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17 yards Adam Smith advantage agricultural amount assignats bank notes Bank of England bankers bills bills of exchange book credits bullion capitalists cause cheaper cheapness cheques circulation circumstances coin commerce consequence consumers corn cost of carriage cost of labour cost of production days labour dealers debt depend depreciated currency depreciation diminished duction effect employment enable equal equivalent exchange value exist expense exports fall foreign commodities foreign countries France Germany gold and silver imports improvement increase industry issuers issues labour and capital land law of value less loans lower manufacturers means ment million modities obtain paid payments persons population portion pounds precious metals produce proportion purchasing power quantity of money raise rate of interest rate of profit rent rise of prices seignorage sell speculation supply suppose supposition theory things tion trade transactions value of money whole yards of cloth yards of linen
Page 536 - Laisser-faire, in short, should be the general practice : every departure from it, unless required by some great good, is a certain evil.
Page 319 - There is room in the world, no doubt, and even in old countries, for a great increase of population, supposing the arts of life to go on improving, and capital to increase. But even if innocuous, I confess I see very little reason for desiring it. The density of population necessary to enable mankind to obtain, in the greatest degree, all the advantages both of co-operation and of social intercourse, has, in all the most populous countries been attained.
Page 320 - It is scarcely necessary to remark, that a stationary condition of capital and population implies no stationary state of human improvement There would be as much scope as ever for all kinds of mental culture, and moral and social progress; as much room for improving the Art of Living, and much more likelihood of its being improved, when minds ceased to be engrossed by the art of getting on.
Page 507 - The superiority of one country over another in a branch of production often arises only from having begun it sooner. There may be no inherent advantage on one part, or disadvantage on the other, but only a present superiority of acquired skill and experience. A country which has this skill and experience yet to acquire, may in other respects be better adapted to the production than those which were earlier in the field ; and besides, it is a just remark, that nothing has a greater tendency to promote...
Page 338 - THE form of association, however, which, if mankind continue to improve, must be expected in the end to predominate, is not that which can exist between a capitalist as chief and workpeople without a voice in the management, but the association of the labourers themselves on terms of equality, collectively owning the capital with which they carry on their operations, and working under managers elected and removable by themselves.
Page 507 - The only case in which, on mere principles of political economy, protecting duties can be defensible, is when they are imposed temporarily (especially in a young and rising nation) in hopes of naturalizing a foreign industry, in itself perfectly suitable to the circumstances of the country.
Page 365 - Fourthly, by subjecting the people to the frequent visits and the odious examination of the tax-gatherers, it may expose them to much unnecessary trouble, vexation, and oppression...
Page 325 - ... when they were brought together in numbers, to work socially under the same roof; when railways enabled them to shift from place to place, and change their patrons and employers as easily as their coats; when they were encouraged to seek a share in the government, by means of the electoral franchise.
Page 365 - The certainty of what each individual ought to pay is, in taxation, a matter of so great importance, that a very considerable degree of inequality, it appears, I believe, from the experience of all nations, is not near so great an evil as a very small degree of uncertainty.
Page 330 - We look in vain among the working classes in general for the just pride which will choose to give good work for good wages: for the most part, their sole endeavour is to receive as much and return as little in the shape of service as possible. It will sooner or later become insupportable to the employing classes to live in close and hourly contact with persons whose interests and feelings are in hostility to them.