noted meridians; as the meridians of the observatories at Greenwich and Oxford, or of those at Greenwich and Paris. 2. The accurate determination of the geographical positions of the principal places, whether on the coast or inland, in an island or kingdom; with a view to give greater accuracy to maps, and to accommodate the navigator with the actual position, as to latitude and longitude, of the principal promontories, havens, and ports. These have, till lately, been desiderata, even in this country: the position of some important points, as the Lizard, not being known within seven minutes of a degree; and, until the publication of the board of Ordnance maps, the best county maps being so erroneous, as in some cases to exhibit blunders of three miles in distances of less than twenty.

3. The

3. The measurement of a degree in various situations; and thence the determination of the figure and magnitude of the earth.

When objects so important as these are to be attained, it is manifest that, in order to ensure the desirable degree of correctness in the results, the instruments employed, the operations performed, and the computations required, must each have the greatest possible degree of accuracy.

Of these, the first depend on the artist; the second on the surveyor, or engineer, who conducts them; and the latter on the theorist and Calculator: they are these last which will chiefly engage our attention in the present chapter.

2. In the determination of distances of many miles, whether for the survey of a kingdom, or for the measurement of a degree, the whole line intervening between two extreme points is not absolutely measured; for this, on account of the inequalities of the earth's surface, would be always very difficult, and often impossible But, a line of a few miles in length is very carefully measured on some plain, heath, or marsh, which is so nearly level as to facilitate the measurement of an actually horizontal line; and this line being assumed as the base of the operations, a variety of hills and elevated spots are selected, at which signals can be placed, suitably distant and visible one from another: the straight lines joining these points constitute a double series of triangles, of which the assumed base forms the first side; the angles of these, that is, the angles made at each station or signal staff, by two other signal staffs, are carefully measured by a theodolite, which is carried successively from one station to another. In such a series of triangles. care being always taken that one side is common to two of them, all the angles are known from the observations at the several stations, and a side of one of them being given, namely, that of the base measured, the sides of all the rest, as well as the distance from the first angle of the first triangle, to any part of the last triangle, may be found by the rules of trigonometry, And so again, the bearing of any one of the sides, with respect to the meridian, being determined by observation, the bearings of any of the rest, with respect to the same meridian, will be known by computation. In these operations, it is always adviseable, when circumstances will admit of it, to measure another base (called a base of verification) at or near the ulterior extremity of the series: for the length of this base, computed as one of the sides of the chain of triangles, compared with its length determined by actual admeasurement, will be a test of the accuracy of all the operations made in the series between the two bases.

S. Now

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