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and would have a tendency to enlarge our very little knowledge of these truly extraordinary apparations, for whether we are to call them heavenly bodies or not, seems now a matter of some doubt.

XIV. On the quantity of Carbon in Carbonic Acid, and on the nature of the Diamond. By William Allen, Esq. F.L.S. and William Hasledine Pepys, Esq. Read June 18, 1807.

The estimates of the quantity of real carbon in carbonic acid, by Lavoisier, Guyton de Morveau, and Smithson Tenant, differing very widely; and the experiment of Guyton de Morveau, on the combustibility of the diamond, being liable to some objections from the manner in which the operations were conducted, Mr. Allen and Mr. Pepys, whose accuracy and skill in chemical inquiries are well known, determined to institute a set of experiments in order to settle the question. The apparatus they made use of was truly ingenious, the experiments judiciously conducted and sufficiently varied, and the proper corrections duly applied their labours on these interesting topics have, in our estimation, solidly established the following points:

1st. That the estimate given by Lavoisier, of 28 parts of carbon in every 100 parts of carbonic acid, is very nearly correct; the mean of our experiments makes it 28,60.

2dly. That the diamond is pure carbon; for had it contained any notable proportion of hydrogene, it must have been discovered either by detonating with the oxygene, as in the case of animal charcoal, or by diminishing the quantity of oxygene gas.

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3dly. That well burnt charcoal contains no sensible quantity of hydrogene; but if exposed to the air for a few hours it absorbs moisture, which renders the results uncertain.

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4thly. That charcoal can no longer be considered as an oxide of carbon; because, when properly prepared, it requires quite as much oxygene for its combustion as the diamond. This is also the case with stone coal and plumbago.

5thly. It appears that diamond and all carbonaceous substances (as far as our present methods of analysis are capable of demonstrating their nature) differ principally from each other in the state of aggregation of their particles. Berthollet has well remarked, that in proportion as this is stronger, decomposition is more difficult; and hence the variety of temperatures required for the combustion of different inflammable substances." P1 292.

XV. An Account of the Relistian Tin Mine. By Mr. Joseph Carne. Read May 7, 1807.

The object of this communication is not so much to give an account of the Tin Mine, as to relate the novel circumstance of the occurrence of pebbles of chlorite schist, cemented by crystallized tin.'

XVI. An Analysis of the Waters of the Dead Sea and the River Jordan. By Alexander Marcet, M. D., one of the Physicians to Guy's Hospital. Read June 18, 1807.

The Dead Sea is a perpetual token of the effects of di vine displeasure at aggravated sin; so that every thing relating to it will be read with peculiar interest. Independently of the frequent references to it in the Scriptures, as in Genesis xix. Deut. xxix. 22. Zephaniah ii. 9. &c. we find it described by Strabo, Tacitus, and Pliny, among the ancients, and by Maundrel, Pococke, Volney, and others, among the moderns: all of whom confirm the statement of the intense saltness of the waters of this lake. But, though the chief peculiarity of these waters has been long known, we are not aware of any chemical analysis, beside that by M. M. Macquer, Lavoisier, and Sage; an analysis, however, which does not appear to have been conducted with the utmost possible accuracy.

The specimens, analysed by Dr. Marcet, were brought to Sir Joseph Banks by Mr. Gordon of Clunie, who has recently travelled in Palestine: he there filled an ounceand-half phial with water of the Dead Sea, and a rather larger phial with water from the river Jordan, which runs into the Dead Sea. Dr. Marcet first states the following general properties of the water of this lake.

One of the most obvious peculiarities of the Dead Sea water, is its specific gravity, which I found to be 1,211, a degree of density scarcely to be met with, I believe, in any other natural water, The circumstance of this lake allowing bodies of considerable weight to float upon its surface, was noticed by some of the most ancient writers. Strabo, amongst others, states that men could not dive in this water, and in going into it, would not sink lower than the navel; and Pococke, who bathed in it, relates that he could lie on its surface, motionless, and in any attitude, without danger of sinking*. These peculiarities, which I, at first, suspected of being exaggerated, are fully confirmed by Mr. Gordon, who also bathed in the lake, and experienced all the effects just related,

2. The water of the Dead Sea is perfectly transparent*, and does not deposite any crystals on standing in close vessels.

3. Its taste is peculiarly bitter, saline, and pungent*.

4. Solutions of silver produce from it a very copious precipitate, show

ing the presence of marine acid.

5. Oxalic acid instantly discovers lime in the water.

* Mr. Maundrel, being willing to make a trial of its strength, went into the water, and "found it bore up his body in swimming with an uncommon force." He also tells us that the water of this lake or sea is very limpid, and salt to the highest degree; and not only salt, but extremely bitter and nauseous.” Rev.

6. The lime being separated, both caustic and carbonated alkalies readily throw down a magnesian precipitate.

7. Solutions of barytes produce a cloud, showing the existence of sulphuric acid.

8. No alumine can be discovered in the water by the delicate test of succinic acid combined with ammonia.

9. A small quantity of pulverised sea salt being added to a few drops of the water, cold and undiluted, the salt was readily dissolved with the assistance of gentle trituration, showing that the Dead Sea is not saturated with common salt.

10, None of the coloured infusions commonly used to ascertain the prevalence of an acid or an alkali, such as litmus, violet, and turmeric, were in the least altered by the water.' pp. 298, 299.

