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lancholy pride. The degeneracy of the Portuguese, niards, had effaced the old enmity between the two was confined to the higher ranks, whom every nations, and an union had thus naturally been possible cause, physical and moral, combined to effected along the border. They are a fine, hospidegrade. Generation after generation, they had table race, of whom, as indeed, of the nation at intermarried, not merely within the narrow circle large, those persons who have been most conversant of a few privileged families, but oftentimes in their with them uniformly speak the best. The upper own uncles with their nieces, nephews with their boughs were cankered, but the trunk and root aunts. The canonical law was dispensed with for were sound.

these alliances; but no dispersing power could set Soon after Junot entered Lisbon he established aside the law of nature, which rendered degenera his head quarters at the palace of Quintella, who ey the inevitable and righteous consequence.was supposed to be the most wealthy man in Por Thus was the breed deteriorated; and education¦tugal. The contributions which were levied upon completed the mischief. The young hidalgo was this man's purse were immense, but his conduct never regarded as a boy: as soon as the robes, or was so contemptible that no one pitied him. On rather the bandages of infancy were laid aside, he the arrival of the French, he gave a sumptuous appeared in the dress of manhood, was initiated in entertainment to the generals and chief officers of its forms and follies, and it was rather his misfor-the army, in hopes, to ingratiate himself with the tune than his fault, if, at an early age, he became commander in chief. His guests seemed highly familiar with its vices. When he arrived at man gratified with the civilities of their host, and surhood, no field for exertion was open to him, even prised at such a display of opulence. The costly if he were qualified or disposed to distinguish him- paintings which decorated the walls, of which self. A wasteful expenditure inade him a bad land- many were productions of the most eminent mas-lord, and a bad paymaster; a deficient education ters of Italy, particularly attracted the notice of the made him a bad statesman; and a loose morality general en chef, who is said to be a great connoismade him a bad patriot. There is an original good-seur. So singularly had they hit his fancy, that he ness in human nature, which not unfrequently next morning despatched a note to Quintella, com survives the most baneful circumstances in which plimenting him on the taste he had shown in his coiit can be placed. These causes of degeneracy were lection, and requesting, as a favor,that the pictures common to all the Portuguese nobility: the effects, might immediately be sent him by the bearer of the of course, were not equally apparent in all; and message. He also took occasion, soon after, to they who followed the prince regent to Brazil dis played no common loyality.

The clergy were not so learned as their prede cessors nor were they so intolerant. The middle classes were improved,-the peasantry uncorrupt ed; their occupations were the same as those of their forefathers, nor did they differ from them in any respect, except the very important one, that a long interval of peace, and their frequent inter course and frequent intermarriages with the Spa

observe to his entertainer how muck flattered he felt by his politeness, and how happy he was to see the affection he had manifested to the person of his master, the great Napoleon, observing at the same time, that as he had seen no house in Lisbon which he liked so well, he intended in future to confer on him the honor of residing in it himself. Quintella thus had the pleasure of maintaining the general and all his staff.

