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have promised to come down on purpose, and his honour's goodness is gratefully acknowledged. Besides, I have several matters of consequence to my estate to adjust; and though the journey will no doubt be uncomfortable, and my being alone in that house where once I was so happy, be dreary in a woeful degree, the consciousness of duty, and being busy, will I hope support me. I shall write to you, my friend, from my seat. I am to be there only about three weeks.”

Soon after his arrival in Ayrshire, Boswell presented to the vacant living Mr. John Lindsay, a probationer from Edinburgh. The appointment was not distasteful to the parishioners. Returning to the metropolis he issued, in July, the second edition of his "Life of Johnson," in three octavo volumes; it contained eight sheets of additional matter," and was improved otherwise. In the Advertisement he wrote as follows:

"It seems to me in my moments of self-complacency, that this extensive biographical work, however inferior in the nature, may in one respect be assimilated to the 'Odyssey.' Amidst a thousand entertaining and instructive episodes, the hero is never long out of sight, for they are all in some degree connected with him; and he, in the whole course of the history, is exhibited by the author for the best advantage of his readers :

Quid virtus et quid sapientia possit,

Utile proposuit nobis exemplar Ulyssem.'

Should there be any cold-blooded or morose mortals who really dislike this book I will give them a story to apply. When the great Duke of Marlborough, accompanied by Lord Cadogan, was one day reconnoitring the army in Flanders, a heavy rain came on and they both called for their cloaks. Lord Cadogan's servant, a good-humoured, alert lad, brought his lordship's in a minute; the Duke's servant, a lazy, sulky dog, was so sluggish that his Grace, being wet to the skin, reproved him, and had for an answer, with a grunt, I came as fast as I could;' upon which the Duke calmly said, 'Cadogan! I would not for a thousand pounds have that fellow's temper.'"

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“There are some men I believe, who have, or think they have, a very small share of vanity. Such may speak of their literary fame in a decorous style of diffidence; but I confess that I am so formed by nature and by habit that to restrain the expression of delight on having obtained such fame, to me would be truly painful. Why, then, should I suppress it? Why, out of the 'abundance of the heart,' should I not speak? Let me then mention, with a warm but no insolent exultation, that I have been regaled with spontaneous praise of my work by many and various persons eminent for their rank, learning, talents, and accomplishments, much of which praise I leave under their hands to be reposited in my archives at Auchinleck. An honourable and reverend friend, speaking of the favourable reception of my volume, even in the circles of fashion and elegance, said to me, 'You have made them all talk Johnson.' Yes, I may add, I have Johnsonized the land; and I trust they will not only talk, but think Johnson."

No sooner was the second edition of his work on the publisher's shelves than Boswell was again involved in the meshes of dissipation. Sauntering forth, quite drunk, he was knocked down and robbed. Some weeks after the event he communicated with Mr. Temple as follows :—

"Behold my hand! The robbery is only of a few shillings, but the cut on my head and bruises on my arms were sad things, and confined me to my bed in pain and fever and helplessness, as a child many days. By means of surgeon Earle and apothecary Devaynes, I am now, I thank God, pretty well. This, however, shall be a crisis in my life. I trust I shall henceforth be a sober, regular man. Indeed, my indulgence in wine has, of late years especially, been excessive. You remember what Lord Eliot said, nay, what you, I am sorry to think, have seen. Your suggestion as to my being carried off in a state of intoxication is awful. I thank you for it, my dear friend. It impressed me much, I assure you."

In a letter to Mr. Temple, dated 31st May, 1794, Boswell again expresses his appreciation of his friend's remonstrances:

"I thank you sincerely for your friendly admonition on my frailty in indulging so much in wine. I do resolve anew to be upon my guard, as I am sensible how very pernicious as well as disreputable such a habit is. How miserably have I yielded to it in various years. Recollect what General Paoli said to you-recollect what happened to Berwick."

