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Divine Providence, upon their best exertions, aided and as guardians of the public welfare, it appears to by the courage and loyalty of the militia and by the me to be expected from you to direct the mode and valor skill and discipline of his majesty's regular nature of the enquiry, and to afford it the sanction forces, for repelling every hostile attempt that may of the highest constituted authority of the city. EDWARD JOHNSON. be made upon this colony.

"Gentlemen of the house of assembly,

"I observe with concern that the necessary cs. tablishments of the militia forces, together with va rious services and operations of the approaching campaign will be attended with considerable expense; but I rely on your wisdom and public spirit for such supplies as the circumstances and exigencies of our affairs may be found to require: and I take this opportunity to assure you that they shall be faithfully applied.

Gentlemen of the legislative council, and

Baltimore, 3d Augast, 1812.

The joint committee to whom the mayor's commu-
nication was referred-beg leave to report,
That it appears to your committee to be the most
effectual mode of accomplishing the objects contem-
plated by the communication, that a joint commit-
tee of the city council, composed of the president
and three members of each branch, be formed, to
enquire into the causes of the late commotion in
the city and the extent of the same, and make re-
port thereof to the mayor, for publication; and
that said committee be authorised to request the aid
in the discharge ofthe above duty, of thirteen other
citizens, to proceed without delay in the above ex-

amination and report. First Branch.



Gentlemen of the house of assembly, "It will afford me the greatest satisfaction, if in the execution of the duties to which I am called by the important stations in which his majesty has been graciously pleased to place me, I should be instrumental in the defence of the country, and in the maintainance of the rights, the happiness, and prosperity of his majesty's subjects in this part of the empire. It gives me sincere pleasure to assure you that the good conduct and increasing discipline which I have lately witnessed in the incorporated battalions of militia, encourage the exThe above report concurred in by both branches, pectation that they will materially contribute to this and the president of both branches, with the above important object. Feeling persuaded that I can renamed gentlemen, appointed a committee for the ly upon your assistance and co operation in what

Second Branch.



ever measures may be deemed necessary for the purpose mentioned in said report.

public safety and wel are, and trusting that they will be decisive in character and prompt in execution, I look forward with confidence to a happy issue of the new contest in which we are engaged.

Account of the late Riots.


S. H. MOORE, el'k.

1st branch city council. THO'S ROGERS, el'k. 2d branch.

In the first branch of the City Council, August 6, 1812, the following report was presented, read, concurred in, and ordered to be printed in all the news-papers of the city. By order.

S. H. MOORE, clerk.

In the second branch, August 6, 1812, the following
report was presented, read, concurred in, and
ordered to be printed in all the news-papers of
the city.
By order.

In our last number we promised a full and impartial account of the late distressing riots in this city. We have been relieved from the performance of the unpleasant task we assigned ourselves, by the following statement drawn up in pursuance of a communication of the Mayor to the City Coun cil. We have simply annexed to the official re port and its accompanying documents, the two articles from the Federal Republican of Saturday To Edward Johnson, Esquire, Mayor of the the 20th of June, and Monday the 29th of July, which are supposed to have excited the popular feeling, as matters of curiosity.


Gentlemen of the city council,

THOS, ROGERS, clerk.

City of Baltimore.

The joint committee of the two branches of the city council, appointed to enquire into the causes and extent of the late commotions in the city, having, as enjoined upon them, requested the aid of thirteen other of their fellow citizens; ten of whom attended in the The late unhappy occurrences by which the discharge of the duty assigned them, in pursuance peace and harmony of our city have been destroy thereof report, That on Saturday the 20th of June, ed, have excited the attention of every citizen, and a publication appeared in the newspaper entitled at a meeting which took place of a number of very the Federal Republican," printed in this place, respectable citizens, it was determined that general which excited great irritation in the city-that on Stricker, John Montgomery, Samuel Sterett, doc- the Monday following, the printing office occupied tor J. C. White, Lemuel Taylor and Wm. Gwynn, by the editors of that paper was pulled down, and Esqrs. in conjunction with myself, should investi their press destroyed. This commotion had subsidgate the business and endeavor to bring it to the pub ed, and the transaction was under legal investiga. lic view in its true colours. After mature delibe-tion by the criminal court, until Sunday the 26th of ration, those gentlemen resolved to recommend to July: in the evening of which day, Alexander C. me the calling of the council, as from the mode of Hanson, one of the editors, with several of his their appointment, they could not consider them. friends from other counties, and one from another selves authorised to prepare and publish any state-state, came into town, unknown to the inhabitants, ment on the subject. The honor, the interest, and (or known only to a very few of them) and took future prosperity of Baltimore require a candid, im possession of a brick house in Charles-street, that partial and minute investigation of the business-had been the late dwelling of Mr, Wagner, his part.