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Dr. Marcet analysed the water by two different processes; the results of both coincided very nearly, but the author seems to think the last, which we here subjoin, the most


• On summing up the contents of these 150 grains of the water, they appeared to be as follow:



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And consequently the proportions of these salts in 100 grains of the water

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24,580. pp. 310, 311.

Hence it appears that the Dead Sea water now contains about one fourth of its weight of salts supposed in a state of perfect desiccation; or, if they be desiccated at the temperature of 180° on Fahrenheit's scale, they will amount to forty-one per cent. of the water! If any person wish for a stronger confirmation of the Scripture account of the Origin of the Dead Sea than this furnishes, we can only pity the miserable state of incredulity to which he is reduced, and commit him to the influences of that Power which can cause the wilderness to blossom as the rose,' and from stones raise up children unto Abraham.'

The water of the river Jordan was also perfectly pellucid it was very soft, and had no saline taste. Five hundred grains,"


evaporated at 200° left 0,8 grains of dry residue, which is only part of the proportion of solid matter in the water of the Dead Sea. Properly treated, this water indicated the presence of carbonate of lime. Two other precipitates, one of them magnesian, were also produced, the former weighing 0,12 of a grain, the latter 0,18 of a grain. The inferences Dr. Marcet drew from the whole were, that the river Jordan might possibly be the source of the saline ingredients of the Dead Sea, or, at least, that the same source of impregnation might be common to both'!!! The glaring absurdity of the former inference, its slight connection with the latter, and our investigator's obvious unwillingness to glance at the real cause, cannot pass unnoticed by the most careless reader. We would earnestly recommend this expert chemist to analyse the state of his own mind in relation to some very momentous topics: and would beg to remind him that, if the philosophy which stops at second causes, deserves censure, of how much severer' reproof must that philosopher be thought worthy', who not merely stops at second causes, but busily hunts after them in a case where the immediate agency and impression of the Great First Cause' are stamped most visibly, palpably, and eternally. And, apart from religious considerations, we would wish Dr. Marcet to explain, upon his hypothesis of the river Jordan being the source of the saline ingredients of the Dead Sea, how there should be a marked difference between them? namely, that while carbonate of lime was detected in the water of the river, there should be no trace of it in the water of the sea?

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Art. IV. A Sermon on the Translation of the Scriptures into the Oriental Languages; preached before the University of Cambridge, May 10, 1807. By the Rev. Francis Wrangham, M. A. F. R. S. of Trinity College, Cambridge. 4to. pp. 51. Price 3s. 6d. London, Mawman; Cambridge, Deighton; Oxford, Parker. 1807.

Art. V. A Sermon preached before the University of Cambridge, on the 28th June, 1807, agreeably to the Institution of the Rev. Claudius Buchanan by the Rev. John Dudley, M. A. of Clare Hall. 4to. pp. 39. Price 2s. 6d. London, Cadell and Davies; Oxford, Parker; Cambridge, Deighton and Nicholson. 1807.

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Art. VI. The Expediency of translating Our Scriptures into several of the Oriental Languages, and the Means of rendering those Translations useful, in an Attempt to convert the Nations of India to the Christian Faith; a Sermon preached, by Special Appointment, before the University of Oxford, Nov. 8, 1807, by the Rev. William Barrow, of Queen's College, L. L. D. and F. S. A. Author of an Essay on Education, and the Bampton Lecture Sermons for 1799, 4to. pp. 29. Price 2s. 6d. Cooke, Rivington, 1808.

Art. VII. A Sermon on the Duty and Expediency of translating the Scrip tures into the current Languages of the East, for the Use and Benefit of the Natives: preached by special Appointment, before the University of Oxford, Nov. 29, 1807, by the Rev. Edward Nares, M. A. late Fellow of Merton College, and Rector of Biddenden, Kent. 4to. pp. 70. Price 3s. 6d. Cooke, Oxford; Rivingtons, Black and Co. 1808.

IT may be presumed the principal object of the proposal

to the English Universities, for the appointment of four of their members to preach on the subject named in these titles, was rather to excite the national attention and interest, than either to bring under discussion the general question of the propriety of thus translating the bible, or to obtain specific instructions relative to the mode of executing such a work. That propriety indeed could not be held to need any argument, or admit any debate, among persons believing the volume to be, and to be exclusively, a divine revelation; and the questions relative to the particular methods and rules of translating, and to the number, and the order of precedence, of the eastern dialects which should be made vehicles for the sacred oracles, would be more within the competence of the Christian scholars in the East, than of the most learned judges to whom they could be submitted here.

Indeed the work had already made such a progress in the able hands of Mr. Carey and his associates, long before any kind of co-operation was thought of by any of the persons assembled since in the Bengal College, or the smallest notice was taken by the learned in this country, as to prove that no ostentatious scheme, no formal movement in the learned world, was necessary, in order to effect a very rapid, and at the same time careful, transfusion of the Holy Scriptures into the Asiatic languages. Aided by annual supplies of money, in sums surprisingly small, considering the vast extent of the work, that Briareus of translators, with his assistant missionaries, and some learned natives of the east whom he has been vigilant and successful in seeking for the service, would in a few years have equipped the bible for invading every idolatrous region of Asia, though unassisted by the slightest favour or co-operation of any learned institution whatever.

We feel it the more necessary to do this justice to Mr. Carey and his missionary coadjutors, because we have observed not a few instances of a disposition to withhold it. We have perceived in some quarters the indications of a wish, to pass as slightly as possible over the unparalleled achievements of these men; while representations would be still

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