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"Yet imag'd in my race I re-appear,
"Each a fresh leaf, to spread and flourish here:
"Hopes and chill fears their rays and shadows fling;
The graceful leaf that flows along the plane ;
A breath enlivens, and a breath destroys !" pp. 62.-64.
We scarcely expect that our brief notice of this little poem will procure for it so much of the public favour as several excellent passages in it deserve; but we hope it may incite the author to undertake and carefully complete some other performance, more worthy of his abilities, and better intitled to lasting fame.
Art. XIII. Elements of the Latin Tongue; with all the Rules in English. By the Rev. Robert Armstrong. 2d. ed. 12mo. pp. 116. 2s. 6d. Mawman.
F it were possible, in this land of freedom, to effect an uniformity of school books, and especially of those used in learning Latin and Greek, the advantages, both to masters and scholars, would be great. Almost three hundred years ago, such an uniformity was commanded, by royal proclamation. In the course of the last century, however, innovations have been introduced to a wide extent: but we fear that none of the New and Easy Methods have succeeded half so well, in laying the foundation of sound classical learning, as the old and established one.
It is to the praise of the volume before us, that it deviates as little as possible from the old method. It is, in fact, a republication of the Eton Accidence, almost verbatim with the addition of a synoptic table of the Declensions, and a fuller account of the Impersonal and Defective Verbs. Mr. Armstrong is blamable for having added nothing to the very meagre account, which he has copied, of the Adverbs and Conjunctions. An arranged list of each, he might easily have borrowed from Vossius or the Institutiones of Ruddiman; and such lists would be exceedingly serviceable to learners. The Syntax and Prosody are, as the title promises, in English; and both are comprehensive, perspicuous, and well arranged. The latter appears to great advantage, on comparison with the very poor and defective Prosodia of the Eton, or its prototype Lilly's, Grammar. When the compiler was in so good a course of real improvement, we wonder that he should neglect to give a section on the quan tity of the penult, of Patronymics, of Diminutives in olas and ulus, of
Adjectives in alis, ilis, inus, &c. Several numerous classes of syllables might be comprehended under a few short rules, which, in the common schools, boys account for by the allegation of authority,' a solution too often the resource of ignorance. We have noticed a few oversights; such as, that j is called a double consonant, and is said, without any explanation or limitation, to lengthen a preceding vowel. We also disapprove of the absence of the Latin versified rules. They might be printed in a few pages at the end, and their use, of course,left to the option of
Art. XIV. Observations on the Influence of Soil and Climate upon Wool; from which is deduced, a certain and easy Method of improving the Quality of English Clothing Wools, and preserving the Health of Sheep; with Hints for the Management of Sheep after Shearing; an Inquiry into the Structure, Growth, and Formation of Wool and Hair and Remarks on the Means by which the Spanish Breed of Sheep may be made to preserve the best Qualities of its Fleece unchanged by different Climates. By Robert Bakewell. With occasional Notes and Remarks, by the Right Hon. Lord Somerville. 8vo. pp. 157. Price 5s. 6d. bds. Harding, 1808.
THE method which Mr. Bakewell proposes, for improving the quality of English clothing wool, is the application of an unguent to the skin of the sheep. His facts, relating to this practice, appear to be fairly stated, and his deductions rational and plausible. In the northern countries, and in Scotland, a custom has immemorially prevailed of using what they call sheep salve, being a mixture of butter and tar, in the proportion of one gallon of tar to twenty pounds of butter, as a preservative against the inclemency of winter in those bleak and exposed situations. The whole of the Carolina, and Virginia thin tar, (which is far more liquid than the tar from the more northerly of the United States,) imported at Liverpool and Glasgow, is sold for this use. Whether during the present suspension of our intercourse with America any substitute for this ingredient has been adopted, we know not. The practice, however, having Ibeen found, in the Northumberland and Cumberland wools that have fallen under Mr. Bakewell's inspection, to soften the staple and render it silky, Le recommends it to general adoption.
"It were to be desired,' he says, that a cheap substitute for tar could be found, because if used in a considerable quantity it communicates a dark tinge to the fleece, which renders it unsuitable for the brightest dyes, and for those goods which are finished white, as blankets and stoved cloths; on which account, I would recommend a quantity of bees-wax to be melted with butter, hogs-lard, or olive-oil, and if any tar be used, that it should not be in a greater proportion than one quart, to ten pounds of the mixture.'