The vigorous measures which Junot adopted were sufficient to repress the people till the revolution in The Portuguese historians with a modesty pe Spa n broke out. Deputies, as they were called culiar to themselves declare that the descriptions of were sent to Bayonne : they were composed of those Elysium, and of the garden of Eden as given by persons whom it was thought proper to secure in the poets, are not merely shadows of imagination. France, because of their loyalty, and of others but real pictures of their country, and its capital who would be fit tools for Bonaparte's pleasure.Europe, says one of them, Antonio de Macedo, is Among the former was the Marquis of Abrantes, the best of the four quarters of the world. Spain the president of the regency, appointed by the prince is the best part of Europe, and Portugal the best before his voluntary banishment,-whose estates, part of Spain. It is manifest, observes another, with the title of duke, were confererd upon Junot, Luis Mendez de Vasconcellos, that the Europeans when the emperor created his new nobility. A let. are superior to the rest of the world, and that they er from these deputies to the Portuguese nation was who inhabit the most temperate regions are most ciculated by the duke-intruder, informing them of perfect by nature. It is therefore evident that as their interview with the emperor: that nothing could Lisbon is situated in the most temperate aspect, equal the extent of his genins, and the generosity the influence of the heavens must necessarily of his principles; that he had spoken with a noble make its inhabitants most perfect of all incor- indifference concerning the rights which events had poreal beauty, and mental excellence. The same given him over Portugal; had treated of the means grave author in a work called O sitio de Lisboa, of raising them to their due station among the pow which was written in the beginning of the 17th ers of the continent, and of delivering them from century, and has since been printed by the Acade- the yoke of British influence, under which they my, accordingly proves from Plato and Aristotle, had so long suffered; for he would endure no Eng that Lisbon is the first of earthly cities. A Portu-lish colony on the continent: finally he had deguese divine, in speaking of the temptations offered clared that their own fate was in their hands, dependto our Saviour by Satan, who showed him, from ing on the uprightness with which they should emthe mountains all the kingdoms of the earth, ex brace the general cause of Europe, and the firmness claims; "Ah fortunate is it that the kingdom of with which they should resist temptation. Portugal was concealed from his view by the moun But these artifices were of no avail when the peotains of Spain, or our blessed Lord would never ple heard of the revolution in Spain. The insurreehave been able to resist the offer." It is a common tion began in Algarve. Here where the commotions observation among them-"all the world allows in Andalusia could not possibly be concealed from that our country is the finest on earth." They the people, an ediet was fixed up in all the towns, also say Portugal is small, but it is a lump of calling upon the Portuguese to take arms again t sugar." the Spanish insurgents- This was done on the day

of the Corpo de Deos, in the little town of Olhao,, great advantage, both to the Portuguese and the a place inhabited by sea-faring men, about a league Spanish, by marching to the relief of Lisbon. In from the city of Taro. Jose Zopes de Sousa, a the north of Portugal, and consequently, at no colonel in the Portuguese army tore down the edict, great distance from Gallicia, the French were sti and cried out to the people "ah Portuguese, we no in force. Sir Arthur therefore proceeded to Oporlonger deserve that name, and we are now nothing."to, on his arrival there, the governor informed him Fired at the reproach they replied they were ready that the Portuguese force was sufficient to deter the to sacrifice every thing for their country. A meet French from making any attacks, or if not, to reing was immediately held in the church, where Jopel them. That he might be able to form a more se Lopez was elected their commander. They then correct opinion, sir Aithur, however, left his made preparations to defend the town, knowing forces at Oporto, in order to have a conference with that the French in Faro would attack it as soon as Sir Charles Cotton, off Lisbon;-with whom he they heard what had passed. General Moraiu, the consulted about the practicability and prudence of French governor of Algarve, resided at Faro, and, orcing the entrance of the Tagus, and attacking on the following day he sent a detachment to invest the forts in the near vicinity of that capital. In the Olhao. They were driven back with some loss mean time, while he was on board the Hibernia, and when a reinforcement was sent from Faro, the the admiral's ship, he received a letter from general inhabitants of that city took advantage of their ab- Spencer, who was then, with about 6000 men, off sence: a countryman put himself at their head and Cadiz. This force was destined to be employed they overpowered the garrison. The French re- either in co operating with the Spanish forces unturning from Olhao to secure Faro, were repulsed der Castanos, in their operations against Dupont, and obliged to fly to Mertola, where there was a or in conjunction with the expedition under Sir division destined, with the troops from Algarve, to Arthur. As the junta of Seville did not deem this enter Spain and succour Dupont. The countryman assistance to them necessary, general Spencer was who had so successfully exerted himself at Faro ordered by sir Arthur to join him. The English now hastened upon a patriotic exhibition to Loule, general, having made himself acquainted with the Albofeina, Sylves, Alvor, Lagos, and other towns; numerical strength and disposition of the French -the French and their most notorious partizans army, determined to land his forces in Mondego were made prisoners in every place, and in eight bay, where he could effect it, and form his army, and forty hours the whole province of Algarve had without any opposition from the enemy:-and, at recovered its liberty. Other parts of Portugal were the same time he would be assisted and supported less fortunate in asserting their rights. The open by the Portuguese army which had advanced to and level country of Altentejo was peculiarly unfa Coimbra. Soon after the disembarcation was effectvorable to a war carried on by peasantry and towns-ed, the force under general Spencer also landed : men against a regular force of horse and foot; and and on the 12th Aug. the army reached Legoria, on here Junot's threats were carried into full execu- the road to Lisbon, on the 19th the army halted, tion. Two hundred persons were killed in the and on the 20th the general came to a determination streets of Villa Vigosa. Six thousand Portuguese to attack the French under general Laborde, at att. mpted to defend the city of Beza, and how Roleia.