Henry Nelson, John E. Hall, George Winchester, Peregrine Warfield, George Richards, Edward Gwinn, David Hoffman, Horatio Bigelow, Ephraim Gaither, William Gaither, Jacob Schley, Mark U. P.ingle, Daniel Murray, and Richard S. Crabb. After the removal of the persons the interior of the house was greatly injured, and the furniture in it destroyed and dispersed.

ner. The committee further report, that from written, after appeared and placing themselves in front of documents, since found and communicated to them the house no further injury occurred, a negociation by the mayor which are subjoined to this report, it took place with those within the house, and upon appears that the plan of renewing the paper, and of being assured that a military guard would be furarming for the defence of the house from which it was nished, and every effort used by the mayor and the intended to be issued, had been deliberately formed the general to ensure their safety from violence, and organized some time previous, in the country, they surrendered themselves to the civil authority without the knowledge of the citizens of Baltimore, about seven o'clock on the morning of Tuesday, and all the details settled and adjusted by persons who and were conducted to jail and committed for fur must have been acquainted with military service-ther examination; they were Alexander C. HanThat having so taken possesion of the house, they son, Gen. Henry Lee, James M. Lingan, William fortified it strongly, and prepared arms and am Schroeder, John Thompson, William B. Bend, munition to defend it :-that on the next morn-Otho Sprigg, Henry Kennedy, Robert Kilgour, ing the editor issued from that house his paper, con taining severe animadversions upon the mayor, people, and police of Baltimore, which the editor caused to be circulated through the city-In the course of the same day it was known to many persons that Mr. Hanson, one of the editors, was in the house, and from the preparations for defence that were observed to be making therein, it was conjectured that he expected to be attacked. During the day, maThe committee further report, that during the ny other persons of the city went to the house, and some remained there associated with those within to use particular precaution in securing the doors course of the day the mayor applied to the sheriff Towards evening many boys had collected in the of the jail which he promised to do, and about one street, opposite the house, and their noise exciting o'clock application was made by the mayor and some apprehension, a neighboring magistrate en- other justices, to the brigadier general to call out deavored to disperse them, and had nearly succeed the military to preserve the peace and quiet of the ed, when about 8 o'clock a car iage stopped at the state. Orders were issued calling out à regiment door of the house, and a number of muskets and of infantry, two troops of cavalry and two compa other articles were seen to be taken out of it and nies of artillery, to parade at an appointed time and conveyed through an armed guard into the house, the boys then returned, recommenced their noise, repaired to the jail early in the afternoon, at which places. The mayor, the general, and many citizens accompanied with abusive language to the persons a number of persons had assembled, the much in the house, and began throwing stones at the windows; at this time, and for an hour or more thereafter part of whom were peaceable and orderly citizens; those of a different temper of mind upon ter, there did not appear more than five or six men who could be supposed to have any connection with, admonitions of others and to be appeased with the being remonstrated with, appeared to yield to the or control over the boys; about this period a per-assurances given that the party in goal should not son on the footway endeavoring to persuade the be bailed or suffered to escape during the night, it boys from their mischief was severely wounded in the foot, by something weighty thrown from the became the prevailing opinion about the prison that no mischief would be attempted that night; in conhonse; the boys were repeatedly told, from the per-sequence of which and of the insufficiency of the sons within, to go away and not molest them, that force assembled, the military, by the order of the they were armed, and would defend themselves; the boys still continuing to throw stones, two guns dismissed; and many persons left the prison and general, with the approbation of the mayor, were were fired from the upper part of the house, charg-went to their homes. Shortly after dark, the num ed as it is supposed with blank cartridges, as no in ber of the disorderly increased, and an intention jury was done by them; the assemblage of people in the street at this time greatly increased, and the was manifested of breaking into the jail; the the threats and throwing of stones at the house, be mayor, with the aid of a few persons, succeeded for came more general and violent, the sashes of the some time in preventing the prison door from being Jower windows were broken and attempts de to creased numbers and violence of the assailants, the forced open; they being overpowered by the inforce the door by running against it. Ten or twelve guns were then fired from the house in quick mayor was forced away; and the door having been succession, by which several persons in the street previously battered, and again threatened, was openwere wounded,some dangerously;* about this period ed the turn-key. Upon the entry of the assailapplication was made for military aid to prevent furants, they forced the inner doors and pressed into ther mischief: whilst the military were assembling! the room in which the persons above-mentioned in pursuance of an order from the General, issued were confined.Here a scene of horror ensued which the committee cannot well describe. The in compliance with a requisition from the legal au result was, that one of the persons (general Lin. thority, frequent ring took place from the house,

and three guns were fired at it; some short timen) was killed, eleven others dreadfully beaten, terwards a gun was fired from the house which eight of whom were thrown together in front of the killed a doctor Gale in the street about twelve jail, supposed to be dead.

