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to consider potash as a compound, made up of six parts by weight of a metallic base and one of oxygen, and soda as a compound, consisting of seven parts of a metallic base and two of oxygen.

Section VII, treating on what Mr. Davy calls the relations of the bases of potash and soda to other bodies,' consists chiefly of some general theoretical speculation, and of dis quisition whether these bases ought to be called metals or not. Notwithstanding their low specific gravity, yet as they agree with metals in opacity, metallic lustre, malleability, conducting powers of heat and electricity, and in their qualities of chemical combination, the propriety of considering them as metallic bodies is not, we think, to be disputed; indeed the greater number of philosophers, to whom the question was put, have answered in the affirmative. Accordingly, Mr. Davy has named them potasium and sodium, terms which simply express that they are produced from potash or soda, so that no change in the theory of chemical science can render them improper.

The time for establishing a just theory, as Mr. Davy observes, may yet be far distant; but there is at present no reason to suspect that the alkaline bases will be distributed into different classes from the metals, or that any of them will prove to be compound bodies. He justly remarks that no stress is to be laid on experiments, in which earths and metallic oxydes or alkalies have been supposed to be evolved from air and water only; for even distilled water appears, by Mr. Davy's experiments, to contain both saline and metallic impregnations.

In the last section, Mr. Davy states a detail of experiments instituted with a view to learn, whether oxygen enters into the composition of ammonia. As the two fixed alkalies contain a portion of oxygen united to a peculiar base, it was rational to conjecture that such a substance might also be found in the composition of the volatile alkali. Of the existence of the principle Mr. Davy soon convinced himself. For when charcoal, carefully burnt, and freed from moisture, was ignited by the voltaic battery in a small quantity of ammoniacal gas, a great expansion of the gas took place, and a white substance was formed which effervesced with muriatic acid, and which Mr. Davy believes was muriate of ammonia. In another experiment, very pure ammoniacal gas being passed over ignited iron wire in a platina tube, a quantity of moisture was obtained in the apparatus, the residual gas was densely cloud. ed, and he iron wire partly oxidised.

'Oxygene then may be considered as existing in, and as forming an element, in all the true alkalies; and the principle of acidity of the French nomenclature, might now likewise be called the principle of alkales


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From analogy alone it is reasonable to expect that the alkaline earths are compounds of a similar nature to the fixed alkalies, peculiar highly combustible metallic bases united to o oxygene When barytes and strontites, moistened with water, were acted upon by the power of the battery of 250 of 4 and 6, there was a vivid action and a brilliant light at both points of communication, and an inflammation at the negative point.

In these cases the water might possibly have interfered. Other experiments gave however more distinct results.

Barytes and strontites, even when heated to intense whiteness, in the electrical circuit by a flame supported by oxygene gas, are non-conductors; but by means of combination with a very small quantity of boracic acid, they become conductors; and in this case inflammable matter, which burns with a deep red light in each instance, is produced from them at the ne. gative surface. The high temperature has prevented the success of aty tempts to collect this substance; but there is much reason to believe that it is the basis of the alkaline earth employed.'

The facts now stated, as Mr. Davy observes, strengthen the presumption, that the muriatic, boracic, and fluoric acids contain oxygen. In the electrization of moistened boracic acid, a dark coloured combustible matter is evolved at the negative surface; and there is reason to look for the decomposition of the other acids in their, aqueous solutions, though non-conductors in the gaseous state. Potasium he, has found to oxydate in muriatic acid, and actually to produce char coal by oxydating in carbonic acid.

Mr. D. very briefly hints at some of the new views to which philosophers may be eventually introduced by these discoveries, through the assistance which the alkaline bases will afford as most powerful agents, in analysis, and through the solution which they may furnish to various geological problems. He does not, however, expatiate on the great variety of questions which derive fresh light from his discoveries, but leaves them to the consideration of scientific men, with a modest simplicity which adds lustre to his distinguished genius. The numerous experiments and discoveries, which this most diligent and acute philosopher has made since this lecture was delivered, will come before us in course. We have left ourselves no room for reflections on the important truths which we have thought it our duty to submit. to the reader; and must reserve our remarks on the remaining articles in this Part of the Transactions to our number.


Art. VIII. Strictures on Subjects chiefly relating to the Established Rehgion and the Clergy; in Two Letters to his Patron from a Country Clergyman. By the Rev. Josiah Thomas, M. A. Rector of Streetcum Walton, Somerset. 8vo. pp. 117. Price 38, Rivingtons. 1807,

Art. IX.

Art. IX. High Church Claims exposed, and the Protestant Dissenters and Methodists vindicated; or Free Remarks on a Pamphlet intitled Strietures, &c. In a Letter to the Author, by a Layman. 8vo. pp. 84. Price 2s. 6d. Jones, Conder, Eaton, 1808.

A Worthy country clergyman, in suddenly awaking as it should seem from a dream, in which he had beheld a dreadful assault made, or just on the point of being made, on the Established Church, has raised, naturally enough in such a moment, a very violent outcry. As no man, however, can be held strictly responsible for any expressions he may utter just at the instant of awaking in a fright, and as we can have no doubt he is long before this time restored to tranquillity, though not without some remaining sense of mortification at having been betrayed into such an indecorum, it cannot be necessary for us to employ much time in commenting on the expressions of terror that involuntarily escaped hini.