Bees-wax, butter, hogs-lard, and olive-oil are unfortunately all expensive articles, if to be purchased, particularly the last; and on this subject, we will take the opportunity to express our regret that the production of vegetable oils continues to be so much neglected in this country. Though the olive is not suited to our climate, let us profit by the example of our continental neighbours. In Germany and in France, an excellent, wholesome, and palatable oil is drawn from the seeds of the common garden
poppy, which is cultivated in large quantities for that purpose. In Holland and in several parts of Germany, the extensive fields of rape and coleseed surpass the luxuriance of wheat, in their rich yellow tint, and equal it in the profit derived from the oils which they produce; they are likewise an excellent alternative and preparative for white crops. These oils would unite, equally well as butter or lard, with tar or bees-wax. Lord Somerville suggests the use of yellow ochre. It is a greasy clay, its colour is that of the wool itself; it has for a long time been used in Spain in its natural state, with a view perhaps to produce this effect, the rendering the wool silky.
The influence of soil upon wool, Mr. Bakewell considers as not being exerted internally, by means of the food, but externally, by means of the action of the soil upon the fleece, either by insinuating its particles into the fibres, or chemically uniting with its surface. To this theory we confess ourselves, with Lord Somerville, not disposed implicitly to subscribe; and it would require a more extended observation and record of facts, than are detailed by Mr. Bakewell, to establish it, although he labours with considerable ingenuity for that purpose. Though Mr. B. however falls rather short in this, and in some other theoretic parts of his publication, he has deserved well of the community for the practical inferences, and experience of facts, which he has detailed on this important subject. He is a great advocate for sheltering sheep in winter and at night; a practice that cannot be too much urged. Upon the whole, we heartily recommend this little book to the growers of wool and farmers throughout the kingdom. Its appendices and postscripts give it rather a desultory appearance; some of the sentences are tortuous and obscure, and Mr. B. falls into the vulgar impropriety of confounding the verbs lay and lie. But in works of this kind such faults are very pardonable.
Art. XV. The Mysterious Language of St. Paul, in his Description of the Man of Sin, proved from the Gospel History to relate not to the Church of Rome, but to the Times in which it was written; with some Remarks on Sir H. M. Wellwood's Sermons on Matt. xxiv. 14. By N. Nisbett, M.A. Rector of Tunstall. pp. 88. Price 2s. 6d. Rivingtons. 1808.
MR. N. is one of the dabblers in prophecy, and conceives that from time to time he is making new discoveries in that department of theological science. His design, in this prolix and bulky pamphlet, is, to acquaint the world, that the Apostle Paul, in his prediction of the Man of Sin, 2 Thess. ii. had the same object in view as our Lord and Saviour Khad in the twenty-fourth chapter of the Gospel by St. Matthew; namely, the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans.
It has generally been supposed, that it was the design of St. Paul to foretel the corruptions of the Church of Rome, and the destructive system of superstition, idolatry, and will-worship, which for ages buried the truth under heaps of abominations, and spread error, wickedness, and misery, over the greatest part of Christendom. This interpretation, which has been pretty general among Protestant divines, Mr. N. rejects; conceiving that he has satisfactorily proved that the prophecy of the man of sin has no reference to the church of Rome, but is designed to predict the entire overthrow of the Jewish polity. His chief argument rests on
the similarity of the language used by our Lord and his apostle; and he imagines it to be conclusive. But what is more natural, than that, as there may be a resemblance between two of Christ's enemies, in their spirit, their character, and in the events of their final ruin, so there should be a resemblance in the language made use of to describe them? His other reasons have little weight.
In a note at the close, he argues strenuously against Sir Henry Moncrieff Wellwood's exposition of some verses in Matt. xxiv; and insists that the application of any part of that prediction to the day of judgement, is an hypothesis most injurious to the cause of Christianity;-and if infidelity increases, it can be no matter of surprise, when such methods of interpreting Scripture are resorted to." We intreat Mr. N. to lay aside his gloomy despondency, and take courage. The progress or decay of Chris tianity does not depend on the interpretation of a single prediction; and we beg leave to console him with the assurance that the religion of Jesus is losing no ground. Wherever that religion is purely and faithfully preached, and this is the case in a greater number of places than it ever was before, it is constantly crowned with success, and is every year extending its conquests.
