A Treatise on Geometrical Optics
University Press, 1900 - 344 pages
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Common terms and phrases
aberration angle angle of incidence aperture apparent approximation axis bright caustic centre circle colours constant convergent coordinates curvature curve denote determine deviation direction directly dispersion distance divergence emergent ray equal equation expression eye-glass eye-piece face field final focal length focal plane focus follows formula front function geometrical give given Hence illumination incident incident ray increases least lens lenses less light measured medium meet mirror negative normal object object-glass obtain optical origin of light orthotomic surface pass pencil perpendicular placed plane positive primary principal foci principal plane prism produced Prove quantities radii radius ratio reduced path reflected reflected ray refracted refractive index respectively seen Shew side small pencil sphere spherical substitute surface taken telescope thickness thin unit zero
Page 15 - When a ray of light passes from one medium to another, it is refracted so that the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is equal to the ratio of the velocities in the two media.
Page 17 - ... may easily be negative (it cannot be less than — 2). The case of incidence at an angle greater than the critical angle cannot be treated by the usual method for a thin plate, using the set of waves formed by successive reflection at the front and back surfaces, as travelling waves are not propagated in the plate, and we cannot define the reflection coefficient of a surface in such a case*. We consider a medium for...
Page 2 - This law is: the incident and reflected rays make equal angles with the normal to the reflecting surface at the point of incidence, and are coplanar with the normal.
Page 160 - In a very dark chamber at a round hole about one third part of an inch broad made in the shut of a window I placed a glass prism, whereby the beam of the sun's light which came in at that hole might be refracted upwards towards the opposite wall of the chamber, and there form a coloured image of the sun.
Page 161 - ... that is by a quarter of an inch, subtended an angle at the prism of about half a degree, which is the sun's apparent diameter. But the length of the image was about ten inches and a quarter, and the length of the rectilinear sides about eight inches, and the refracting angle of the prism whereby so great a length was made was 64°. With a less angle the length of the image was less, the breadth remaining the same.
Page 25 - The deviation or change of direction of light passing through a prism is a minimum when the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of emergence.
Page 160 - ... observed the figure and dimensions of the solar image formed on the paper by that light. This image was oblong and not oval, but terminated with two rectilinear and parallel sides, and two semicircular ends. On its sides it was bounded pretty distinctly, but on its ends very confusedly and indistinctly, the light there decaying and vanishing by degrees. The breadth of this image answered to the sun's diameter, and was about two inches and the eighth part of an inch, including the penumbra.
Page 160 - In a very dark Chamber at a round hole about one third part of an Inch broad made in the Shut of a Window I placed a Glass Prism, whereby the beam of the Sun's Light which came in at that hole might be refracted upwards toward the opposite Wall of the Chamber, and there form a coloured Image of the Sun.
Page 161 - This Image or Spectrum PT was coloured, being red at its least refracted end T, and violet at its most refracted end P, and yellow green and blue in the intermediate Spaces. Which agrees with the first Proposition, that Lights which differ in Colour, do also differ in Refrangibility.
Page 160 - I let the refracted light fall perpendicularly upon a sheet of white paper at the opposite wall of the chamber, and observed the figure and dimensions of the solar image formed on the paper by that light. This image was oblong and not oval, but terminated with two rectilinear and parallel sides, and two semicircular ends.