bavely they defended it may be understood from Roleia is situated on an eminence, having a plain the admission of the French,--That they did not in its front, at the end of a valley, which commengive way till 1200 were left on the field. No quarter ces at Caldas, and is closed to the southward by was given and the city was given up to the soldiers. mountains, which join the hills, forming the valley Similar horrors were perpetrated to the north of on the left, looking from Caldas. In the centre of Lisbon: towns and villages were burnt, priests the valley, and about eight miles from Roleia, is the murdered at the altar, and nuns violated in their town and old Moorish fort of Cebidos, from which convents, the French piquets had been driven on the 15th;

Such was the state of Portugal at the time when from that time the French had posts in the hills on the patriots in Andalusia were pressing on Dupont, both sides of the valley, as well as on the plain in when the intruder was marching to Madrid, and front of the army, which was posted on the heights when Palafox was so gloriously defending the streets in front of Roleia, its right resting upon the hills,its and houses of Zaragosa. These transactions on left upon an eminence and the whole covering four the peninsula excited the deepest interest in the or five passes into the mountains in their rear.English people, not so much for the hope, which Their force, at that time, consisted of about 6000 had thus unexpectedly arisen, of advantages to men, of which about 500 were cavalry, with five England, and to the general welfare of Europe, as pieces of cannon; but there was some reason to for the nature of the contest, their detestation of believe that they would be reinforced on the right the unequalled iniquity by which it had been pro-wing, by general Loison in the course of the night. voked, and their sympathy in the instinct and prin- The plan of attack was therefore immediately formciple by which it was carried on. The militia al ed. The army was formed into three columns. The most universally offered themselves for foreign right consisted of 120 Portuguese infantry, and 50 service, and the country called for an effort equal Portuguese cavalry, destined to turn the enemy's to the occasion, which, had it been made, would, left, and penetrate into the mountains in his rear. in all human probability, have destroyed the fortune The left consisted of major-general Ferguson's and of Bonaparte. brigadier-general Bowe's brigades of infantry, three An army of 10,000 men under the command of companies of riflemen, a brigade of light artillery, sir Arthur Wellesley, sailed from Cork on the 12th and 20 British and 20 Portugueze cavalry, destined of July, and arrived at Corunna on the 20th. Sir to ascend the hills at Cebidos, to turn the enemy's Arthur offered the assistance of the force under his posts on the left of the valley, as well as the right command to the junta of Gallicia: but they replied of the post of Roleia, and to watch the approach of that they did not want men: that they wished for general Loison. The centre column consisted of nothing from the British government but money, four brigades under major general Hill and brigaarins and ammunition. But they expressed their dier general Nightingale, Crauford and Fane, and conviction that his army might be employed with 400 Portuguese light infantry, the British and Por

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tuguese cavalry, a brigade of nine-pounders and whose lot would not have fallen in the army, under another of sixes. The battle was fiercely contested, any other system than that of the conscription, but did not continue long. The French were beat though having been forced into it, they had acquiren, but the English purchased their victory by ed the worst vices which have ever degraded and the loss of 479 men, killed, wounded and missing. disgraced the profession of arms. In this battle the The loss of the enemy was still greater, but they ef French lost 13 pieces of cannon, 23 ammunition fected their retreat, in good order, to Torres Vedras, waggons, and about 3000 killed, wounded and miswhere general Laborde was joined by Loison. Si sing. The English lost about 1000. Arthur then moved to Vimiera to protect the land- Alter the dispositions for the battle of Vimiera ing of brigadier general Anstruther, of whose arriv- had been made, sir Harry Burrard arrived, as comal on the coast he heard on the evening of the battle. mander in chief, but from feelings of delicacy toJunot having heard of the large reinforcement wards sir Arthur, he declined to take upon himself under general Moore, which was expected, deter- the command of the army. On the following day mined to attack the English before it should arrive. he was superceded in turn by the arrival of sir Hew He, therefore, marched out of Lisbon with all his Dalrymple. Within a few hours after his arrival, a force, and assumed the command of the army at flag of truce came in from Junot, proposing a cesTorres Vedras. On the 20th news arrived that gesation of hostilities, in order that a convention neral Auckland was in the offing, and in the even-might be settled, by which the French should evaing of the same day, sir Harry Burrard arrived in cuate Portugal. When intelligence was received in Marceira Roads to take the command. Sir Arthur's England that Junot's army had sustained a signal plan had been to march on the following morning, defeat, it was expected that other victories would push his advanced guard to Mafra, and halt the main follow, and that it would ultimately lead to solid adbody about four or five miles from that place, thus vantages. But the convention soon arrived, in turning the enemy's position at Torres Vedras.- which it was stipulated that the English governOrders had been issued for this march; but the arment should be at the expense of transporting the rival of the new commander disconcerted the plan, whole of the French army to any of the ports beand the orders were consequently recalled. tween Rochfort and L'Orient-when the army ar Vimiera stands in a valley about three miles from the rived in France it was to be at liberty to serve again sea, and is screened from the sea breezes by moun-all the property of the individuals of the army tains, through which the little river Maceira winds was to be sacred, &c. We have not room to expa


way. The western termination of these moun-tiate on the weakness and folly of the conquerors tains reaches the shore, the eastern is separated by in receiving such terms from their fallen foe. The a deep ravine from the heights, over which the road Spaniards and Portuguese were highly dissatisfied passes from Lourinha. The greater part of the in- with the convention, and in England it was regard. fantry was posted on these hills, with eight pieces ed as a deep and mortal wound upon the honor of of cannon; major general Hill's brigade being on the country. The London newspapers joined in the right, and major-general Ferguson's on the left, one common cry of wonder and abhorrence, and having one battalion on the heights beyond the rathe provincial journals proved that one feeling pervine. A hill on the southeast of the village com-vaded the nation-some refused to disgrace their mands all the ground to the southward and eastward, pages by inserting so infamous a treaty; others being itself commanded from the mountain to the surrounded it with broad black lines, putting their west. This hill was occupied by brigadiers general journal in mourning for the dismal information it Anstruther and Fane. The left of this hill was com contained; some headed the page with a represenmanded from the heights over which the road to tation of three gallowses, and a general suspended Laurinha passes; and that position was only oc from each, cut in wood for the occasion. cupied by a picket, as the camp had been taken up It was in vain the ministry ordered the tower for only a single night. The cavalry and the reserve guns to be fired, and other rejoicings to be made.—of artillery were in the valley, flanking and sup. The throne was besieged with petitions from all porting brigadier-general Fane's advanced guard. parts of the kingdom, calling loudly for an inquiry At eight in the morning of the 21st, large bodies of into the transaction. An inquiry was set on foot. the enemy's cavalry appeared upon the heights to The opinion which the board delivered was, that the left, threatening the weak part of the British po- they could not pronounce with confidence, whe sition. Four brigades under brigadier-general Fer-ther the victory of Vimiera ought to have been purguson were immediately moved across the ravine. sued; but considering the extraordinary circumThe attack began upon the advanced guard, where stances under which two new commanders arrived the French were bravely received. General Auck from the ocean, and joined the army-the one dur land, with the last of the four brigades which had been ing, and the other immediately after the battle, and ordered to the heights, attacked them in flank on those successively superceding each, and both the his way; and, after a desperate contest, they were original commanders, within the space of twenty driven back, with the loss of seven pieces of can-four hours, it was not surprising that the army was non. The attack was commenced about the same not carried forward until the second day after the time on the Lourinha heights; it was made with the action, from the necessity of the general's being acusual impetuosity of the French, and supported by quainted with the actual state of things. On a cona large body of horse. The British riflemen were sideration of all the circumstances, they thought driven in: but general Ferguson's division received no further military proceeding was necessary on the the enemy with a tremendous volley and brought subject; and however some of them might differ in them to the bayonet. They were the flower of the opinion on the fitness of the convention, it was French army, and they came to the charge like men their unanimous declaration, that unquestionable accustomed to victory. But in one moment their zeal and firmness had been exhibited by all the geforemost rank fell, like a line of grass before the nerals.

scythes of the mowers: The French gave way and The board was called upon to resume its consisix pieces of cannon were taken from them in the deration of the armistice and convention, and propursuit. Most of the wounded French were young nounce decidedly whether they thought them advis men, and of delicate appearance,-apparently meal able. The armistice was disapproved by the earl of

Travellers in America.



Moira; the convention by the same nobleman, by "mpertinent inquiries." Athousand tricks were dexthe earl of Pembroke and general Nicolls: thus, terously played off, to discover his occupation, trade, six of the seven members approved of the armistice, intentions, &c. One offered to sell him a land lotand four approved the convention. The proceed-tery; another proposed his taking "a contract for ings were concluded by a declaration from the king, building a bridge;" and a third advised him to adopting the unanimous opinion of the board, that "place his funds in a manufactory of wearer's shutno farther military proceeding was necessary. tles; buy up unpaid for British goods, 20 per cent. As the defeat of Junot and the deliverance of under prime cost; sell them by auction, and then Portugal were only mediate, and not the ultimate buy a patent for making improved fish-haoks." object of the British army, it marched from Lisbon, if he intended to become a school-master, a lawyer, a under the command of sir John Mooit, to the as parson, or a doctor, they advised him to travel elsesistance of the Spanish patriots. where, as expeditiously as possible, for that people of that sort "were hardly held in repute among them." All these things, and many more, which happened to the poor emigrant in the course of "one (CONTINUED FROM PAGE 96.) short hour" naturally enough dispelled his fair Thomas Ashe, esquire, having met with nothing dreams of American independence, and shewed the in the north eastern, middle or southern states, inhabitants to him in their true light-"a race of imworthy the observation" of his correspondent, fix-pudent, selfish, sordid individuals, without either es his residence for a time at Pittsburg. In this de principle or common honesty. Unwilling, however, lightful spot he experienced much attention and to form his judgment hastily, this man of Sussex made hospitality from the inhabitants, who are "princi up his mind to travel. He passed through "the mapally Irish" and whose influence over the customslignant ordeals of the middle states; through the and manners of the people, "has hindered the burning fevers which annually claim their thousands, vicious propensities of the genuine American charac and depopulate the great towns of New-York, Phi ter, from establishing here the horrid dominion ladelphia and Baltimore," and arrived at length in the they have assumed over the Atlantic states." Mr. south, where, though he found no yellow fever, he Ashe speaks in raptures of the ladies, with whom, found what was still worse, slavery, tyranny, indeed, he seems to have been a favorite every where sloth, avarice and licentiousness." Having now "vi-for he takes particular pains to exclude them from sited the whole of settled America," and experiencany share in the supreme disgust" which the peo-ed nothing but disgust; he began to reflect upon ple of the United States excited in him. In Pitts the absurdity of renouncing “the honor of being a burg they are better educated than the men, and British subject, for the degradation of becoming a make very praiseworthy and constant wives, never citizen of such states," and wisely determined to quit forsaking their husbands even in the yellow fever, a country so "infamously licentious," and return when servants and all others have fled "the dread to the undisturbed security of his own mild and pas contagion." As this is an instance of conjugal afternal government. Another fact highly interestfection, not to be met with elsewhere, it richly merits ing, and one which must suffice to deter every man to be recorded. There appears to be still some lit of common understanding from a wish to emigrate to tle religion left in the place, which, however, it this country, is, that Priestly found so sad a conmay be supposed cannot last much longer, as "they trast between this and his native land, that he soon are frittering it into a thousand ceremonies, a thoufell into a deep melancholy, and died BROKEN sand absurd and eccentric shapes." Mr. Ashe was HEARTED," well nigh frightened to death, by seeing an old man Our traveller having performed this much of his emerge from the woods, wrapped up in a cloak, with duty, makes an excursion to Morgan town, and a long beard flowing upon his breast; which he Presqu' isle; and, after lighting upon various Inabsolutely mistook for a huge bear, until inform dian antiquities, and hoarding up a fund of witty ed that the object of his dread, was a harmless anecdotes, returns once more to Pittsburgh, which "menonist" whose religion prompted him to soli place seems to have been peculiarly favorable to the tary acts of devotion, and to s ffer his beard to grow developement of his inventive faculties. He discounchecked. The scholastic establishments do no vered, during this peregrination, that the Americans great credit to the town; but the markets are excel universally prefer to build their houses in "botlent, being abundantly supplied with "provisions of toms," being too lazy to dwell upon the hills, from every description." The amusements of the people which their avocations would give them the daily vary according to the season; in winter they cariole trouble of descending; and though they every day "by torch light," and in summer hold "rural fes-see the evil consequences resulting from such a tivals in the vicinity of clear springs." But lest this choice, still "they persist, and prefer inactivity and favorable account of Pitsburg should "dispose some disease to health and comfort, when the latter are minds on the other side of the water to emigration" to be purchased by exertion." The stores to be met our traveller takes care to wind it up with a long and with, in this part of the country, are really curiminute detail of the perplexities and calamities experi-osities, and are as well worth a voyage across the enced by a Sussex farmer, who had been seduced to Atlantic, as Mr. Jefferson's rock. Each shop leave his native land, by reading the "blasphemous re-exhibits a complete medley; a magazine where are veries of Jefferson, Tom Paine, and Priestly." The to be had both a needle and an anchor; a child's unfortunate emigrant arrived at Boston with his fami- whistle and a piano-forte; a gill of whisky, and a ly and in an instant a swarm of custom-house offi. hogshead of Madeira wine." But the store keepers cers were on board, and began their work of search, are an abominable set of rogues, who never to extortion and pillage." From these, however, the impose upon their customers, if possible; for notpoor farmer escaped, but unhappily, only to meet withstanding the "complete medley" of their shops, with new difficulties; for he had no sooner landed, they are sure never to have any article that is asked than he "found himself surrounded by a crowd of for. "I have known a person ask for a pair of shoes, persons" who nearly annihilated him with their and receive for answer, that there were no shoes

*Vide Vol. I.


in the store, but some capital gin. I have heard another ask for a rifle gun, and be answered that

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there were no rifles, but that he could be accommo-tachment to the French government. The remains dated with the best Dutch looking glasses, and Ger- of good sense, and the loud admonitions of others man flutes in the country. Another was directed by have at length prevailed, and though he continues his wife to bring her a warming pan, smoothing irons, his affection to the Gallic cock, still he ceases to hate and scrubbing brushes, but these were denied; and and bully the British lion. There are in America no a wooden cuckoo clock sent home in their stead."-real politicians, the speeches you see in papers are A perplexing instance of these cross purposes occur-made by Irish and Scotch journalists, who attend red to our traveller himself; for upon offering an the congress and senate merely to take the spirit of elegant horse, which he rode, for sale, the purcha- their proceedings and clothe it with a language inteser, instead of money fobbed him off with a parcel resting to read. Attending the debates of congress of iron stew pans to the amount of an hundred and on a day, when a subject of consequence was to be thirty dollars, which he was obliged to lug all the discussed, I left the house fall of contempt of its eloway to Pittsburg, and there exchange them for quence and the paucity of talent employed for the glass bottles. This occasion of paying a second vi- support or condemnation of the question. Not-. sit to that place, gives him an opportunity of dis-withstanding this I read in the next morning's ga, covering various circumstances to corroborate the zette-that a debate took place in the house last account given us by Moses of the general deluge; night of the most interesting nature; that it was upon which he descants most philosophically. This agitated by all the talent in the country-particularly very naturally leads him to speak of the productions by Messrs. Dayton, Morgan, Otty, Dawson, &c.. of the soil; with the rich variety of which he seems whose brilliant speeches we lay before the publicdelighted, and strongly recommends that a society I had the misfortune to attend the congress at anoof naturalists should visit the place under the patron ther time, when the scene was more noisy and turbu age of government. He then makes an abruptient than at any of your electionering hustings.-transition" to the inhabitants of the U. States ge-A Mr. Lyon, of Vermont, now of Kentucky, not nerally, that is, of the civilized parts; but on this sub-being able to disprove the arguments of his oppoject alas! oh dear!! heighho!!! it may be said nent, spit directly in his face: this the other resenwith the greatest truth,” ted by running to the fire and catching up a hot poker "Man is the only growth that dwindles here." and in a short time nearly killed his opponent and As his remarks on this lamentable state of human cleared the house. I suppose this is sufficient on this nature, contain so much candour; so much veraci-head; [he must be unreasonable, indeed, for whom ty; so many powerful arguments; and such irresis-this is not sufficient !] from it you can readily learn table weight of testimony, we should be doing great that the congress is a violent vulgar assembly, which injustice to our traveller, and deprive our readers of hired persons attend, to debate on state affairs, and much profitable amusement, if we did not give them that the public newspapers are conducted by foreign entire; premising only, what Mr. Ashe has frequent-editors, who amplify such debates and give them ly assured his correspondent, that he never makes a something of a polished and interesting