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course which unbiassed translators would have held. Except in those instances, and a small number more of minor consequence, we find no reason to withhold the praise due to integrity and fidelity in the general execution of the work.

VI. On the Introduction and Notes. The former principally consists of a concise, but perspicuous sketch of the literary history of the text of the N. T., with some account of the design and plan of execution of the present work. Subjoined are tables of the date and place of the books of the N. T. from Lardner, Owen, and Townson: and a short list of editions of the Greek Testament, Concordances, and Lexicons. In the latter, it is extraordinary that Schleusner is not inserted. The value of this introduction is abated in one place only, that we have observed, by a tinge of Socinian prejudice. After the free remarks, which we have made upon the Version, it is but justice to cite the concluding paragraph.

The editors of the present work offer it to the public as exhibiting to the English reader a text not indeed absolutely perfect, but approaching as nearly to the apostolical and evangelical originals as the present state of sacred criticism will admit: neither do they hold it up as a faultless translation, but merely as an Improved Version, still no doubt susceptible of far greater improvement, which they will rejoice to see undertaken and accomplished by abler hands. In the mean time, having to the best of their ability completed their professed design, they commend this volume, which is the result of their labours, to the candour of their readers, and to the blessing of Almighty God.'

Of the notes, a great number merely state the variations of the Received Text and Newcome's versions; others are philological and critical, and a large proportion are expository of the theological opinions of the editors. The manifest intention of the latter is to accommodate the dictates of the N. T. scriptures to the prescriptions of modern Unitarianism; a lubricous and desperate labour, but in which the workmen have evinced anxious solicitude, large credulity, and most dogmatical self-complacency.

Though it will be inferred, therefore, from our remarks, that this work is capable of being rendered useful; and that to those whom professional duty, or conscientious inclination, leads to the exact study and interpretation of the scriptures, it may imperfectly, but beneficially, supply the want of Griesbach: we are compelled to add, that the dangerous bias which it is so carefully adapted to produce on the minds of rash, ill-informed, or sceptical readers, forms a very cogent argument, in addition to our remarks in the first part of this critique, for the publication, by authority, of a judiciously and impartially amended Version of the Sacred Scriptures.

We had nearly forgotten the notice we promised to take of the "New Covenant, upon Mr. Evanson's plan:" and indeed the omission would have been of small consequence. We shall have said all that the case requires, in remarking

that the volume is a reprint of the Gospel and Acts of Luke, and, the other parts of the New Testament, which that gentleman thought fit to receive into his canon, from Newcome's version, occasionally altered in a most clumsy manner, and with a selection of the archbishop's short annotations. The violent and arbitrary temerity which Mr. E. exercised, in his mode of treating on the credibility and authenticity of the Christian scriptures, were equally disgraceful to his critical talents and to his profession of piety.


It is because we supremely value divine truth, and because we are convinced that it will richly repay every well-conducted effort to ascertain and confirm it, that we have been thus earnest in recommending the critical study of the New Testament canon. May it be our felicity, and our readers', to entertain the Justest sentiments of its contents, and most completely to demonstrate its pure spirit and beneficial tendency! "He who believeth on the Son, hath everlasting life: and he who disbelieveth the Son, will not see life; but the anger of God abideth on him. "No man can say that Jesus is the Lord, but by the Holy Spirit."

Art. VII. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, for the Year 1808. Part. I. 4to. pp. 170. Price 15s: Nicol. 1808. IN a former number (Vol. v. p. 15) we noticed the brilliant discoveries which Mr.. Davy has made concerning the mutual actions of galvanic electricity and chemical bodies. The important memoir, which stands first in the volume before us, gives an account of his subsequent experiments; and in conducting our examination of it, we shall be more anxious to exhibit a concise abstract of the discoveries which it relates, than to analyse or discuss all the general and particular speculations in which the author has fairly indulged. I. The Bakerian Lecture, on some new Phenomena of chemical Changes produced by Electricity, particularly the Decomposition of the fixed Alkalies, and the Exhibition of the new Substances which constitute the Bases; and on the general Nature of alkaline Bodies. By Humphry Davy, Esq. Sec. R. S. M. R. I. A. Read Nov. 19, 1807.


The memoir is divided into eight sections, the first of which is introductory. The second exhibits an account of the methods employed for the decomposition of the Fixed Alkalies. To ascertain the effects of the galvanic action on these bodies, saturated aqueous solutions of potash and of soda were exposed to the energy of a Voltaic battery, consisting of 24 plates of copper and zinc twelve inches square, 100 plates of six, and 150 of four. The battery was charged with a solution of alum and nitrous acid, and the experiment was conducted at common temperatures. No new re

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sults were obtained; and although there was a considerable electrical action, and disengagement of oxygen and hydrogen gas, the water of the solution alone underwent decomposition. In the next experiment, the battery was made to act on the alkali freed from water by heat. A quantity of potash, kept in a state of igneous fusion in a platina spoon, was exposed to the influence of a battery of 100 six inch plates highly charged. The spoon being connected with the positive side of the apparatus, the alkali became a conductor; a most brilliant light appeared, accompanied at the point of contact by a column of flame. When the order of the arrangement was inverted, and consequently the spoon rendered negative, a vivid light, unaccompanied by a column of flame, appeared at the opposite wire, and a gaseous fluid, which took fire as it came in contact with the air, rose through the fused alkali.

