« PreviousContinue »
with the blood, it is reasonable to suppose, that the pressure on the aorta would have occasioned some diminution of them, and that the complete obstruction of the circulation would have caused them to cease altogether.
From these considerations, I am induced, on the whole, Appears to act to believe, that the infusion of tobacco, when injected into on the nerthe intestines, influences the heart through the medium of the nervous system; but I have not been able to devise any experiment, by which the truth or fallacy of this opinion might be put beyond the reach of doubt.
It appears remarkable, that the brain and nervous system, affecting it although not necessary to the action of the heart, should, very power. fully. while under the influence of the infusion of tobacco, be capable of influencing this organ so as to stop its action; but this is analogous to what we see occur in consequence of violent emotions of the mind. Those states of the nervous system, which accompany the passions of joy, fear, or anger, when existing in a moderate degree, render the heart more sensible to the stimulus of the blood, and increase the frequency of its contractions; while, when the same passions exist in a greater degree, the heart is rendered altogether insensible to the stimulus of the blood, and syncope ensues.
Experiments with the Empyreumatic Oil of Tobacco*.
Exp. 13. Less than a drop of this oil was applied to the Effects of emtongue of a young cat. Instantly violent convulsions took pyreumatic oil place in all the muscles, and the respirations became very Exp. 13. frequent. In five minutes after the application, she lay on one side insensible, with slight spasmodic actions of the muscles. At the end of eleven minutes, she retched, but did not vomit. In a quarter of an hour, she appeared to be recovering. I repeated the application of the poison, and she was again seized with violent convulsions, and became insensible, breathing at long intervals, and in two minutes from the second application respiration had entirely ceased, and she was apparently dead. On opening the thorax, I
* I was furnished with the empyreumatic oil of tobacco by Mr. W. Brande. It may be procured by subjecting the leaves of tobacco to dis tillation in a heat above that of boiling water: a quantity of watery fluid comes over, on the surface of which is a thin film of unctuous substance. VOL. XXX,-Dec. 1811. X found
Acted like the
found the heart acting with regularity and strength, circulating dark-coloured blood. I introduced a tube into the trachea, and produced artificial respiration; the contractions of the heart became augmented in force and frequency, and there was no evident diminution in six or seven minutes, during which the artificial respiration was continued.
On dissection, nothing remarkable was found in the appearance of the tongue or brain.
The symptoms and mode of death, in this experiment, essential oil of did not essentially differ from those produced by the essential oil of almonds. I was surprised to find the effects of the empyreumatic oil so entirely different from those of the infusion of tobacco. Supposing that this difference might arise from the poison being more concentrated in the oil than in the infusion, I made the following experiments.
Exp. 14. A drop of the oil of tobacco was suspended in an ounce and a half of water by means of mucilage of gum arabic, and the whole was injected into the rectum of a dog. In two minutes afterward he became faint, retched, but did not vomit. He appeared to be recovering from this state, and in twenty-five minutes after the first injection, it was repeated in the same quantity. He was then seized with symptoms similar to those in the last experiment, and in two minutes and a half he was apparently dead.
Two minutes after apparent death, on the thorax being opened into, the heart was found acting regularly one hundred times in a minute, and it continued acting for several minutes.
Exp. 15. A drop of the empyreumatic oil of tobacco with an ounce of water was injected into the rectum of a cat. The symptoms produced were in essential circumstances similar to those, which occurred in the last experiment. The animal was apparently dead in five minutes after the injection, and the heart continued to contract for several minutes afterward.
We may conclude from these experiments, that the empyreumatic oil of tobacco, whether applied to the tongue, or injected into the intestine, does not stop the action of the heart and induce syncope, like the infusion of tobacco; but that it occasions death by destroying the functions of the
brain, without directly acting on the circulation. In other words, its effects are similar to those of alcohol, the juice of aconite, and the essential oil of almonds.
(To be concluded in our next.)
Analysis of a Chinese Gong-gong: by Mr. KLAPROTH*.
AMONG sonorous instruments the composition of cop- Sonorousness pcr with tin gives the loudest sound. Bells, we know, are of bell metal. composed of this alloy. The celebrated bell of Pekin, the
largest in the World, which is twenty feet in diameter, and sixteen inches thick, is no doubt cast of it.