A constitution naturally robust had been severely taxed. Boswell imbibed liquor of all sorts, and like other dissipated persons, fell into bouts of drinking. When he partially abstained, he unconsciously prepared himself for inebriate practices of a more aggravated character. At length he became a victim to these social excesses. Early in the spring of 1795, Mr. Temple, junior, then an inmate of Boswell's house, wrote to his father: "A few nights ago Mr. Boswell returned from the Literary Club quite weak and languid." Such is our first intimation of an illness, which terminated fatally. About the beginning of April he commenced a letter to Mr. Temple in these words:"My dear Temple,-I would fain write to you in my own hand, but really cannot." Boswell dropped the pen, which was taken up by his son James, who thus wrote to his dictation:

Alas, my friend, what a state is this! My son James is to write for me what remains of this letter, and I am to dictate. The pain which continued for so many weeks was very severe indeed, and when it went off I thought myself quite well; but I soon felt a conviction that I was by no means as I should be— so exceedingly weak, as my miserable attempt to write to you affords a full proof. All, then, that can be said is, that I must wait with patience."

After referring to Mr. Temple's own indisposition, Boswell concludes by representing himself as "a good deal stronger," and subscribing himself" here and hereafter" his correspondent's affectionate friend." A postscript, added by James Boswell,

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jun., informed Mr. Temple that his father was ignorant of his dangerous situation." The letter was kept up, and another addition, dated 8th April, represented the patient as “in a state of extraordinary pain and weakness," but as "having a good deal recovered."

The improvement was temporary. After a few days Boswell suffered a relapse. On the 17th April, his younger son wrote to Mr. Temple as follows:

"My father desires me to tell you that on Tuesday evening he was taken ill with a fever, attended with a severe shivering and violent headache, disorder in his stomach and throwing up; he has been close confined to bed ever since. He thinks himself better to-day, but cannot conjecture when he shall recover. His affection for you remains the same. You will receive a long and

full letter from him."

On the 4th of May, David Boswell communicated to Mr. Temple that his brother was in "the most imminent danger." On the 18th of the same month, James Boswell, jun., reported that his father was "considerably worse," and that there were little or no hopes of his recovery." Next day David Boswell reported to Mr. Temple that the end had come :—


"I have now," he writes, "the painful task of informing you that my dear brother expired this morning at two o'clock: we have both lost a kind and affectionate friend, and I shall never have such another. He has suffered a great deal during his illness, which has lasted five weeks, but not much in his last moments."

Boswell died in his house in Great Portland Street, on the 19th May, 1795. He had reached his fifty-fifth year. In the June number of the Gentleman's Magazine his friends, Messrs. Courtenay and Malone, presented estimates of his character. Mr. Courtenay wrote thus:

Good nature was highly predominant in his character. He

appeared to entertain sentiments of benevolence to all mankind, and it does not seem to me that he ever did or could injure any human being intentionally. His conversational talents were always pleasing and often fascinating. He was a Johnson in everything but manner; and there were few of Dr. Johnson's friends that were not very ready to dispense with that. His attachment to the Doctor for so long a period was a meritorious perseverance in the desire of knowledge." Admitting that his social habits had shortened his life, Mr. Courtenay adds,"As his belief in Revelation was unshaken, and his religious impressions were deep and recurring frequently, let us hope that he has now attained that state from which imperfection and calamity are alike excluded."

From the misrepresentations of a journalist Mr. Malone vindicated the memory of his friend in these words:

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The most important misrepresentation is that Mr. Boswell was convivial without being social or friendly,-a falsehood which all who knew him intimately can peremptorily contradict. He had not only an inexhaustible fund of good humour and good nature, but was extremely warm in his attachments, and as ready to exert himself for his friends as any man.' After claiming for Boswell "considerable intellectual powers," he concludes," He will long be regretted by a wide circle of friends, to whom his good qualities and social talents always made his company a valuable accession; and by none more sincerely than by the present vindicator of his fame."

In the same number of the Gentleman's Magazine, a correspondent, subscribing himself "M. Green," states that Boswell contemplated the publication of a quarto volume, to be embellished with plates on the controversy occasioned by the Beggar's Opera. "With this particular view," he adds, "he lately paid several visits to the present truly humane 'governor of Newgate,' as he ordinarily styled Mr. Kirby."

In a subsequent number of the Gentleman's Magazine,

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