feet from the house, this circumstance great- The committee being (by the authority under ly increased the irritation of those in the street, which they act) directed to the collection and report who soon after brought a field piece in front of the of facts, have carefully avoided the expression of an house, but by the interposition of several citizens were restrained from firing upon the house, under an assurance that the persons in it would surrender themselves to the civil authority; the military soon * One since deceased.--ED.

opinion on any of the causes or extent of the unhappy commotions herein reported. Other facts but we know of none material) may have attended the above transactions, which the limited powers of

Not Mr. Green, the regular tuin key- £o.


the city council do not enable them to impart to the committee the full authority to develope.


Wednesday Evening.

I have not written to

I am accidentally in town.
you, because I hoped in a few days that I should

ADAM FONERDEN,] committee talk with you. But your letter has infused a thrill
of the first of extacy into the recesses of my heart. I had re-
branch ci- ceived one from Haiper-it was not such a one as I
ty council hoped for-although he is himself every thing that
I could wish. But his letter was rather a damper--
committee it stated that you had given up Baltimore for the
branch ci- present and were to recommence at George town.
God bless you, my dear noble fellow.
Yours most truly,


of the 2nd

HENRY PAYSON, Jty council.

The undersigned being requested thereto, joined

the above committee in the discharge of their duty, 4. C. Hanson, Esq. and unite with them in the foregoing report.

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Rockville, Montgomery.


Post-mark-"Frederick-Town, Md. 15th July."

Mount Philip, 20th July.

MY DEAR FRIEND-The reason why I have not written you a line by every mail, will appear from the distressing circumstances of our situation, as I shall state it to you. I do not believe you need give yourself any uneasiness about the disclosure of the plan, what Heath heard 1 apprehend, was rather conjec tural than any thing else, certain it is no communication has proceeded from me to that lady, or any

The originals of the following letters. &c. al-one else by which the matter could be known But luded to in the preceding report, remain in the Mayor's office.


divers rumors have prevailed here on the subject. It has been said that the re-establishment of the press was relinquished altogether, then it is said that you are to re-commence in George Town only, and have I am somewhat surprised not to have heard from issued a prospectus to that effect. The other day, I you, my dear friend. The late infamous enormities heard from Shaw that some body from Baltimore in Baltimore, and the scandalous submission to the had said, that the paper would be renewed there.-prevalence of an atrocious, damnable mob, have But I believe the general idea was, and so was the filled me with equal indignation and astonishment. tenor of Harper's letter to me, that Baltimore would We have heard here no explanation of the circum be altogether abandoned. Yesterday, however, it stance, but what poor Hewes has at last ventured to state. What, I ask you, is to be done? Unless the was stated as coming I believe in a letter from Dr. Alexander to father, that the foreman of the my people are immediately roused, and the federalists office had said that the paper would re-appear before are immediately rallied, all opposition to the rul- the first of August. ing policy will be unnerved, and the influence of It is probable the lady alluded to having heard these satanic outrages in Baltimore, will spread some of these reports, connected with Col. Lynn's throughout the state. As yet I think and trust that declarations, who talked freely and boldly to every our friends here feel, and would act as they ought body he met with, she has imagined the rest. to do. What I feel myself you may see in yester at present, I hear nothing said as to your particular day's Herald, under the signature of Leonidas. If it views, the public curiosity being for the time abis deemed a suitable appeal, I wish those editors sorbed in the fate of our little squadron, and the pubwhom you know to republish it, or to publish some lic interest here being at this moment,much engaged things themselves to manifest proper feelings of inin the in-gathering of harvest. The moment I redignant decision and sympathy. It is a most awful ceived your letter last week, I wrote a note to and fearful consideration. If the press c-n be thus Col. Lynn, enclosed to his brother at Cumberland, prostrated and silenced, we are further gone in the whom I desired to forward it by express Whether road to perdition than I thought possible. I have considered as pledged to go with you or not, I should been for some time withdrawn from active politics, consider it a duty to offer, and if I knew my own and disused to write or harangue. But any thing in heart it would afford it the liveliest gratification. I that way of exertion that I can do, shall be done; in short, any thing but being a candidate, or what is the same thing, deserting my family.


am sure you know me too well to imagine that I am feigning excuses; but I will state the circumstances by which I am precluded, and I think I might leave it to Lingan, Anderson, Lynn, Heath and your.

