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Art. XI. A Monument of Parental Affection to a dear and only Son. [By the Rev. Joshua Gilpin, Wrockwardine, Salop.] 8vo. pp. 180. price 3s. 6d. Hatchard, 1808.

WITH real reluctance, we yield to a sense of propriety in assigning only a narrow space on our pages to this singularly interesting work; and we should certainly not be satisfied to dismiss it without extracting largely from its contents, but for the persuasion that it will soon be in the hands of nearly all who inspect our account of it. To a considerable class of readers it will need no other recommendation, than our assurance, that it is one of the most affecting publications we have ever read, and that it will afford the most refined gratification to those in whom religion has added, to feelings naturally susceptible, a solemnity and tenderness peculiarly her own.


As a description of the extraordinary talents and still more extraordinary moral qualities of a youth, who in his seventeenth year silently quitted a world which was unconscious of its loss, for a happier region and more congenial society, it presents an object which few will contemplate without feelings of pensiveness and sorrow. But as a "monument of parental affection," as written by a father worthy of such a son, and in a style worthy of such a subject, it has claims to a tribute of sympathy which scarcely any other work could solicit, and which none but the most hardened of stupid or vicious creatures would have the or the inclination to deny. It is in this view, and for this reason, that it will make even a deeper impression on the mind, than the interesting stories of Kirke White and Elizabeth Smith.* On the testimony, partial, it may be said, but undoubtedly sincere, of his excellent father, there is reason to believe that his character would suffer little in any respect from a comparison with either of those lamented young persons; while he appears to have possessed a mildness, a tenderness, a delicacy of soul, more exquisitely angelical, than almost any other human being whose qualities have been exhibited to mankind. But still, it is the father, rather than the son, that most deeply affects us; in every page of his narrative we feel his heart beating for this "dear and only son," through all our pulses; and our attention is so magically fixed to the subject by an irresistible charm of sympathy, that we do not, for some time, begin to observe as a curious fact, how a mind of natural vigour may be expanded into grandeur and kindled into brilliancy by the ardour of affection and the excitement of grief. We are almost certain that Mr. Gilpin would not on any other subject, or previously to the affliction which he deplores, have been able to produce those vivid colours of imagination, and those affecting strokes of genuine pathos and unstudied sublimity, which adorn this beautiful memoir. We shall only permit ourselves to add, that the excellent principles on education and other subjects, the admirable features of young Gilpin's character, and the softening solemnizing tendency of the whole performance, adapt it no less to impart benefit than to afford delight; while it communicates the "joy of grief," it will cherish that inestimable sensibility which alone is capable of tasting it, and will happily direct the attention, as Mr. Gilpin observes, in a pathetic dedication to his Parishioners, "to

* See Ecl. Rev. Vol. IV. 193, 827,

the uncertainty of life, the loveliness of early piety, and the blessedness of dying in the favour of God.".

Some of the finest passages are only to be properly relished in connection with the circumstances and persons to which they refer; we *shall therefore quote but one paragraph, which does not particularly need explanation or comment, as a specimen of the style.

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By the advice of many who anxiously sought our relief, we once more changed the scene among our connexions in the neighbourhood. This movement, however, afforded our dear son no other advantage, than that of receiving the last attentions of his surrounding friends, who met us at every place with tokens of their sympathizing regard-wherever we journeyed, he was still making his passage through the valley of the shadow of death. Through this dark and solitary region every man must necessarily pass but the passage admits of a wonderful variety. Some men are hurried down this valley with a rapidity, which will not allow them to mark the terrific furniture of the place; while others are led through it with slow and solemn steps-multitudes tread this road under the torpors of a stupid insen sibility; and many rush along it amid the turbulence of a raving deli rium-some few favoured individuals are allowed to pass this way in a state of complete, recollection and composure; and sometimes an extraordinary personage is carried through it in a kind of holy triumph. Our dear son went down into this desolate valley without disquietude, and walked deliberately through it without apprehension. We attended his steps from the beginning to the end of this painful journey, without ever withdrawing ourselves from his side. We observed the changes that took place at every stage, we marked every turn of his countenance, and caught every expression that fell from his lips. But, while we were solicitous to sustain his weakness and to smooth his path, we found him in circumstances rather to afford, than to require, support. An invisible arm sustained his soul, and supplied his wants. He neither felt any distress, nor feared any evil; for God was with him, even He who giveth songs in the night and he who turneth the shadow of death into the morning. Though he was fully sensible whereto his steps were tending, yet he went cheerfully forwards, neither hinting at the uneasiness of the way, nor casting one wishful glance behind. He surveyed the shadowy scenes around him without any consternation, and met every threatening appearance with an undisturbed serenity; discovering nothing but security and order, where others have found conflicts and terrors, perplexity and amazement. faith and his patience unweariedly performed their proper work, this alleviating present pressures, and that unveiling future glories. Neither inward decays, nor outward accidents, could interrupt the regular exercise of these graces; and under their prevailing influence he meekly triumphed over all opposition-This was the Lord's doing and it was marvellous in our eyes,' 127-131.