The Chinese frequently use another kind of bells too, The Chinese which are not cast, but hammered out. These instruments, gong. called gongst, are not shaped like a common bell, but like a shield with the edge turned up: and give an astonishing sound when struck. Barrow, in his voyage to China, says of these instruments; that they are like flat pots, or rather potlids; that they are struck with a stick wrapped round with leather; and that they are supposed to be formed of copper, tin, and bismuth.
The thickness of this alloy is about that of the back of a Analysis of it. knife; its colour is a bronze yellow; and its spec. grav. 8'815.
A hundred and fifty grains were heated with nitric acid; and 42 grs of oxide of tin separated; answering to -33 grs of metallic tin.
Into the filtered liquor sulphuric acid was poured, and the mixture was evaporated to dryness. The residuum being dissolved in water, iron precipitated from it 117 grs of copper. The gong therefore is composed of Copper
The property of emitting a sound that can be heard so far Cause of its depends on the mutual penetration of the metals, and the loud sound, greater density of the alloy, which is farther increased by hammering. Perhaps too the form of the instrument contributes to this.
+ Ann. de Chim. vol. LXXV, p. 322.
+ Tshoung, in the Chinese language, signifies a bell.
N. B. The observations in each line of the Table apply to a period of twentyfour hours, beginning at 9 A. M. on the day indicated in the first column. A dash denotes, that the result is included in the next following observation.
Tenth Month. 12. Windy: wet evening. 13. Much wind. 14. A shower before nine a. m. at which time occurred the max. of temp. 15. Much dew on the grass: serene day twilight milky, with converging streaks of red. 16. a m. Much dew: a mist on the river: the smoke of the city remarkably depressed, and sounds unusually strong from thence: some thunder clouds appeared and passed to E.
clouds surmounted with cirrostratus, and cirri above. 18. A very wet mist a. m. wind N.W. at two p. m. cloudy; very moist air, the dew point (or temperature at which a body colder than the air condenses water from it) being 63°: about sunset, at temp. 63, I found dew just beginning to be deposited on the grass: it rained hard about five next morning. 19. a. m. Misty, small rain: p. m. clear: evening, cirri very elevated, and long coloured red; a stratus forming. 20. Misty: then overcast: the wind, which had been E., veering by S.: abundance of gossamer, A quicken-trea (Sorbus aucuparia) exhibits a new set of leaves and blossoms along with the ripe berries: 21. Gray morning, with little dew and a strong breeze. 22. a. m. Dew scarce perceptible: wind veers to S., a breeze: p. m. very cloudy, with showers: much wind at night. 24. At mid day a drizzling rain, during which the vane turned to E. 25. Clear, fine day: wind veered to S.: at sunset nimbi and cirrostrati in S. W.: heavy shower by eleven p. m. 26. Showery: a fine rainbow at ten a. m. 27. a. m. Nimbi in different quarters, mixed with cumulus and cirrostratus, bencath large plumose cirrus clouds. 28. a. m. Clear, much dew, nimbi forming amidst various clouds: vane at N. E.: p. m. a shower in the S., during which appeared, for a short time, a numerous flight of swallows: they bad been last observed on the 15th: the wind returned by S. to N. W. with much cloud and rain. 30. At nine a. m. the rain intermitting, the highest and most considerable mass of clouds was moving from W. an intermediate portion from S., and the wind below fresh at E.: in this state of things sounds came very freely from the westward, and by eleven the wind was S. W. at three p. m. distinct nimbi and a bright bow: showery at night, with a lunar halo. 31. a. m. Clear: the sun and moon appeared red on the horizon: at night, the wind being S. sounds came loud from the W..
Eleventh Month. 1. a. m. Much cloud: wind fresh at S. W. 2. As yesterday : stormy at night 3. A rainbow at eight a. m. 4. a. m. Nimbi to windward: at sunset, the dense clouds in the E. finely coloured: rainbow: wind W. 5. a. m., Stormy: p.m. wet. 6. Cloudy, showery: evening, abundance of cirrostratus: a wet night.
Barometer: highest observation 30 21 inches; lowest 28.65 inches; range 1:56 inches.
Thermometer: highest observation 73°; lowest 38°; range 35°.
Evaporation 2:44 inches. Rain 3:05 inches.
Wind with little exception S. W. and S. The fore part of the period changeable; the latter wet, without the usual intervening frosty nights.
PLAISTOW, Eleventh Mo. 20, 1811.