If indeed we could have supposed the person who was visited with this terror, and who uttered these outcries, to be really at the time broad awake, and sitting in full day-light in his parsonage-house, we might have deemed it not amiss to divert for a little while from the graver matters of our profession, to make a remark or two on so odd a circumstance. first suggestion would have been due to this Mr. Thomas himself, in the way of friendly hint to his discretion, that, in case the fit of terror should return upon him, (possibly the identical evil spirit that haunted Saul has condescended to so much humbler an appointment)-he had better make an effort not to let his cries be quite so loud and public. It would be well if at such a moment he could have self-possession enough to consider, that other people, not participating in the misfortune bequeathed to him by the king of Israel, will feel but little sympathy with his emotions. We indeed might be always ready, like that most gentle shep herd, the son of Jesse, to take the harp and play him a 'ditty of comfort,' as we hope to do in the present instance; but we would softly admonish him not to expect such benevo lence from any other quarter. For making this one disturbance, perhaps, the members of the establishment in general may be willing to laugh at him and forgive him; but he will certainly provoke their indignation, if he should again, by such an idle and noisy alarm, interrupt them in their business, their studies, or their pastoral vocations.

If this reverend gentleman has really been so unfortunate as to fall under the calamity which we have ventured to surmise, it must be obvious that his being subject to such gloomy and spectral visitations, will sufficiently account for his being unable to see any thing but omens, and to pronounce any thing but vaticinations, of evil; and will furnish

a good reason why nothing he utters should be either depend ed on or wondered at. Or if this his afflictive privilege of second sight is put out of view, and the reasonableness of his alarms and prognostics is judged of from a calm consideration of the matters in question, the friends of the church will soon decide what degree of regard is due to his forebodings, threatenings, and lamentations. We presume they canno want to hear any more about the man, when they are informed, that it is chiefly (as far as we have been favoured to understand him) in the pious and useful labours of the Wesleyan Methodists, that he foresees the speedy destruetion of our church; an establishment which has, even from antiquity and prescription, an exceedingly strong hold on the general popular mind, which has in its service the main share of the learning in the nation, which commands millions of revenue, which is an integral part of the constitution, and is supported by the whole power of the, state with which it is inseparably combined, which has formidable courts however of its own, which has the king for its head, and almost the whole of the nobility, and the vast majority of the other wealthy and polished classes of society, for its faithful adherents! And, more than all this mighty assemblage of advantages and securities, the clergy of this church, with an extremely few exceptions, are, even according to Mr. Thomas's own account, (which we can the more readily admit, as he seems disposed to make the worst of every thing affecting the prospects of the church) eminently pious, and moral, and indefatigable. Yet all these things notwithstanding, this venerable, learned, wealthy, splendid, pious, and more than trebly fortified establishment, has not, as we are now given to uuderstand, the sinallest chance, without the assistance of some strong and new measures of coercion, of maintaining itself against the ram's horns, (not battering rams, courteous reader,) of the Methodist preachers;-on whom every form of contempt and contumely is nevertheless at the same time exhausted, on whom all the epithets expressive of meanness, ignorance, and insignificance are lavished, throughout thislearned gentleman's performance. What may we be fated to hear next? It appears to us that the manifestation of the ce lebrated prophet, Richard Brothers, infected a portion of our nation with a silly credulity which has never been entirely expelled for since that time a succession of men, not altogether devoid of sense and information, have been found gravely uttering, on a variety of subjects, the most ridiculously extravagant predictions; and entertaining no juster ideas of the relation between causes and effects than to foresee, some of them the downfall of the Christian state in the east, and some of them the downfall of the Christian

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church at home, from a continuance of the benevolent efforts of preachers in the two quarters to persuade the people into Christianity and all its attendant moral virtues.

Some of the most zealous friends of the English church have maintained, that it would have little to fear from external hostility so long as it should be true to itself; and that the corruptions to which, like all other human establish. ments, it was liable, were to be dreaded as the chief causes and symptoms of its falling, like others, into decay. Persons of this opinion will not listen very attentively to such an alarmist as our Rector, till his quick-sighted anxiety descries something wrong in the internal state of this venerable institution. Indeed we had been so long fixed in this opinion ourselves, that we cannot help repeating how utterly we were confounded to hear him predicting the fall of a church, in which his keenest scrutiny had found hardly a single circumstance for censure or reform. He has nowhere told us he had the smallest reason to apprehend, that a considerable proportion of its clerical members entered on the sacred office, not from feeling a profound interest in religion, and a pious zeal to promote it by the instruction and conversion of mankind, but from the mere necessity of choosing a profession, or from expectations of emolument or preferment ;that many of its chief officers, occupying situations of solemn and anxious responsibility, were content to live in showy stately indolence;-that its stations of wealth, dignity, and power, were carefully withheld from clergymen of eminent zeal and piety, while they were conferred with a view to enrich relations and friends, to reward political services, or tostrengthen parliamentary influence that great numbers of its ministers were found in theatres, or at balls, assemblies, and card-tables; or habitually playing the fop, or the buck, or the wag; or mixing in the nirth, the intemperance, and the songs, of convivial parties; or at one time trussed up in a jacket, wielding a fowling-piece, and maintaining a peripatetic dialogue with a couple of pointers, and at another time racing after a pack of hounds;-that many of them were observed to perform their functions in the slightest, scantiest, and most careless manner possible; or to decry, even with scorn or violence, a popular fervent mode of addressing the conscience and passions of mankind, in behalf of religion and their eternal salvation; or to neglect teaching, and even to hold up in ridicule, those doctrines of a renewal of nature and the operations of a Divine Spirit, and the evangelical plan of salvation for mankind, to which they had formally subscribed in the articles of the church, and which are so exceedingly prominent in the New Testament ;-or that they

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