The melancholy event took place in September 1806.


Art. XII. A System of Practical Arithmetic, Applicable to the present state of Trade and Money Transactions, Illustrated, by Numerous Examples under each Rule; for the Use of Schools. By the Rev. J. Joyce, Author of the Scientific Dialogues, &c. &c 12mo, pp. viii. 252. Price 3s. 6d. R. Phillips, London. 1808.

WHAT! another book of Arithmetic! And is it in vain, then, that

we have so often cried out, Tedet nos horum quotidianorum librorum ! We are the more disheartened at the appearance of this book, because it comes from a new quarter, and is perhaps only the first of an innumerable shoal. Treatises of Arithmetic commonly spring from the desire felt by a country schoolmaster to commence author: but this work, we should conjecture, originates in the wish of a bookseller to try the effect of such a thing, as a speculation. Mr. Joyce is an ingenious, and doubtless an industrious man; so industrious, indeed, that we wonder how any being who has not as many heads and hands as Briareus, and as many eyes as Argus, can get through the business he accomplishes. He has judiciously abridged Paley's Evidences of Christianity, and Smith's Wealth of Nations; he has published eight interesting little volumes called Scientific Dialogues' on the subjects of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry; he has the reputation of being the principal compiler of two Encyclopædias, completed (under other names) in the course of the last three years; and besides this, he teaches youth on the common week days, and a congregation on Sundays! Most of the performances in which Mr. J. has been concerned, have been so executed as to shew the correctness of his judgement, though not the depth of his knowledge: the little piece before us, notwithstanding it relates to so humble a topic, is, we think, the worst executed of any thing we have seen from the same author. The book makes a neat appearance, and will therefore, probably take; but it is far inferior to many other candidates for public favour on the same topic.


Sometimes the definitions are incorrect; if multiplication be, as this author tells us, "a short method of addition," and division "a short method of performing subtraction," how comes it that multiplying by makes it less, and dividing by makes the result greater; directly contrary to the nature of addition aad subtraction? The definitions manifestly. do not apply to the cases of fractions. As many of the teachers of arithmetic want instructing in this respect, perhaps our better informed readers will pardon us if we here give definitions of multiplication and division, universally applicable to all quantities. Mult.plication is the finding a magnitude which has, to the multiplicand, the proportion of the multiplier to unity; and Division is the converse of multiplication and denotes, 1st. the finding a magnitude which has to the dividend the proportion of the divisor to unity. 2ndly. The finding what abstract number has to unity the proportion of the dividend to a homogeneous magnitude, the divisor. Again, in Duodecimals, the rules for operation are perspicuous enough: but the pupil is no where shewn what the various denominations in the result really are, though this information is absolutely necessary, to preserve him from the grossest errors So likewise the pupil may err in following the rule in note p. 141, since he is not guarded against applying it to mixed repetends. Farther: the definition of Arithmetical Progression is exhibited in bad grammar: the rules in Geometrical Progression are defective, arranged backwards, and obscured by the useless

introduction of algebraical symbols: Nor is there any explanation of arith metical and geometrical means. We have also to remark that some of the examples are ambiguous, such as ex. 11. p. 32; and that at pages vi. 47, and 236, the author points his reader to the end of the volume for tables, specimens, &c. which are not there to be found.

To compensate for these inaccuracies and inadvertencies, Mr. Joyce has given just as much of the doctrine of chances as is of no use; and tables of logarithms of just such a diminutive size as renders them unfit for any beneficial purpose. He also presents definitions, rules, and examples, relative to logarithms; in which he tells us (p. 154) the index should be minus 3, when it should be minus 2: at p. 156, rule iv. is defective, as there are no directions for working negative indices and at p. 161. ex. 4. the 'result is right by chance, there being a compensation of equal and contrary errors. We add that Mr. J. is not, as he seems to think, the first who has introduced logarithms into a system of Arithmetic: it was done nearly 20 years ago by Keith.

The best executed part of this work, in our estimation is that which re◄ lates to Interest, Annuities, Survivorships, &c. where Mr Joyce acknowledges his obligations to Mr. J. J. Grellier, of the Royal Exchange Assurance Office. We shall terminate the present article, with two extracts from this part of the performance, which will probably convey interesting information to many of our younger readers.

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By law, more than 5 per cent. cannot be received as interest of mo. ney in this country; though at various periods of our history different rates of interest have been allowed, as will be evident from the following table.

