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not have manifested such disregard or ignorance of the testimonies of Herodotus, Strabo, and the Welch Triads.

In addition to this source of argument, Dr. Jamieson has supported his assertion, that the Southern Picts, or Caledonians, were a Gothic tribe, by several subsidiary considerations, of various moment. These are the ancient topographical appellations of the Scotish lowlands, and the structure of its language with its architecture, of which he considers the oldest, specimens as 'genuine Gothic' and not reputed 'Celtic' remains, &c. On this last subject, however, there is the greatest room for diversity of opinion; for the architecture of all barbarous tribes must of necessity have many points of resemblance; so that it is not easy to pronounce, with tolerable certainty, to what particular ancient nation the ruins of antique buildings, which still abound in many parts of our country, should be ascribed. It is no wonder, then, that the round towers, burghs, and earth-houses, should by some antiquarians be called Celtic, by others Pictish, Danish, or Norwegian. Neither do the popu lar names of such structures,even when they can with certainty be traced to some specific dialect, decide without all ambiguity the tribe to which they belong. For as these names are plainly descriptive, they will be translated by each tribe into its own vernacular language; and thus will vary in successive ages, or even during the same period, in different districts of the country. It is in this way, that a Highlander gives the name of dun to that which a Scandinavian calls burgh, and an Englishman, or Scotch Lowlander, house or castle.

Dr. J. seems to have overlooked the well known distinction of the Picts into two tribes, the Northern and the Southern, of which we have taken notice in our review of the 'Caledonia,' as supported by the direct evidence of Bede and other writers. This circumstance, properly kept in view, serves to explain several etymological difficulties in the designations of Scotish topography, in which we find Iberian and Gothic terms curiously blended and conformed together. The spirit of simplification is no where carried to a more extravagant length, than in the researches of antiquaries respecting the dialect to which ancient topographical appellations ought to be referred. It seems seldom to have entered into the minds of our learned Archæologists, that certain hills, rivers, and promontories might be left unnamed by the first people that dwelt among them, and might receive designations from a subsequent race of inhabitants; or that a succeeding race might choose, out of wantonness, pride, or some other motive, to alter the names of such objects invented by their predecessors, and to impose new, and perhaps more suitable appellations, of their own. In thus simplifying their labour, the patrons of the

reputed 'Celts' have a considerable advantage over their opponents: for the Gaelic tongue is peculiarly appropriate to designations of the topographical kind, and possesses a ductility and facility of combination, which will enable a person, who is. master of its roots, to derive from it almost any local appellation whatever, without the appearance of great violence.

Mr. Chalmers has with great industry and perseverance exercised his ingenuity in this sort of conjecture; and has with no little trouble endeavoured to trace to a Celtic' stock the name of every river, mountain, and valley, not only in North Britain, but also in many districts of the Southern division of the island. Dr. Jamieson defends the opposite opinion, with equal ardour, though with less dogmatism; for he does not positively assert that he is able to give the true meaning of such appellations in any other language, because there is too much left to conjecture on either side. But he thinks that a Gothic interpretation may be given to these terms, with full as much probability. as any founded upon the Gaelic, or the Welch. Thus the question is at any rate left in doubt. To us it appears, that some of these appellations are of Gothic, and some of Iberian original; so that it cannot without absurdity be denied that tribes of both nations were found at a very early period in certain districts of our island, and contributed in giving names to the remarkable objects of the regions which they inhabited.

Mr. Chalmers, who wishes to prove that the Belgæ were a "Celtic tribe, has asserted, and endeavoured to establish, by etymological subtleties, that the names in the five Belgie provinces of South Britain are only significant in the Celtic tongue. In this part of the controversy, Dr. Jamieson appears to have been very successful, and has with much plausibility suggested Gothic etyma. Thus the name Kent is derived by Mr. Chalmers from the British Caint, signifying an open country; but with more verisimilitude by Dr. Jamieson from the Gothic Kant, an extremity, or angle. Mr. C. derives the name of the river Thames from Tan, Tam, &c. signifying what expands, spreads, or is calm: Dr. Jamieson prefers: the Gothic etymology which deduces it from Temsu, to move slowly or be stagnant. Dr. J. also appears to advantage in some of the following remarks.