Art. XVI. National Life Annuities: comprizing all the Tables, and every necessary Information, contained in the Act of Parliament for granting the same, both on Single and Joint Lives, with Benefit of Survivorship; also, Additional Tables, annexed to the former throughout; calculated to shew what Annuity can be purchased for One Hundred Pounds Sterling, at the same Rates upon the same Lives. By E.F. T. Fortune, Stockbroker. 8vo. pp. 96. Price 3s. 6d. Boosey. 1809. THE copious title, given to this pamphlet, leaves us but little to say rela
tive to its contents. The tables, which are in number nine, and shew the yearly amount of life annuities granted on one or two lives and the survorship, at different prices of the three per cent. consols, are preceded by an abstract of the Act of Parliament for granting Life Annuities, passed last year. The correctness of the tables included in the Act of Parliament is a point not referable to our tribunal: but assuming their truth as the basis of the computations by which Mr. Fortune formed his additional tables shewing what annuity may be purchased at different ages for 100 pounds sterling, we think it right to say, that, from the examination of several particulars taken promiscuously, we believe them to be very accurate. The pamphlet is neatly printed, and seems extremely free from press errors.
Art. XVII. Narrative of the Siege of Zaragoza. By Charles Richard Vaughan, B. M. Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford, and one of Dr. Radcliffe's Travelling Fellows from that University. Third Edition with Corrections and Additions. 8vo. pp. 33. Price 1s. Ridgway.
HOW different would have been the complexion and destiny of the Spanish affairs, had it been possible for the mass of that unfortunate people to have been animated by the same spirit, and guided by the same skill, as are described in this valuable pamphlet! There can be no doubt, we presume, either of its genuineness or its authenticity.
The account it gives of the memorable defence of Saragossa is exceedingly striking; the inhabitants of that city appear to have displayed an enthusiastic bravery, and a dauntless, indefatigable fortitude, surpassed by nothing in all history. The streets, blocked up with batteries, and, heaped with dead, on both sides, were the scene of perhaps the most sanguinary and obstinate conflict that was ever carried on within the walls of any city on earth. The distinctions of age, sex, and rank, the concern for property, the love of life, every thing was lost sight of, in this astonishing blaze of heroism.
Augustina Zaragoza, about 22 years of age, a handsome woman, of the lower class of the people, whilst performing her duty of carrying refreshments to the gates, arrived at the battery of the Portillo, at the very moment when the French fire had absolutely destroyed every person that was stationed in it. The citizens, and soldiers, for the moment he sitated to re-man the guns; Augustina rushed forward over the wounded, and slain, snatched a match from the hand of a dead artilleryman, and fired off a 26 pounder; then jumping upon the gun, made a solemn vow never to quit it alive during the siege, and having stimulated her fellow-citizens by this daring intrepidity to fresh exertions, they instantly rushed into the battery, and again opened a tremendous fire upon the enemy. When the writer of these pages saw this heroine at Zaragoza, she had a small shield of honour embroidered upon the sleeve of her gown, with "Zaragoza," inscribed upon it, and was receiving a pension from government and the daily pay of an artilleryman.' P. 16.
At one time, when the French were in possession of half the town, the following laconic note was sent by the commanding officer, requiring the inhabitants to surrender; Quartel General-Santa Engracia-La Capitulacion." It was answered in the same style, with a declaration of war even to the knife," a weapon much in use among the Arragonese;" Quartel General-Zaragoza-Guerra al Cuchillo-Palafox.” series of most dreadful assaults and struggles, carried on, with some intermissions, for two months, the French retired, on receiving intelligence of a considerable body of troops being on the way to reinforce the inhabitants. The writer concludes with assuring us, that though he saw in Zaragoza many a parent who had lost his children, and many a man reduced from competence to poverty, he literally did not meet with one human being who uttered the slightest complaint; every feeling seemed to be swallowed up in the memory of what they had recently done, and in a just hatred of the French.'
It is a melancholy reflection, that the brave citizens and their gallant chief are probably at this very moment undergoing another siege, and enduring new sufferings, with no hope but that of acquiring fresh glory.
Art. XVIII. Lectures of a Preceptor to his Pupils, in a Series of Tales delivered for the Instruction and Admonition of Youth of both Sexes. Rendered from the German of the celebrated Adlerjung, by William Wennington. 12mo. pp. 168. Price 3s. 6d. Longman and Co. 1809. IT is not difficult to account for the fact, familiar perhaps to most of our readers, that ideas appear much more attractive in a foreign, than in a vernacular tongue. The pains which a language has cost us to acquire,