In 1255 501 per cent per annum was given as interest. in 1270 to 1307 45/; in 1422 to 1470 15/; in 1545 it was restricted to 10/; in 1625 reduced to 8/; in 1645 to 1660 67; in 1660 to 1690 77. 6s. 6d; in 1690 to 1697 77, 10s; in 1697 to 1706 61; in 1714 to the present time 51.

In many parts of the world a much higher rate of interest is given, and also in the colonies, belonging to this country. In India, for instance, 12 per cent. is the legal interest for money; and in the English settlements in New South Wales, the rate of interest is fixed at 8 per cent." • I shall in this note give the price of stocks for one day, and an explanation, so as to render the information, on this head, contained in the papers, intelligible to the youngest reader.

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3 per Cent. Red. 62763 63
3 per Cent. Cons. 62
4 per Cent Cons. 80 81
5 per Cent. Navy 957 96 96
Bank Long Ann. 177 18

1. Bank Stock 226: that is, 2261. chase 100%. of that stock, the annual per cent.

Omnium 14

India Bonds 2s. dis. Imp. Ann. 8 1-16 Ex. Bills 1s. dis. 1s. pre. 3 per Cent. Imp. 62 Lottery Tickets 187. Cons. for Feb. 25. 621 must be given on that day to purinterest of this is about 0 or 11

2. India Stock-; none of this stock was sold on the day.

3. 3 per Cent. Red. 62, 63, 63. The price of this stock fluctuated in the course of the day; it began at 627, or 62. 17s. 6d. ; it rose to 634,

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or 631. 2s. 6d.; and when the market, as it is called, closed, the value of 100% in the 3 per Cent. Reduced was 631 exactly.

4. 3 per Cent. Cons. 623,. This stock fluctuated as the last, viz. from 621. 7s. 6d. to 62/ 12s. 6d. and then back to 62/. 10s. The reason of this stock being of less value on this day than the 3 per Cent. Reduced, is that more interest is due upon the former than on the latter; that is, half year's in erest is due at Lady Day on the Reduced, but the half year's interest on the Consols is not due till Midsummer.

5. 4 per Cent. Cons., 5 per Cent. Navy; and 3 per Cent. Imp., will be understood from what has been said.

6. Bank Long Ann. 173 to 18. This refers to certain annuities granted for a term of years; the market price of which on this day was 17 to 18 years, that is, if I wish to purchase 50l. per annum of these annuities, I must at the lowest price pay 50l. x 177, or 8931. 15s., and at the highest 50 x 18 or 9001.: and for this 8931 15s., or 9007., I should be entitled to 50%. per annum for about 52 years; the time when these annuities terminate. Hence these are called terminable annuities.-Imp. Ann. 8 1 16, or 87% is of the same kind, but worth only 8 years purchase, because they terminate so much sooner; that 50%. per annum in these might be purchased for 4037, 2s. 6d.

7. Omnium, 14 pre. This is a word that refers to the several sorts of stocks in which a new loan is made: for instance, if government borrow 20 millions, and give to each lender, for every 1007. so purchased, 100!. 3 per cent Consols, 501. in the Reduced, and the rest in Long Annui ties then this stock, the moment it is subscribed, is saleable, and while the different articles are sold together, it is stiled omnium; and 14 premium means, that a person to purchase 1007. of this loan, must pay 14 or 11. 5s. more than the original lender; had it been 14 discount, then the purchase would have been 11. 5s. less than the original cost, or 98/ 15s.

3. India-Bonds, 2s. dis.: this phrase shews, that the bonds of 100%. given by the East India Company are 2 shillings each discount; that is, to purchase 9 of these I must pay 8991. 2s. instead of 9001.

9. Ex. Bills, 1s dis. 1s. pre., shews that exchequer-bills of 100%, each, fluctuated in value from 1s. discount to 1s. premium: at one part of the day 10 of them would have been purchased for 10 shillings less than 1000%. and at the close of the market 10 shillings more than 10001. must have been given for them.

10. Lottery Tickets, 187. shews the price of Lottery Tickets for the time being.

11. Consols for Feb. 25. 62, shews that some persons had bought stock in anticipation, and agreed to give for it on the day mentioned at the rate of 621. 10s. per cent." pp. 168.-169.

Art. XIII. A Key to Joyce's Arithmetic; containing Solutions and Answers to all the Questions in the Work. To which is added an Appendix shewing the Method of Making Mental Calculations, with numerous Examples. By the same Author. 18mo. pp. viii. 208. price 2s. 6d. bound. R. Phillips. 1808.

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THIS Key is very conveniently adapted to the size of the waistcoat

pocket of any young gentleman, who can coax his mamma to purchase it for him, or to give him money for such laudable purposes, and thereby enable him to impose upon his master, by presenting Mr. Joyce's solutions instead of his own. It is neatly printed, though not so free

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