• As the names of many of the Belgic towns end in Dun or Dinum, Mr. Chalmers attempts to shew that the Belgae must have been Celts, because "Dunum and Dinum are the latinized form of Dan, and Din, which, in the British, and Irish, as well as in the ancient Gothic, signify a fortified place;" Caled. p. 17. N. But, if dan has this signification in the ancient Gothic, the argument proves nothing. From what he has stated, the presumption is, that it was originally a Goth, and not a Celt. term. For, as he says, that " Danum is the name of the chief town of the Cauci in

Ireland, which is asserted to be a Belgic tribe ;" it is questionable, if any of the other towns, having this termination, were Celtic. Londinum and Camelodunum were Belgic towns, being situated in the territories of the Trinovantes. Maridunum, according to Baxter, who reads Margidunum, is from Teut. maerg marl, which is fouud in the neighbourhood, and dun town. He says that, in the modern British, mer signifies medulla. But in the old Brit. the term for marl is the same with that now used in English. It may be added, that Germ. dun, as signifying, civitas, urbs, is only the term, properly signifying an inclosure, locus septus, used in a secondary sense. It is derived from tyn-en sepire. V. Wachter, vo. Dun.

• It has been asserted, that "there is a radical difference, in the formation of the Celtic, and Gothic names, which furnishes the most decisive test, for discriminating the one language from the other, in topographic disquisitions; and even in the construction of the two tongues, such vocables as are prefixed, in the formation of the British and Gaelic names, are constantly affixed, in the composition of the Gothic, the Saxon, and English names. -Those tests are so decisive, as to give the means of discriminating the Celtic from the Saxon, or Gothic names, when the form of the vocables compounded are nearly the same." Caled. p. 491. Without disputing the propriety of this position, it is sufficient to observe, that, if this be so decisive a test, although the names of places terminating in Dun, Dunum, &c. are elsewhere (p. 17.) claimed as Celtic, it must be evident that the claim is unjust. Londinum, Vindonum, Milsi dunum, Camelodunum, Rigadunum, Maridunum, &c. must all be Gothic names.' pp. 13, 14.

The utmost, that we think deducible from an etymological analysis of the Scotish topographical designations, is, that many of them must have originated with a Gothic race at a very remote period. But it cannot be said that these designations are exclusively Gothic, perhaps, in any one district of the country; so that we are obliged to admit the co-operation of some Iberian tribes in the invention of these designations, at some equally distant, or not very different æra of history. Much less ambiguous appears to be the argument derived from an examination of the vernacular tongue of the lowlands of Scotland, in which the traces of a Gothic original are every where abundantly discernible, and the helps furnished by the Iberian are in comparison but few and trifling; so that there can be no question from which of the two languages the existing tongue is principally derived.

To account for the Gothic character of the lowland Scotch dialect, those writers who deny the German or Scandinavian origin of the early peoplers of that district have been obliged to resort to the hypothesis, that the Anglo Saxon language was introduced into Scotland during the reign of Malcolm Caenmore by his English queen and her retinue; aided by the intercourse which prevailed between the inhabitants of Scotland, and those of Cumberland, Northumberland, Westmoreland,

and Durham, while these countries were held by the kings of Scotland, as fiefs of the crown of England.

Those, who have relied on this hypothesis, appear to have formed an extremely inadequate notion of the pertinacity with which the bulk of a people adhere to their native tongue as well as to their peculiar usages. To suppose that a few foreign adherents of a generally hostile court, received as refugees, could completely change the language of a country, is to give credit to a revolution in the habits of men which has no parallel in history. Even military conquest and complete subjugation are not adequate to such an effect, unless in the case of absolute extermination. The language of the conquerors is indeed superinduced on that of the vanquished; but the original dialect of the country forms the basis and principal portion, though modified in many respects by the new idioms. This subject is well argued and illustrated by Dr. Jamieson, Diss. p. 21.

