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bodily vigour, ferocity of mind, and love of liberty.' We have then an accurate description-for it is in general nothing moreof the several ingenious processes of roasting, boiling, stewing, broiling, frying, baking, and digesting. There is then a sort of appendix subjoined upon bread-making, in which the author displays his usual learning and accuracy, in stating that bread may occasionally be made of dried fish and flesh! as well as of grain. Wheaten bread, which he admits however to be the best, is also most philosophically divided into fine bread, coarse bread,—and rolls! Fermented bread, he thinks less wholesome than what is unleavened; we suspect, quite erroneously. The section ends with instructions for boiling potatoes.
The next section is of Condiments; and contains a description of salt, sugar, vinegar, and other unknown substances. This is followed up by a learned chapter on the number and succession of our Meals. The result, in Sir John's own words, is the following general order.
In fummer, rife about feven; breakfast about nine; take a little fruit, a cruft of bread, or a biscuit, about one; dine between four and five, fo as to take fome exercise in the cool of the evening; take tea or coffee, as is found most agreeable to the conftitution, between eight and nine, and if any supper, ftrawberries, or any cooling fruit. Go to bed about eleven.
In winter, rife about eight: breakfast about ten; take a flight repaft about two; finifh all the business of the day, and take a substantial dinner between fix and seven; take tea or coffee about nine; no fupper. I. 483. Go to bed between eleven and twelve.
The quantities for sedentary people, but to be a little enlarged for the laborious, are as follows.
For breakfast, four ounces of bread and eight of tea, or fome other liquid; for dinner, four ounces of bread, eight of meat, eight of water, and twelve of wine, or fome generous liquor; and for fupper, eight ounces of liquid food, making in all three pounds four ounces. I. 486. The allowance of wine, we think, bears a most intemperate. proportion to that of water or weaker fluids.
After a tedious variety of general rules, the substance of which seems to be, that our food should be gradually made more nutritive as we advance in life, and that substances hard of digestion are most proper for those who are condemned to hard labour, we get forward to a most erudite chapter on Digestion and the effects thereof.' It sets out with the following profound and philosophical observation.
When one confiders the immenfe quantity of liquid and of folid food, confumed by an individual in the space of a fingle year, and still more fo, during the courfe of a long life, it is natural to inquire, what purposes can fuch a variety of articles answer, and what ultimately be
comes of them? In the courfe of a few years, the produce of feveral acres of land, the weight of a number of large oxen, and the contents of many tons of liquor, are confumed by one individual; whilft he continues nearly the fame, whether he drinks the pure ftream, or the beverage the most fkilfully compounded; whether he feeds on a variety of articles produced from the animal and vegetable kingdom, or confines himself to one particular fubftance; and, whether his food is prepared in the plaineft and fimpleft manner, or by the moft refined and artificial All these circumftances demodes that luxury has hitherto invented. pend upon the process called digeflion; the nature and effects of which, we shall now endeavour briefly to explain. '. 1. 5. 1.
We have then a learned and very tedious account of the process of chylification, absorption, assimilation, excretion, &c &c. with many sage directions about aperient, diuretic, and diaphoretic medicines, the detail of which we dare not venture to lay before our readers. We may safely refer them, however, to the worthy Baronet's encomium on the Stomach; which he lovingly qualifies by the name of the father of the family,' and further exalts, by retailing the antient fable about the unfortunate dissension between it and the other members. Nay, he carries his affection for this useful organ so far, as actually to think it necessary to make an apology for its want of external beauty.
The ftomach,' he candidly obferves, is far from recommending itself by any elegance of appearance; on the contrary, it is generally confidered an unfightly membranous pouch; but the delicacy of its texture, the confideration of its extraordinary powers, and the importance of its functions to the health and exiftence of the human frame, muft create a falutary reluctance to hazard any practice by which it can be injured. I. 515.
We now advance to the chapter of Exercise, which fills about 150 pages. It sets out with an elaborate account of the uses of labour, and a learned deduction of the origin of that voluntary labour which is properly called exercise. The subject is then opened in this solemn and methodical manner.
• Exercises are usually divided into three forts, the active, the paffive, and the mixed; but it seems to me, that this important fubject may be treated of in a more fatisfactory manner, by dividing exercifes into four branches. 1. The youthful. 3. The gymnaftic. 2. The manly. and, 4. The healthful and amufing. Under one or other of thefe ge neral heads, every species of exercise may be included.' I. 584. Youthful exercises are then marshalled in a still more formid able array, as follows.
We fhall now proceed to confider the various forts of youthful ex1. Infantine or childish exercises. ercifes, under the following heads.
2. Hopping. 3. Jumping. 4. Running. 5. Hooping. 6. Throwing. 7. Lifting and Carrying. 8. Balancing.
VOL. XI. NO. 21.
Skipping. 11. Sliding. 12. Skating. 13. Swinging.
Jumping.-As this fpecies of exercise is included among the gymnaftic forts, under the head Leaping, it is unneceffary to dwell upon it in this place.' I. 587, 588.
The manly exercises of Tennis, Cricket, Golf, &c. are described in the same manner; then the gymnastic, of Leaping, Foot-racing, Boxing, &c.; and finally the healthful, as Walking, Riding, Sailing, &c. We do not find any thing in the least degree curious or important in the worthy Baronet's laborious and very fatiguing descriptions of these practices. He is very long, and, he seems to imagine, particularly ingenious, in the recommendation of friction. It cures sore throats, we are informed,— indigestion, rheumatism, &c. &c. Nay, such is its virtue, in Sir John Sinclair's opinion, that he exclaims, somewhat rudely, How many are there who keep a number of grooms to curry their horses, who would add ten years to their comfortable existence, if they would employ but one of them to curry themselves with a flesh-brush, night and morning!' The benefits of exercise are summed up in this manner. It prevents the formation of diseases; it cures many of them without the assistance of medicine; and it greatly facilitates the cure when medicines are necessary. After a full hundred pages of idle detail, we come to the grand result of the discussion, in these simple maxims,— which we really imagine might have been discovered with less
It is an indifpenfable law of longevity, that one should exercise, at leaf, an hour every day, in the open air.
