Elements of chemistry: theoretical and practical, Volume 1
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acid action allowed amount angle appears atmosphere axis becomes bismuth bodies boiling bulk carbonic cause chemical cohesion colour column combination compound conducting connected consists contains continue copper crystal density diffusion direction distance effect electricity employed equal example exhibit expansion experiment extremity fall force gases given gives glass grains gravity greater heat hydrogen inches incident increases instance intensity iron lead length less light liquid magnetic means measured mercury metals nearly object observed obtained occurs oxygen particles passes piece placed plane plate platinum polarized portion position pressure prism produced proportion quantity rays reflected refraction represented rise salt seen separated shown shows side similar solid solution specific substances sulphur surface takes temperature termed tion transmitted tube vapour varies vessel volume weight whilst wire zinc
Page 179 - Temperature may be conceived to depend upon the velocities of the vibrations; increase of capacity on the motion being performed in greater space ; and the diminution of temperature during the conversion of solids into fluids or gases, may be explained on the idea of the loss of vibratory motion, in consequence of the revolution of particles round their axes, at the moment when the body becomes fluid or aeriform, or from the loss of rapidity of vibration in consequence of the motion of the particles...
Page 179 - It seems possible to account for all the phenomena of heat, if it be supposed that in solids the particles are in a constant state of vibratory motion, the particles of the hottest bodies moving with the greatest velocity...
Page 179 - ... and elastic fluids, besides the vibratory motion, which must be conceived greatest in the last, the particles have a motion round their own axes, with different velocities, the particles of elastic fluids moving with the greatest quickness ; and that in...
Page 50 - And why did the water rush into it?" Tom hesitated. "Was it not, think you, owing to the pressure of the atmosphere upon the surface of the water? When you raised the piston, the air above it was also. raised, and ultimately driven out by the force of the ascending piston; and since the air could not find any entrance from below as long as the point was under the water, the interior of the squirt would necessarily have remained quite...
Page 106 - The graduated circular plate should stand perpendicularly from the window, the pin x being horizontal, not in the direction of the axis, as it is usually figured, "but with the slit end nearest to the eye. " Place the crystal which is to be measured on the table, resting on one of the two planes whose inclination is required, and with the edge at which those planes meet, nearest and parallel to the window. " Attach a portion of wax, about the size of d, to one side of a small brass plate, e, fig.
Page 173 - Substances are said to be optically active when they produce rotation of the plane of polarisation of a ray of polarised light which passes through them. The rotation may be either to the right or to the left, according to the nature of the substance ; in the former case the substance is said to be dextro-rotatory ; in the latter, Izvo-rotatory.
Page 222 - ... bodies simultaneously give off both species. As the intensity of heating still further increases, rays of less and less length are given off, until they arrive at the limit of the perceptibility of the sense of vision, and only render their existence manifest by chemical and phosphorogenic effects. The following table exhibits some of the results which Melloni obtained by experimenting with different sources of heat and different substances : Relative absorbability of different kinds of heat...
Page 306 - He assumes that all particles of matter are more or less conductors; that in their quiescent state they are not arranged in a polarized form, but become so by the influence of contiguous and charged particles. They then assume a forced state, and tend to return, by a powerful tension, to their original normal position ; that being more or less conductors the particles charge either bodily or by polarity ; that contiguous particles can communicate their forces more or less readily one to the other....
Page 405 - To these laws may be added a sixth — viz. : — 6. Those bodies only are electrolytes which are composed of a conductor and a non-conductor. The conductors accumulate on the platinode, the non-conductors on the zincode. For example, iodide of lead when melted conducts the current ; metallic lead, which is a conductor, accumulates at the platinode ; whilst iodine, which is a non-conductor even when melted, collects at the zincode. On the other hand, red chloride of sulphur...
Page 33 - This result gives the weight of a bulk of water equal to that of the specimen, and by dividing the weight of the specimen in air by this number, the specific gravity is obtained.