It is well known, that in many places, on the borders of the Highlands, where, according to the hypothesis controverted, the one language should appear as it were melting into the other, they are kept totally distinct. This is particularly remarked in the account of the parish of Dowally in Perthshire. "It is a curious fact, that the hills of King's Seat and Craigy Barns, which form the lower boundary of Dowally, have been for centuries the separating barrier of these languages. In the first house below them the English is, and has been spoken; and the Gaelic in the first house, (not above a mile distant), above them." Statist. Acc. xx. 490. In some instances a rivulet forms as effectual a boundary, in this respect, as if an ocean intervened.' p. 22.

It is in fact by no means true, that the Old English, or Anglo-Saxon, and the Lowland Scotch, are the same dialect. They correspond, indeed, in many words and phrases, because they have originated with similar races of people, and have been modified by a like succession of causes. But there are many words, and many idioms, which are peculiar to each dialect, and intelligible only to the inhabitants of the several countries. It is only a sisterly resemblance that exists betweeen the two languages, not a perfect identity:

-Facies non una,

Nec diversa tamen ; qualis decet esse sororum."

We could have wished, if our limits had permitted, to il lustrate some of the points in which these languages either coincide or differ; a few words, however, will be sufficient to indicate one point of difference, which, though obvious enough, has not been much regarded. We mean, the relation which the English, or southern branch of the Gothic language in our island, bears to those dialects which now subsist in Scandinavia; and that which the Caledonian, or Northern branch,

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bears to those which now subsist in Germany. The English pronunciation differs comparatively little from the Swedish; and that of Scotland has so strong a resemblance to that of Germany, both in substance and pronunciation, that we have known natives of these two countries make themselves intelligible to each other, though only acquainted with their respective vernacular tongues.

We must hasten to say a few words of the manner in which Dr. Jamieson has executed his great task of a Scotish lexicographer and etymologist. We are willing to acknowledge that, on the whole, this is very meritoriously accomplished. The number of words illustrated and explained is very considerable, and many of them are not to be found in any previous glossary. Numerous interesting and judicious extracts from old Scotish writers are inserted, and many curious and instructive antiquarian disquisitions occur in different parts of the volumes. We should have been better pleased, if Dr. Jamieson had been a little more scrupulous in the admission of his anthorities; and had not quoted indiscriminately every modern rhymester that thinks himself intitled to intrude upon the public the meanest productions of the Caledonian muse. We shall insert two articles, as specimens of Dr. Jamieson's talents, both in antiquarian and etymological research. GLAMER, GLAMOUR, S. The supposed influence of a charm on the eye, causing it to see objects differently from what they really are. Hence, to cast glamer o'er one, to cause deception of sight, S. This word is used by Dunbar; but I have not marked the passage. And she came tripping down the stair,

And a' her maids before her;

As soon as they saw her well far'd face,
They coost the glamer o'er her.

Johnny Faa, Ritson's S. Poems, ü. 176
It had much of glamour might,
Could make a ladye seem a knight;
The cobwebs on a dungeon wall
Seem tapestry in lordly hall;
A nut-shell seem a gilded barge,
A sheeling seem a palace large,
And youth seem age, and age seem youth
All was delusion, nought was truth.

Lay of the last Minstrel, C. iii. 9.
Here the s. is used as an adj.

See a very curious Note on the subject of Glamour, affixed to this beautiful Poem, p. 260–262.

The vulgar believed, (and the idea is not yet universally exploded) that a four-bladed stalk of clover was the most effectual antidote to the influence of glamer. To this ridiculous idea Z. Boyd refers in the following passage.

A.

What euer semeth pleasant into this world vnto the natural eye,

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