Thofe who can, ought to fpend two or three hours a day on horseback; those who cannot ride, fhould employ the fame time in walking.
It is a good rule, to appropriate a confiderable and fixed time daily, for being out in the open air, taking moderate exercife, in proportion to the conftitution and time of life. Exercife, it is faid, fhould, at least once a day, proceed to the borders of fatigue, and never pafs them; through excefs of exercise, probably, is not fo hurtful as fome appear to have imagined.' I. p. 675.
There is a curious Appendix to this chapter, containing the result of the author's inquiries as to the method pursued by those who undertake to train individuals for great feats of athletic exertion in walking, running, boxing, &c. To some readers this will appear the most interesting part of the publication; and therefore, we shall not pass it without notice; though it does appear to us that there is very little mystery in the business. The sum
and substance of the method is, to strengthen the body with nutritive and digestible food, and to enure it to great exertion by constant practice. The detail of the process is shortly as follows. A purgative medicine is given at the beginning to clear the intestines. They are fed fully on the lean parts of beef or mutton slightly broiled or roasted, with a little vinegar and salt, but no spices. The only vegetable substance they are allowed, is stale bread. They are required to drink very little; not more than three or four pints in the day, and this of old unbottled ale, and in very small quantities at a time. Wine is only allowed to those with whom ale disagrees; and spirits are entirely prohibited. They are exercised violently for three hours early in the morning, when they are rubbed down, and dressed dry, and then breakfast on their beef and bread. In three or four hours after, they are exercised a second time; and, after they are refreshed, dine in the same manner. They usually get no supper, and are allowed eight hours sleep. The proper age for training, is from eighteen to twenty-five; and the process is generally completed within two months. The effects are to remove fat, and to add prodigiously to the muscular vigour, the goodness of the wind, and power of continuing in exertion. The training necessary for reducing the weight of jockies and riding grooms, consists almost entirely in abstinence and violent perspiration, brought on either by exercise, or heat and clothing. Some are said to have brought themselves down two stones in the course of ten days; and that without any sensible injury to their health.
The last chapter treats of Sleep; and begins with a long enumeration of the uses of this meritorious invention. The first prac tical inquiry is as to the proper quantity; and here, talking of Alfred and his tapers, the author is naturally led to inform us, that he himself has studied twelve hours a day for three months together; but he would not recommend it to any other person to try the same experiment.' After a great deal of argumentation, he settles in the old familiar axiom, that from six to eight hours is a proper portion of sleep; but that infants and invalids may have more. He is of opinion, moreover, that it is right to sleep in the night, and not to rise too early, especially in cold or bad weather. Our bed-chambers, he thinks, should be airy, and not too warm. There follows, after this, a long deduction of the invention and improvement of Beds, which is treated of with proper gravity and method, in five sections, beginning thus.
The fubject of the bed or couch, may be explained under the following heads. 1. The nature of the feather-bed and bolster. 2. The height thereof. 3. The bed-clothes. 4. The curtains. 5. Mifcella
1. The materials on which any indivdual fleeps, is an important confideration. The fkins of animals deftroyed in the chase, would probably be the firft article that hunters would think of. Rufhes, ftraw, and heath, would naturally occur to husbandmen, and those who refided in the country; and are ftill general in many countries, as France and Italy. In cold countries, more warmth is neceffary, and feathers were thought of. Indeed, fo partial are they in many countries in the northern parts of Europe to feathers, that they actually fleep between two down beds, however ftrange fuch a circumftance may appear to those who have not witneffed it. But, on the whole, the invention of what are called hair matreffes, is fuperior to every other, not overheating and relaxing the body, as feathers are apt to do I. p. 741.
We are told, moreover, that we should undress when we go to bed; not wear too warm nightcaps, and lye on our sides, with eyes and mouth closed; and that if we find any difficulty in getting to sleep, we should abstain from tea and coffee, take exercise, bathe the feet, and count to a thousand. The chapter is closed by a variety of miscellaneous rules; the complexion of which may be judged cf from the following specimen.
It is a good rule, to lock the door of your bed room previous to going to reft, fo as to prevent your being fuddenly and naftily roufed by any perfon coming into the room; and you fhould alfo examine the room carefully, that no cat, or dog, or any other animal, may disturb your fleep, the alarm of which may be highly injurious.' I. p. 767, 768.
We have now gone through the whole original part of the Code of Health and Longevity, with such feelings of disappointment and fatigue, as, we are afraid, must have extended their influence to our readers; and, really, after the long trial to which we have subjected their patience, we have neither confidence nor courage to engage them in a minute examination of the supplementary volumes. Near 2000 pages of close printing, however, cannot be dismissed without some little notice of their contents; and, for the satisfaction of those whose curiosity is not yet satisfied, we shall now make an hasty sketch of their subject.
The second volume contains an account of the Antient writers on health and longevity, with extracts from their works; a catalogue of all the books ancient and modern on those subjects; and a selection from the communications which were made to the author during the composition of this work.
The account of antient authors is wholly extracted from modern commentators, or translators of their works. The catalogue, which is a mere list of title-pages, like a common sale catalogue, fills about 150 pages of pleasant reading. The communications which relate to the training of boxers and racers are the most curious and interesting. The greater part, however, consists of accounts of individuals who have attained to a great