Had you not better shew yourself in this neigh borhood, as soon as you can. I think it, on your account, a highly advantageous moment to confirm self, as the most honorable court martial that any man could wish for, to decide not simply whether and strengthen the favorable impression already I am excusable for not going, but whether I should Inade; and for the sake of the common good, it may not be inexcusable for attempting to go at this mo be adviseable to confer with our friends in this quarter, who are resolute and enthusiastic.

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at all events, hear from you without de

I am, zealously and truly, yours.
Rockville, Montgomery.

(Post mark-Frederick-Town, 28th June.)


The mere parade of going down, unless to remain with you for real service, would be idle, and might be embarrassing-and it is likely, if I could set off, should soon be recalled by an alarm the most serious and hazardous. You will recollect to have heard, that last summer an accident had nearly deprived me of my wife.

There will be some difficulty in fixing the day most difficult part is 'the cattle I have not seen and for the Liberty meeting so as to suitus. I shall be valued; and who to get that is a competent judge, gone to Virginia in a few days, and the week after cannot as yet think of. My friend, you now see next will be court. You will be at Baltimore, of some of the difficulties under which I labor;course, all next week. Captain Campbell, more, and of a very serious nature, I could detail, understand, as he told me he would the other day, but it is unnecessary. I repeat, that if it is possible was to go to Liberty, I believe, on Saturday I will with heart and soul join the band; nothing in last, to make arrangements. I have not heard this world, at present, would afford me more real from him. But he is ardent and we entirely accord pleasure than to assist in the noble undertaking. in the expediency of the thing. From a particular Secrecy and great caution will be necessary until quarter, which you will immediately guess, I appre- the party are actually in possession of the house.hend lukewarmness and indifference. However, In the first place, there ought (according to the size whenever the day is appointed, I shall act indepen-of the house) to be a full quantity of gallant men denly if necessary, and you shall be informed of to defend it at every door, window, &c. muskets the time--so that under any circumstances we must with the bayonets, and a plenty of good pistols, make a violent effort to be there. I want to shew with a large store of ammunition. Let there be a you a prompt, sensible letter I have received from Mr. Stoddert, as to the feasibility and necessity of electing John Marshal as the next president. Ano ther letter from our friend Alexander hopes that you will avoid unnecessary personal abuse in the newspaper, and desires me to second this advice to you. Upon which, sir, all I have to say is, that as to what is so much decried as abuse, you must be the best and only judge yourself as to what is ne

cessary or unnecessary.

Remember me affectionately to your wife and chil dren-Mary desires her love to them.

Most truly and affectionately yours,


plenty of buckshot provided for close work, and when they reach closer still, (which will never be, I believe, but it is always best to be well prepared) I would advise that a store of tomahawks or hatchets, with dirks for every man, be provided. If we are thus prepared, and they can neither fire the house or starve us out, the garrison will never be under the necessity of a surrender. I have thus thrown my ideas together in great haste; should they do no not be made use of. I repeat again, if it is possible good, they will not injure. Too much caution canI will be with you in time; but should it not be in my power, I hope I shall stand excused. I hope there will be no want of young soldiers, and those commanded by such men as Lingan and Anderson cannot fail of success.

In haste, I am yours sincerely,

P. S.-Lathing hatchets would be a good substi-
tute for tomahawks, if they cannot be had.

P. S.-Write me a particular detail of all your operations. Tell our excellent friends, Lingan and Anderson, that upon reflection it was deemed best to wait the answer from Baltimore, before publishing our letter; and the answer from Harper, with other considerations which I will state to them, determined me not to offer it for publication. I am not cer tain that Thomson would dare print it, notwithstanding what he was induced to insert a few weeks ago. I learn from others, having no communica tion with him myself, and indeed I learn from his piper, that he has given up to his own apprehen Lynn was brought to me last evening. Notwith. sions, or the influence of certain moderès. Until standing what I wrote to you by the last mail, I had the Fed. Rep, revives, we have no press in Mary-still entertained a faint hope, which I would not exland. God grant it a speedy, permanent and honor-press, that I might be able to join you, or meet the party on the road to Baltimore.

able resurrection.

Alexander Contee Hanson, Esq.

Rockville, Montgomery.

Friday evening. DEAR HANSON-The enclosed letter from Col.

