The Fundamental Laws of Electrolytic Conduction: Memoirs by Faraday, Hittorf and F. Kohlrausch
Harper & brothers, 1899 - 95 pages
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Common terms and phrases
according acid action amount anion anode apparatus appear arrangement battery bodies cathode cation caused cell cent chemical chloride ClAg collected combining comparative components compound concentrated conductivity cone connected consider contained copper corresponds cylinder decomposed decomposition definite determined dilute direction easily effect elec electric current electrochemical equivalents electrolysis elements equal evolved experiments fact force former four further fused gave give given glass Hence Hittorf hydrogen inch increased influence intensity ions latter lead liquid loss means measure metal migrating minutes nature nearly negative obtained oxygen passed Physics plate platina Pogg pole portion positive electrode present produced proportion quantity quantity of electricity reduced referred relation remain Researches salts secondary separated silver similar solution Specific gravity substance sulphuric surface temperature tion transference tube variation voltaic volume weighed wire
Page 8 - The extension which the present investigations have enabled me to make of the facts and views constituting the theory of electro-chemical decomposition, will, with some other points of electrical doctrine, be almost immediately submitted to the Royal Society in another series of these Researches.
Page 44 - I have such conviction that the power which governs electro-decomposition and ordinary chemical attractions is the same; and such confidence in the overruling influence of those natural laws which render the former definite, as to feel no hesitation in believing that the latter must submit to them also. Such being the case, I can have, no doubt that, assuming hydrogen as 1, and dismissing small fractions for the simplicity of expression, the equivalent number or atomic weight of oxygen is 8, of chlorine...
Page 15 - ... placed in an inclined position, with their mouths near to each other, that as little decomposing matter should intervene as possible; and also, in such a direction that the platina plates should be in vertical planes.
Page 12 - ... it, the latter must be in a constant direction, which, according to present usage of speech, would be from east to west, or, which will strengthen this help to the memory, that in which the sun appears to move. If in any case of electro-decomposition we consider the decomposing body as placed so that the current passing through it shall be in the same direction, and parallel to that supposed to exist in the earth, then the surfaces at which the electricity is passing into and out of the substance...
Page 29 - The chlorine or iodine does not act upon it, but is evolved in the free state; and the plumbago has no reaction, under the circumstances, upon the fused chloride or iodide in which it is plunged. Even if a few particles of plumbago should separate by the heat or the mechanical action of the evolved gas, they can do no harm in the chloride.
Page 20 - ... water. 723. The next point in regard to which the principle of constant electro-chemical action was tested, was variation of intensity. In the first place, the preceding experiments were repeated, using batteries of an equal number of plates, strongly and weakly charged ; but the results were alike. They were then repeated, using batteries sometimes containing forty, and at other times only five pairs of plates ; but the results were still the same. Variations therefore in the intensity, caused...
Page 51 - I think, therefore, it would be more philosophical, and more directly expressive of the facts, to speak of such a body in relation to the current passing through it, rather than to the poles, as they are usually called, in contact with it; and say that whilst under decomposition, oxygen, chlorine, iodine, acids, etc., are rendered at its negative extremity, and combustibles, metals, alkalies, bases, etc., at its positive extremity.
Page 30 - ... or incidentally decomposed during the operation, I expected a result dependent on the oxide of lead. The borate is not so violent a flux as the oxide, but it requires a higher temperature to make it quite liquid ; and if not very hot, the bubbles of oxygen cling to the positive electrode, and retard the transfer of electricity. The number for lead came out...
Page 16 - ... fixed a wire and plate, a, proceeding so far downwards, that, when in the position figured, it shall be as near to the angle as possible, consistently with the collection, at the closed extremity of the tube, of all the gas evolved against it. The plane of this plate is also perpendicular (720.). The other metallic termination, b, is introduced at the time decomposition is to be effected, being brought as near the angle as possible, without causing any gas to pass from it towards the closed end...