## Map Projections--a Working ManualU.S. Government Printing Office, 1987 - 383 pages Supersedes USGS Bulletin 1532. |

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### Common terms and phrases

1-e² sin² angles arcsin arctan ATAN2 Azimuthal Equidistant azimuthal projections Bonne projection calculated central line central meridian circle circular arcs Clarke 1866 ellipsoid Conformal projection cos² Cylindrical projection distance distortion Earth ellipsoidal form Equal-Area projection equally spaced equatorial aspect Equidistant Conic geodetic given Gnomonic Gnomonic projection graticule grid groundtrack hemisphere Hotine increasing easterly increasing northerly intersect inverse formulas iteration Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area Lambert Conformal Conic Landsat latitude and longitude longitude map projection meridians and parallels North Pole numerical examples o₁ oblique aspect Oblique Mercator projection orbit origin Orthographic parallels of latitude perpendicular Perspective projection polar aspect polar coordinates Polyconic projection quadrangles radians Radius of sphere rectangular coordinates reference ellipsoid satellite scale factor shown South spherical form standard parallels straight lines TABLE tion Transverse Mercator projection true to scale USGS values Vertical Perspective world maps zero zone λο

### Popular passages

Page 9 - That the Conference proposes to the Governments here represented the adoption of the meridian passing through the centre of the transit instrument at the Observatory of Greenwich as the initial meridian for longitude.

Page 9 - III. That from this meridian longitude shall be counted in two directions up to 180 degrees, east longitude being plus and west longitude minus.

Page 122 - This distribution of the projection, in an assemblage of sections of surfaces of successive cones, tangents to or cutting a regular succession of parallels, and upon regularly changing central meridians, appeared to me the only one applicable to the coast of the United States.

Page 216 - The angle between the plane of the earth's equator and the plane of the ecliptic (the plane of the earth's orbit) is 23?5 (the latitude of the tropic of Cancer).

Page 162 - It is important to remember that the shortest distance between any two points on the surface of a sphere is the arc of a great circle joining these points (see Fig.

Page 103 - This yields the greatest similarity that any plane figure can have with one drawn on the surface of a sphere. The question has not been asked whether this property occurs only in the two methods of representation mentioned or whether these two representations, so different in appearances, can be made to approach each other through intermediate stages. ... if there are stages intermediate to these two representations, they must be sought by allowing the angle of intersection of the meridians to be...

Page 3 - Earth is essentially a sphere, although a number of intellectuals nearly 2,000 years earlier were convinced of this. Even to the scholars who considered the Earth flat, the skies appeared hemispherical, however. It was established at an early date that attempts to prepare a flat map of a surface curving in all directions leads to distortion of one form or another. A map projection is a systematic representation of all or part of the surface of a round body, especially the Earth, on a plane.

Page 125 - States, in which the 1° quadrangle is the largest unit * * * and the 15' quadrangle is the average unit. * * * Misuse of this projection in attempts to spread it over large areas -that is, to construct a single map of a large area -has developed serious errors and gross exaggeration of details. For example, the polyconic projection is not at all suitable for a singlesheet map of the United States or of a large State, although it has been so employed.

Page 212 - PROJECTION 2.11.1 Space oblique Mercator projection The launching of an Earth-sensing satellite by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1972 led to a new era of continuing mapping from space. This satellite, first called ER.TS-1 and then renamed Landsat 1 in 1975, was followed by two others, all of which circled the Earth in a nearly circular orbit inclined about 99° to the Equator and scanning a swath about 185 km (officially 100 nautical miles) from an altitude of about...

Page 8 - Each degree is sub-divided into 60 minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds.