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disposed to supply the wants which had prevented any variety of it slightly improved" or otherwise, his pursuit of the French before the battle of Tala- as he insinuates; and when Columella writes again vera, he deemed it prudent to retreat to Badajoz. on the subject, I would advise him, to come out Here, during the remainder of the year his army under or above his own proper signature, that the remained not only inactive, but exposed to the ra- public may know what respect to attach to his exvages of disorder, produced by the unhealthiness of perience and judgment. the situation.


Cultivation of the Vine.

That there are more palatable grapes, and a great variety of them, is a fact: but I would ask Colu mella, does the sweetest apple make the best cyder, or the sweetest grape the best wine? Had he given Mr. Bernard McMahon, of Philadelphia, well himself the trouble of visiting Spring Mill vineyard, last autumn, he would have seen such a profusion known to the public for his treatise on gardening, of fruit on those vines, and of such quality, as &c. gives the following interesting information in might reasonably be expected to obviate his apprereply to an anonymous writer in one of the Phila-hensions; and had he tasted of the wine made of delphia papers.

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this fruit, now in the company's vault at Spring Mill, and of the brandy distilled from it, now in Philadelphia, this probably would have cured him of his scepticism.

To the editor of the Daily Advertiser. Having observed in your paper of the 17th inst. above the signature of "COLUMELLA,' some observations on the variety of grape, known for I will now take leave of Columella, by observing, many years in the vicinity of Philadelphia, by the that he has taken more notice of the progress of the trivial name of the "Cape of Good Hope," which grape in the cities of Philadelphia and New-York, are evidently intended to discourage the cultivation than in the country parts, where it only can be thereof, and have a pointed allusion to an advertise-cultivated upon an extensive scale. It is well ment of mine, respecting the sale of cuttings of known, that European grapes, generally thrive said grape, &c. I am induced, by the interest 1 much better in our cities and large towns, than in feel for the independence and welfare of my coun. the country, especially under field vineyard culture; try, and fellow citizens, and by no other motive and domestic wines, sufficient for the consumption (for the cuttings offered for sale, are not my own, of the United States, can never be expected, from but I know them to be genuine) to state some facts, the few vines that can be raised in city gardens and which may probably satisfy Columella, himself, as back yards. well as those upon whom his observations may

have made an impression.

For several years previous to the month of Janu ary last, I had been one of the managers of the Vine Company of Pennsylvania, when the increase of my own concerns rendered it necessary for me to decline a re-election, during which time we had cultivated at the company's vineyard, every variety of grape we could procure from Europe, or elsewhere; and the result was, that in open-field or vineyard culture, no variety of grape succeeded to our entire satisfaction, but that called Cape of Good Hope, which bore fruit abundantly, and of which excellent wine and brandy have been made.

his back yard, as any in Europe; but before he
1 wish Columella as good and delicious grapes in
touches on the subject again, I would advise him to
consider it more maturely.

Aqueduct of Alcantara.

We are indebted to a friend (says a New-York paper) lately returned from Lisbon for the following:

The building was commenced in the 5th, and completed in 1712.-So admirable is the construction of all its parts that it appears to have received no damage during the great earthquake. Manuel da Maga was the name of the Architect; and its dimensions in the most depressed part of the valley are as follows:

Height of the arch from the ground to the


From the vortex of the arch to the extrades
exclusive of the parapet

From the extrades to the top of the venti


Total height from the ground to summit of
the ventilator

Breadth of the principal arch
Breadth of the piers of the principal arch
Thickness of the piers in general

Feet. In.

230 10


9 8

263 10 107 8 28 10 23 8

The president and managers of that institution, which was originally founded for the purpose of making a fair essay on the practicability of culti vating the grape vine with us, to national as well as individual advantage, will not hesitate to say, that after many years experience, they find that variety, known here by the name of the Cape of Good Hope grape, to be more likely to answer their expectations, than any other which they have. or had under cultivation, and that they are now fully satisfied, it will answer the end of giving wine and brandy in abundance, to the citizens of the U. States, if disseminated and cultivated with that spirit and care which it deserves. They have consequently given orders to their vine dresser, to propagate and cultivate this kind with avidity, in the company's vineyard. The number of arches across the valley is 35, 14 From whence it came originally, I will not pre-of which in a range are pointed, the rest semi circutend to say, nor is it of much importance, but Mr. lar. Over the arches is a vaulted corridor, 9 feet 6 Peter Legaux asserts, that the original plants, from inches high by five feet broad, internally-A contiwhich the present have been propagated, were nual passage runs through the centre of it for the brought to him many years ago, from the Cape of people who attend to keep it in order, and a semiGood Hope. I it be indigenous, is it to be des circular channel of 13 inches diameter on each side pised on that account? if foreign, and likely to through which the water flows.-Lisbon is supplied answer the end, why discourage its cultivation ? with water which is conveyed by means of this aquebut I can inform Columella, that it is not that spe-duct into reservoirs in different parts ofthe city, from cies of grape, known to us by the trivial name of which a laborious class of its inhabitants are emFox grape the Vitis Labrusca, of Linnæus, the Vployed in filling barrels and vending their contents taurina of Walter, and I. valpina of Marshall, nor through the city.

British Statistics.

We have been obligingly furnished with the following important and we are assured, accurate table. We have taken special care to have it carefully corrected to agree in every point with the office copy which was handed to us.


Dem. Press.

Shewing the progressive increase of the taxation, expenditure and national debt of Great Britain, from the accession of queen Anne, 1702, to the 5th of January, 1810. Also the amount of debt redeemed from the first operation of the redemption act, 1786, to the first of February, 1810. Together with the amount of all the loans from 1776 to 1810.

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1784. After the close of the American war and at the commencement of Mr. Pitt's administration,

1802. After the close of the last war commonly called the 36,728,971 French revolution war,

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61,278,018 579,931,447

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70,240,226 82,027,283 811,898,081

1810. 5th January

The National Funded Debt £761,117,455 18s. Od. 3-4. Unfunded Debl, £50,780,625 14s. 3d. Redeemed Debt, £163,679,089, January 5, 1810.

The Funding System commenced 1696, eighth year of William III. The first monies raised were Paid as duties on salt and stamps, to the amount of two millions. At the death of William III. whose reign was one continued scene of warfare, the debt amounted to £16,394,702. At the death of Anne, 1714, whose reign, the last year excepted, was war, the debt had increased more than three fold, being £51,145,363. At the death of George I. 1727, the debt had decreased more than two millions, being at that period £52,092,235. At the death of George II. 1760, a period of thirty three years from the death of George I. in which two wars had taken place the debt had nearly doubled, being £146,682,814. In1781, after the close of the American war, and at the commencement of Mr. Pitt's first administration, a pe riod of twenty-four years from the accession of George III. the debt almost doubled itself,being £257,213,043 At the close of the year 1802, the termination of the French revolution war, a period of eighteen years, the debt had more than doubled itself by sixty-five millions, being £579,931,447. From the close of the year 1802, to the beginning of the year 1810,a period of seven years only, the debt had increased two hundred and thirty-two millions, the whole amount of the National Debt, Funded and Unfunded, on the 5th January, 1810, being 811,898,081.

Amount of Loans from the commencement of the American War to the present time.

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of her son's death without lawful issue-by his first
wife he had no issue, but had by the last.
The object of the present suit was, to obtain a sen«*
tence declaratory of the invalidity of that fact-
thereby illegitimatising the children, and enabling
themselves to lay claim to the estate.

The trial occupied several hours of the court and
excited much interest, and the marriage was ulti-
mately declared illegal.
Lend, pap

LAW CASE-An important decision was made at Doctors Commons, London, on the 4th of December last. The cause was Watson and Watson, vs. Faremouth and others. This was a proceeding originally instituted in the Episcopal court, at Exeter, but appealed from thence by the defendants, to an. ARABIC MS.-A late London paper mentions that nul the marriage of Samuel Watson with his precount RzEwUSK, of Vienna, is translating an Ara sent wife, on the ground of affinity, she being the bic manuscript written in the time of the Crusades sister of his former wife. Considerable property is which mentions particulars relative to the use of given by the will of Mr. Watson's deceased mo gunpowder in war; and which contains a genuine ther to the parties promoting the suit in the event receipt of the Greek fire.

Twelfth Congress.



RIGHT SIDE OF THE ROAD AT SEA.-On the 9th of last month a trial came on in the admiralty court, Doctor's Commons, wherein the owner of a vessel from one of the Yorkshire river ports were the Friday, May 8,-Mr. Pope submitted the followappellants, and Mr. John Mountain, of the Angle ing motion for consideration: Inn, in Boston, and others, were the respondents. Whereas, the conduct of the French government, The cause arose out of the circumstance of Mr. in failing to make compensation for the property of Mountain's vessel the Johns, of that port, and a the citizens of the United States, seized and convessel of the appellant, called the Engineer, being fiscated under the Rambouillet decree, in the obliged by adverse weather in prosecuting their 1810, in excluding from France, by enormous disvoyage to London, to ply to windward; and in one criminating duties, our tobacco and cotton, the of their courses it became evident, that the vessels principal articles of export in the southern and would come in contact unless one of them bore up south-western parts of the United States, contrary and put about on a different tack. Neither of them to our just expectations, authorised by the assur being disposed to haul to wind, the vessels, as had ances of her minister; besides granting licences to been foreseen, ran foul of each other, and the Engineer was overwhelmed in the shock, and immedi-Carry on a trade from certain ports of the U. States, so disrepectful to the feelings, so derogatory to the ately sunk; allowing just time enough for the crew sovereignty of an independent nation; and the reto save themselves on board the Johns. When the cent and repeated aggressions of her public and surviving vessel reached London, she was seized by private armed vessels, on the lawful commerce of the court of admiralty, on the complaint of the the United States demand, from the impartiality, master of the Engineer, to abide the trial of the honor and dignity of this government, a disavowal case; which trial came on the day we mentioned, of the arrangement made with her, which took nearly a year after the accident. The case resolved effect on the 2d day of November, 1810, a measure itself into an enquiry as to the tacks on which the calculated to inspire general confidence and respect, vessels were sailing: and the judgment was pro-and to convince every true American, that the ob nounced in favor of the Johns, the court of admiral-ject of his government is to unite the people in a ty, declaring that the vessel on the larboard tack is manly American effort to resist foreign aggression, bound to bear up or heave about to avoid danger, or And whereas, many of our citizens, under an exmust be answerable for any injury the vessel on the pectation or at least a hope of a change in our re starboard tack may sustain by their coming in lations with Great Britain, have, in the course of contact. We understand the decision is important, trade, acquired property abroad not admissible by and requires to be promulgated for the information existing laws, into the United States, the importa of masters of vessels generally. The expenses at tion of which it is reasonable and expedient to per. tending the trial have been more than 3007. to the mit; expedient, because it will not only prevent parties, besides the loss of one of the vessels, and the long detention of the other.

RECEIPT TO DIE HATS.-For the benefit of hat manufacturers, and others concerned in dying please to publish the following receipt for dying black without verdigris.

American Daily Ad.

injuries and losses to many of our citizens, but aid
our finances, cheapen the public supplies, until a
sufficiency can be procured of home manufacture,
and lessen the necessity of internal taxes to carry
Great Britain:
on the war in which we may be engaged in with

day of

Therefore, Resolved, That the act, entitled "An act concerning the commercial intercourse between For forty hats, take one pound Roman or blue the United States and Great Britain and France vitriol pounded, and one pound pearl ash,dissolve in a and their dependencies, and for other purposes," small quantity of water, taking care not to put the passed on the first May, 1810, except the whole in at once, least it should ferment and overflow; section thereof, all the force and effect of the prethis is to be used as Verdigris usually is, that is bysident's proclamation, issued in virtue thereof, on pouring the usual quantity of the liquor into the the in the same year; kettle at each suit. The quantity of copperas and and the act, entitled "An act supplementary to logwood may be the same as when Verdigris is used. the act, entitled An act concerning commercial By this method a most excellent bright and glossy intercourse between the United States and Great black may be made equal if not superior to any Britain and France and their dependencies, and made with Verdigris and with considerable sav for other purposes," passed on the second day of ing of expence as verdigris at the present price, March, 1811, ought to be repealed, annulled and (3 dolls per lb.) would cost at least 1 dollar 50 cents set aside, and that a committee be appointed to whereas the above articles will not cost fifty cents. bring in a bill for that purpose.

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.-In some parts of Scotland! bordering on the sea, where the people are more than usually industrious and frugal, oatmeal is used *instead of soap for washing, commixed with the sea water. I am not chemist enough to describe technically how it acts, but I will be easily understood, when I affirm that the meal decomposes the oily portion of the marine element, and renders it as fit for washing as the finest soft water with soap. This discovery is of very great importance to pas sengers on board a ship, as the captains are always sparing of fresh water, and scarcely ever permit it to be used for washing. I have many a day at sea, found the most luxurious refreshment in a bucket of sea water with a handful of oatmeal; and no one should go to sea without a supply of it.

Vote in the senate on the preceeding resolution. For the resolution. -Messrs. Bayard, Dana, German, Gilman, Goodrich, Horsey, Pope, Worthington—8.

Against it.-Messrs. Anderson, Bibb, Campbell of Tenn. Condit, Crawford, Cutts, Gaillard, Gregg, Howell, Robinson, Smith of N. Y. Tait, Taylor, Turner and Varnum-15.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Baving devoted so much of this number to cosgressional proceedings--and as the time of the house has been occupied, for the present week, with private petitions and matters of li the interes', indeed, to the greater part of our readers, we dismiss them merely with noticing, that on Wednesday Hast a resolution was passed directing the speaker to

request the attendance of each member of the house, of orders to purchase guineas, discounts have lately in his seat forthwith, From this it would appear fallen to 15 or 18 per cent; being 4s 4d or 4s 6d as if some important question was about to be agi-per piece. But this reduction can only be consider. tated immediately.

The Chronicle.

BALTIMORE, MAY 16. The loan.-The National Intelligencer says that during the two days the books for the loan of ele ven millions were open, about six millions of dollars were subscribed and expresses a belief that the balance would be immediately taken.

ed as temporary, as gold in bullion is in London at 51. 10s. per oz. 11. 12s. 1dh. above the mint price, and silver at 7s. per oz. or Is. 2dh. above the mint standard. In Dublin the discount is above 20 per cent. or 5s. 6d. per guinea.


Captain Hodge, of the ship Wallace, arrived here on Wednesday from Lisbon, informs that the latest news from the armies, left lord Wellington continuing his operations before Badajoz, garrisoned by about 5000 French troops. On the 20th or General Dearborn, commander in chief of the 21st March, the French made a sortie from one of northern army of the United States, arrived at Al- the gates on a weak part of the besieging army, and bany a few days ago. after a severe skirmish, with considerable loss on A body of volunteers, chiefly young men, 230 in both sides, they retired within the garrison. A day number, embarked from Zanesville about the 23d or two before sailing, report said that marshal Soult, inst. destined for the northern frontier of the Unit-with a large body of cavalry, had unexpectedly fered States, at or in the neighborhood of Detroit.ced his way into the city, and after leaving a strong The military spirit beats high in the state of Ohio; reinforcement of men and provisions, had retired and the whole requisition of the president, on the without coming to any engagement. The English certainty of actual service, will be complied with had collected nearly all their forces before Badajoz, without a draft. and it was expected that a general assault will im


A Philadelphia paper of the 9th inst. says-The mediately take place. No news-papers had been steam boat Camden, commenced running this day published in Lisbon for four days previous to the from Market street ferry, upper side, to Springer's Wallace's sailing, on account of the Easter holliferry at Camden, New-Jersey, opposite this city. Governor R. J. Meigs, of Ohio, has been nominated by the president to the senate of the United 11th ult. have been received at New-York. Latest from England.-London papers to the States, as the head of the new lund department. The French emperor had not left Paris-but war Emigration. During the last week there arrived between him and Russia was still talked of. The at New-York 490 emigrants from Ireland. Many L'Orient squadron arrived at Brest on the 29th of others were daily expected. March. An armistice for 45 days has been cor.

The trustees of the late bank of the United States cluded between the Turks and Russians, preparatohave declared a dividend of 70 per cent. of the capi-ry to the termination of a war between them in 'tal stock, to be paid to the stockholders or their re- which neither have "gained any thing but hard knocks." Four sail of the line, about to be launchpresentatives on or after the first day of June. ed at Fenice, are to be ready for sea, in June next.

Thomas Pinkney, esq. has accepted the appointment of major general in the army of the United the states of Hungary, in which he, in substance, The emperor of Austria has issued a rescript to States, and Morgan Lewis, quarter master general states, that under existing circumstances he cannot The governor of Delaware has summoned an desist from the demand he has made of 12,000,000 in extra meeting of the legislature of that state, for the money for the wants of the empire. purpose of complying with the requisition of the Petitions against the orders in council.—The petipresident, in pursuance to the act to authorize ation from Leeds had from 16 to 17 thousand signadetachment from the militia. tures. That from Birmingham was signed by 20

advise his royal highness the prince regent to rescind the "orders in council" were passed, and petitions, the same in substance as those lately presented to the regent, were voted.

EUROPEAN NEWS.-We have accounts from En-thousand persons in four days-and required 150 gland as late as the 30th ultimo. The emperor of feet of parchment; and on Friday last, at a meeting France was at Paris on the 22nd of March; but his of merchants, manufacturers, and other inhabitants armies were marching in great force towards Rus-of Sheffield and the neighborhood, held at Townsia. It is said that 200,000 French, 150,000 Austri Hall,resolutions respecting petitioning parliament to ans, and 50,000 troops of the Confederation of the Rhine, are prepared to fall upon the emperor Alex ander, who is stated to have 280,000 in readiness to oppose them. The Prussian troops are to join the French. Notwithstanding all these statements and No change favorable to the United States has ta the hundreds of others floating in the British papers ken place in Great Britain or France. Price of (perhaps for stock-jobbing purposes) we do not be stocks, April 11, at London, consols, 59 37 48—Relieve that France and Russia will commence hostili. duced 50. The new constitution is stated to be ties. The late king of Sweden has been divorced adopted by the Spanish cortes.

from his wife in Switzerland-she is a sister to the emperor of Russia. The L'Orient squadron is still If complaint should be made of the quality at sea, and has made some captures. A dissolution we are assured that the quantity of matter in the of parliament is talked of. Grain to the value of 12 present number will evince our desire to please. millions sterling was imported into England in the Though some of the articles are unusually long, year 1811; nine of which were paid for by licen- they are more than usually interesting. The consed barters and three millions in specie. gressional debate is of the highest importance, and

In the last commercial report, (says the Belfast the sketch of the life of general Dearborn, copied monthly magazine) the discount on bank notes was from the Boston Chronicle, will command an earthrough inadvertance stated at 22 per cent. It nest perusal from the circumstances in which he is ought to have been marked at 20. Owing to a want! placed.



Hæc olim meminisse juvabit.-VIRGIL

[No. 53

Printed and published by H. NILES, Water-street, near the Merchants' Coffee-House, at §5. per annum

Mr. Pickering's Letters.


offered reasonable terms. In cunning acts to amuse and delude, I believe no government was ever more adroit than ours.

I have introduced the Chesapeake af, because it appears to have given rise to a proclamation of his Britannic majesty, dated October, 1807, peremptorily disclaiming any right to take Britch LETTER II-To the citizens of the commonwealth of Massachusetts, deserters from the public armed ships of a neutral nation; requir ing his seafaring subjeets in foreigu service to return home to aid EMBARGO-AND WAR WITH GREAT-BRITAIN. in defence of their own country, and enjoining upon his aval Fellow-Citizens,-Mr. Jefferson's embargo is too recent, and its officers increased care and caution in impressing British seamen ruinous effects on your fisheries and commerce, and the consequent found on board neutral inerchant vessels. This proclamation, I distress to all persons depending on those extensive employmeats, believe, was considered every whereas lawful and right, and wholty were too sensibly felt to be forgotten. The wickedness of that unexceptionable. For Great Britain still insisting on it as lur transaction is certainly not generally understood, or he would have right, to take her own seamen from neutral nerebant vessels, it was received the execration of every honest man in America. I will something gained, after the serious affair of the Chesapeake, in give you a history of it as concisely as possible. For, if convinced have a fresh, solemn and public command from her sovereign to by this of his falsehood and treachery, then, as you ought, you will his naval officers to use increased care and caution in all future discredit all his other deceitful professions of regard for the welfare impressients. This proclamation, however, Mr. Jefferson pres.of the nation. fed into his service, when he enticed congress to impose his ene

You must all remember the flourishing state of our agriculture, largo. commerce, fisheries and manufactures, and the full employment of I will now exhibit the hypocrisy and deception practised by Mr. our mechanics, to near the close of the year 1807. The French em. Jefferson in proposing that embargo; and if you do not ako dis peror's Berlin decree had been published for more than a yeur.-cover treachery at the bottom of it. I shall be obliged to ascribe it It wantonly, but absurdly, declared all the British islands in a state to the strange delusions with which that arch hypocrite has conof blockade; when his own principal ports were blocked up by trived to bewitch the people.

British fleets of ships. Hence this decree, outrageous as it was, On the 28th December, 1807, Mr. Jefferson sent to the two houses created no alarm. Our merchants could send their vessels to every of congress, the following message : port of the British dominions, with little fear of capture by French To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States. cruisers, if the emperor had attempted its immediate execution in egard to the United States. Our minister in Paris asked an ex"The communications now made, shewing the great and increяsplanation of the Berlin decree from the French minister of dangers with which our vessels, our scainen and merchandize He answered, in effect, that it was not to operate against the ves-are threatened on the high seas and elsewhere, from the belligerent sels of the United States; but advised our minister to apply to Mr. powers of E: rope, and it being of the greatest importance to ke-p Talleyrand, the French minister of foreign affairs, for a correct in safety these essential resources, I deem it my duty to recom and definitive answer. This correct and definitive answer was end the subject to the serious consideration of congress; who never obtained. However, I do not recollect any captures under will, doubtless, perceive all the advantage which may be expected that decree until the spring of 1807, when, as Mr. Madison stated, from an inhibition of the departure of our vessels from the ports some had been made in the West Indies. The first instance of vio- of the United States. lence under it in Europe was in the case of the American ship Horizon, which, on the 30th May, 1807, was shipwr ched on the coast of France; and which neither humanity,nor the law of nations, nor the stipulations of the emperor's own treaty with the United States, could save from his vengeance. All that part of her cargo (the whole belonging to our fellow-citizens) which came from the British dominions, was condemned. The emperor's final decision The communications consisted of four papers. One, the procla was given on the 18th September 1807, through his grand judge mation of the king of Great Brita n, already described. A second Regnier. The effect of this decision was to carry into execution the was the letter from the grand judge Regnier, also before mention Berlin decree, by subjecting to capture and condemnation all sorts of ed, containing the emperor's decision upon his Berlin decree.→→ merchandize of the growth or manufacture of the British domin- These two papers, the former entire, and the latter in whole or ja ions, found on board of American vessels, although the property substance, had been published in our newspapers; and were con of American citizens. This decision of the imperial tyrant, also sidered, the first as at least, harmless-and the last as of little consoon became known in the United States; yet it produced no alarm sequence; the knowledge of it serving only to put our merchants because his piratical cruisers were so few in number; and it cost more on their guard in the destination of their vessels, and to get our merchants only a small additional expense for insurance. them ensured against their small risque. Of the other two papers,

"Their wisdom will also see the necessity of making every preparation for whatever events may grow out of the present crisis. "I ask a return of the letters of Mesets. Armstrong and Cham pagny, which it would be improper to make public. "TH. JEFFERSON. "December 18, 1807."

In the month of June, 1807, some British ships of war lying in being Armstrong's letter of September 24, 1807, and Champagny's the Chesapeake bay, having lost some of their seamen by descr-answer of October 7th, Mr. Jefferson, for the purpose of public detion, and the deserters, British subjects, having enlisted to serve in reption, made great mystery-asking their return, under the presome of the armed vessels of the United States, they were de-tence that it would be improper to publish them. These two manded by the British officers, and refused. The British consul wonderful papers wrapped up the mystery of the embargo, and, at Norfolk demanded them, and they were refused-and when the like the devices of jugglers, playing slight-of-hand tricks, were to British minister at Washington applied for their surrender, he also be kept from the sight of the PEOPLE. They were returned to met with refusal. At the same time some deserters from a French the president. Yet he himself laid them before congress three frigate lying near Norfolk, were delivered up as soon as demand-months afterwards—but (mark the mode) he sent them with a large ed. Such was my information in these cases. Exasperated by this ass of other documents, and without any intimation that they course of comminuet, the commander of the British ships understand-fhad ever been offered as the ground of his embargo. And if a few ing the deserters had entered on board the American frigate Che-members of congress read and recollected those papers, thus muud sapeake, gave orders that they should be demanded, and if refused, died in, the people abroad would not know nor suspect the deceitful taken by force. The frigate Chesapeake, destined for the Medi-use which had been made of them. They related simply to the terranean, put to sea; and when out of the jurisdiction of the Uni-Berlin decrees, the precise subject of Regnier's public letter, before ted States, a British fifty gun ship having demanded the deserters mentioned, and this is their amount. Armstrong, our minister in and being refused, attacked the frigate, which surrendered; and Paris, asked the French minister Champagny, whether, by the some deserters were taken out ; and some men were killed and emperor's late decision, enforcing his Berlin decree, it was his in wounded in the attack. tention to infract [break and violate] his treaty with the United

For this unauthorised attack, as soon as it was known in London. States? And Champagny, answered roundly" his majesty has the British government expressed the "nost sincere concern aud considered every neutral vessel going from English ports, with car sorrow," and promised to make the most prompt and effectual goes of English merchandise, or of English origin, as lawfully reparation, if the British officers should prove to have been culpa-seized by French armed vessels." This was a most palpable viola ble." They were found culpable; and such prompt and effectual tion of his treaty with the United States, as every one who reads it reparation would have been inade, but for the measures of president wil knows, but I will give you Mr. Madison's own authority for it. JetPerson, which prevented it. Other forbidding measures of his He calls the Berlin decree "a gross infraction of our neutral successor, Mr. Madison, further delayed the adjustment, until rights" and referring to the emperor's decision enforcing that de the last year, when he was pleased to accept the reparation; erce, Mr. Madison says, it violates as well positive stipulations of which would more cheerfully have been given four years before-the convention of September 30, 1800, [being the treaty which But in that time, other subjects of difference had arisen, and with Bonaparte had himself made with the United States] as the incon old ones, had been, by the management of our owa govermuent, testible principles of public law." Yet Champagny, in his letter sufficiently aggravated to keep up the bitter initation of Ameri-to Armstrong, with the wonted shameless impudence of French. can citizens towards Great Britain; so the air of the attack on ministers, says "it has seemed easy to reconcile these peastires the Chesapeake could be dispensed with. It was then an old story with the observance of treaties."

and had grown stałe. Besides, this settlement might grve to sug- From these details it is evident that Mr. Jefferson's message, state gest to the people the idea, that the president was always disposed ing that the papers he communicated, shewed that our commerce Osettle our differences with Great Britain, when her government was exposed to "GREAT and increasing dangers, was unflinded VOL. II. N

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