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A small piece of potash, slightly moistened, was placed on a disc of platina, connected with the negative side of an apparatus composed of 250 six and four inch plates, and a platina wire joined to the positive side was brought in contact with the upper surface of the alkali. The potash, being thus acted on, became melted at both its points of contact; a violent effervescence ensued, which was confined to the upper surface of the potash, and from the lower or negative side, small globules resembling quicksilver issued, without any developement of gas. Some of these globules burnt with a bright flame at the instant of their formation; others did not take fire, but merely lost their metallic splendour, and became gradually enveloped in a film of white matter, These globules were the substance our author was in search of. Numerous experiments, unnecessary to be stated here, proved that the production of it was uninfluenced by the platina which formed part of the apparatus, because the metallic globules were uniformly developed from the alkali, when, instead of platina, pieces of copper, silver, gold, plumbago, or charcoal, were made to complete the galvanic circle. Nor had the air any influence on the operation; for the metallic substance was successfully produced, even when the air was excluded, or when the potash was acted on over -mercury in glass tubes.

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When soda was electrified under like circumstances, similar phænomena occurred. To insure complete success with this alkali, some particular conditions are essential. Mr. Davy found that to decompose a quantity of soda successfully, the battery must not only be larger, but the alkali itself must be exposed to the galvanic energy, not in a lump, but in the form of a thin plate; a battery of 100 six inch plates, in a high state of activity, was sufficient to decom

pose a quantity of potash weighing from 40 to 70 grains, and measuring nearly of an inch in thickness; but when the same power was made to act on a like quantity of soda, the decomposition of the alkali was not effected. The analysis of this alkali could only be accomplished by exposing, to an electric power of 100 six inch plates, pieces of soda' weighing no more than 15 or 20 grains, and previously so shaped as to diminish the distance between the conducting wires to about or of an inch.

When a highly charged battery, containing 250 plates, was employed, the metallic globules instantly took fire; they sometimes exploded violently and became dispersed into smaller spheres, which flew through the air in a state of vivid combastion, exhibiting brilliant jets of fire.

In section III, Mr. Davy considers the theory of the decomposition of the fixed alkalies, their composition, and pro-duction. Reasoning from what is known concerning the analysis of compound bodies, as connected with the division effected in these experiments, our author justly concludes that the decomposition of the alkalies by galvanic electricity is analogous to the analysis of other compound substances: for combustible bases are disengaged at the negative surface of the apparatus, and oxygen is produced and transfused into combination to the positive surface: it is therefore natural to conclude, that the metallic substance was generated in like manner, namely by the electrical action upon the alkalies; an opinion to which the subsequent synthetic experiments prove conformable.

The metallic bases of potash, when exposed to the contact of air, became covered with a white crust, which possessed all the characters of the alkali; and the remaining substance, when in contact with water, absorbed the oxygen and separated the hydrogen, and the whole became converted into potash. The reproduction of potash or soda also takes place, when their bases are introduced into dry oxygen gas. But for want of moisture the process is slow and imperfect. The white crust, which is formed on the globule, protects the metallic base from being further acted on by the gas, and soon puts an end to the alkalising process. The same effects took place with the metallic base obtained from soda.

When these metallie substances were strongly heated in 1 oxygen gas, a brilliant combustion ensued; the gas disap peared, and the product was potash or soda in a dry state, or containing at least no more moisture than might well be conceived to exist in the gas employed for its reproduction. These bases, like other combustible bodies, are repelled by" positively electrified, and attracted by negatively electri-" fied surfaces, and the oxygen obeys the contrary course; or VOL. V.


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the oxygen being naturally negative, and the bases positive, their union is demolished when the electrical arrangement is contrary to that of its natural state. In the reproduction of the alkalies, on the contrary, the natural states of existence are again required to take place at a low temperature the union is feeble, and unattended by any striking phenomena; but when the temperature is raised, a tumultuous union is effected, accompanied with the production of fire. Section IV describes the Properties and Nature of the. Basis of Potash. The characters which are peculiar to the base of this alkali are the following. It resembles mercury in its external appearance; it has a powerful affinity for oxygen; it can only exist without becoming altered under naphtha. It is imperfectly fluid at 60° Fahrenheit; at 70° its fluidity is increased, and at 100" it is perfect. At 50o it becomes a soft and malleable solid, without losing its lustre, which greatly resembles that of polished silver. At the freezing point of water it becomes hard and brittle, and presents, when broken, a crystalline structure, composed of splendid facets. At the temperature approaching to ignition, it is volatile, and may be again condensed like mercury or other fluids, in the process of distillation. It is a perfect conductor of electricity, and when a spark, from a battery composed of 100 six inch plates, is taken on a large globule, it burns with a green light at the point of contact; if a small globule is electri fied by a like power, it rapidly explodes and is dissipated. It does not sink in double distilled naphtha, of a specific: gravity equal to ,770. Its specific gravity, when compared to that of quicksilver, is as 10 to 223 at 60, which gives a proportion to that of water nearly as 6 to 10; hence it is the lightest fluid body known. When solid its specific weight is somewhat increased. When heated slowly, in a quantity of oxygen gas not sufficient for its complete alkalization, and at a temperature below that required for its combustion, it becomes red-brown, and when suffered to cool, and all the oxygen is absorbed, it exhibits a grey tint. The product consists partly of potash, and partly of the basis of potash, with a deficient portion of oxygen. This substance may likewise be formed by fusing together, in due proportions, potash and its base; and it is frequently formed in decomposing potash, particularly when the galvanic electricity is intense, and the temperature of the potash, very high. The basis of potash takes fire, with a bright red light, when projected into oxymuriatic acid gas, and the result is muriate of potash. It appears to be soluble in hydrogen, particularly when assisted by heat; and the gas, explodes spontaneously when made, to pass into the air. On suffering the gas to cool, it loses its inflammability, and the basis of potash is again precipitated.


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