character.general assertion, without having established it by Nor has the church any brighter ornaments than actual evidence and decisive testimonies." It will be the state. The members of it have no conception of seen that he takes in the whole range of science, eloquence. Mr. Smith of Princeton college has the warriors, statesmen, politicians, churchmen, law-highest reputation as a divine and orator. I went yers, physicians, astronomers, &c. &c. which can to hear him preach, and had the mortification to find not fail to establish his own claim to preeminent disa transposed sermon of Blair, delivered in a strain tinction. "I know of no great warriors in America. of dull monotony.—-A Mr. Livingstone and a Mr. I cannot honor by that name even the men who over-Emmitt are the only lawyers that enjoy repute-- Dr. whelmed a handful of British, and after several Rush of Philadelphia and Dr. Wilson of N. York years combat obtained an unprofitable victory. In monopolize all the medical character of the counlike manner, I have known a shoal of herrings run try-and yet the yellow fever still rages. As to the down a whale on the coast of Cornwall, but it did [other] departments of science, I am told there has not follow that I was to attribute this accident to the been a Franklin and a Rittenhouse-I have no dis individual prowess of any of such contemptible ani position to retract from the merits of such gentlemals, or to the absence of strength and capacity in men, but I cannot admit that these two instances the whale. This is so just a picture of the Ameri after the mediocrity of genius are sufficient to juscan war and its close, that I hasten to the statesmen.tify Mr. Jefferson in saying that Mr. Buffon was And who are they?—I admit there are two in the guilty of a gross error when he asserted that mun country; the one after many years of public life and beast degenerated in America-M. Buffon was devoted to a democratic party, had the good sense perfectly right in his assertion. The reflections likeagain to become an apostate to monarchy, though he ly to arise in your mind out of this, I shall not intermight have predicted that it would occasion his full rupt." from the head of the government, and expose him As we have yet a long distance to follow Mr. to the most intemperate abuse of the jacobinical fac Ashe to the end of his journey, we shall here stop tion. He met those events soon after with a manly for a little to take breath; and admire the wonderful titude, and Mr. JOHN ADAMS now leads a private acquirements which have enabled our traveller to life, beloved by the admirers of good sense and sound give so correct a decision upon such variety of matand practical political economy. There is no doubt ter.

but that he is the first statesman in America.-The We have frequently heard of Jacks of all trades; next statesman to Mr. Adams, is Mr. Jefferson.-but then, they have been generally represented as This gentleman has more theoretical talent, than good at none. We have seen Encyclopædias of the sterling political ability. And yet to shew some arts and sciences; but these have been formed by respect to the cry of the world, Feall him a statesman, the joint labors of societies of learned men: And we though he certainly has betrayed more dereliction remember to have once heard a gentleman compliand tergiversation, than ought to be accorded to so¦mented with the title of walking library. But Mr. high and eminent a name. During the whole of his Ashe presents to our mind the more novel, as well two presidencies he has been fluctuating between the as infinitely more interesting spectacleo atravelling interests of his country, and his préjudice and at-luniversity." We find him, not only master of all the

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