But I cannot express the solicitude I feel in your en-
being able to assist in it. I have equal confidence in
terprize, and the regret, the mortification, in not
your conduet and courage. You will act advisedly,
and take care, should it become necessary, not to
use force, that is, deadly force, until the attempts
of the assailants will justify you in the eye of the
law; for I wish your triumph in case of a resort to
extremities to be certain and complete, so that you
shall be sustained, in any event, by the laws of the
land, as well as the principles of honor.
Your's very affectionately,
Post-mark-"Frederick-Town, Md. 24 July."

Cumberland, July 19th, 1812. DEAR SIR-Your note of the 15th inst. under co ver to my brother, was delivered by him to me, on my arrival here last evening. I am sorry, sincerely su, that I was not apprised of Mr. Hanson's plan of taking possession of a house in Baltimore, in or der to re establish the Federal Republican again, at so short a day as on Monday week, that is, to morrow week. I am now from home since Thurs :v morning, and cannot possibly reach there again until to morrow night, on account of business that is too urgent to neglect. I also feel much indisposed on account of a cold and head-ache. But rest assured I will hurry home with all possible speed, and if it is possible I will join those gallant spirits, go MY DEAR SIR, ing on the noble enterprise; perhaps the most so since I have nothing but bad news to give you from or revolutionary war Time hardly ever was more this quarter as to our plan. John H. Thomas, I precious with me. I have at this time several con- have seen, and he expresses much regret at being tincts respecting cattle on hand, that must be com- obliged to go to Virginia to-morrow or next day, plied with; some of them nearly one hundred miles with his wife, who he says is sick. very beyond me: and I yesterday received $2000 here, to me a letter from col. Lynn, from which I am very He read f.. the purpose of making the necessary payments much inclined to think Lynn will not be with you, net week, or I shall, perhaps, lose my credit and ashe has pressing engagements at home, Robert the cattle in the bargain. But it may be possible for M Pherson I am told is sick, and Sprigg has engaged me to get some one to do the business for me. The 'noother. The plan is here public, and I believe Geo,

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Baer and others have named the very day for its ex-, is kept, was fearful it might injure him at the palaceecution. When the scheme was first mentioned to I suppose the true reason to be, that as Rind is a very me, I stated my objections to it, I believe to you, as timid man and holds the situation of a clerk in the well as to others. The very same reasons which I bank of Columbia, he is afraid of meeting the disStill he offers every faurged against it to Crabb and Kilgour, on last Sun-pleasure of John Mason.

day, my brother has urged to me here, enforced cility by using his types and hands and loaning a with others, which upon the whole, I have thought|press, to be taken down and used elsewhere. From irrésistible. I presume none have entered into this all I can learn a wonderful apathy prevails among plan, supposing for a moment, that there could be the federalists respecting the Federal Republican, any danger after the battle was over; but upon con- and some have contracted an aversion to its publiversing with my brother, he seems clearly of opini cation, lest they may be involved in inconvenience on, that to fire upon the assailants before other or broils. This is a state of things radically differmeans of putting them out of the house, have been ent from what was impressed on me ever before. [ used, would be unlawful, and subject us to the pu am, however, flattered that this repugnance is no nishment of manslaughter. Thus in protecting the more than a species of delicacy which will yield as laws we should be violating them. To wait until soon as the paper is set agoing. We shall soon rethe mob have entered, would not do; because then, duce this to the test of experience. Under present numbers would overpower us: nor do I consider circumstances it is not probable that we shall be able this a part of our plan as developed to me; besides, to publish on Monday; and until I see 'Allison it is with a democratic judge to direct a democratic jury, impossible for me to approximate the time. It is reas to the law, he considers our conviction of murder duced to a certainty, that without our own office, as far more than probable. we cannot get afloat. This is so important to your

I consider myself to have been engaged to incur arrangement, that I have sent the letter by express, risk in the battle only, and nothing beyond this. to apprize you of it before you left town for Ellicott's, I consider you to be acting with the same purpose, and also to request your assistance in obtaining from and therefore hope you will take the advice of Har- Mr. Gaither a lease of the house at the corner next per, and of those men in whom you most confide. to Crawford's and which was the property of the This I ask for your own sake, and of those friends late col. Gaither, by whom it was purchased from Should we not be able to get it, it is who have not taken the same view of the subject Gov. Lee.

So much idle conversation has been had

as I have. My opinion is formed upon authorities doubtful whether we could suit ourselves in the town. that I have looked into with my brother, and if such | Some places, hitherto expected to be obtained, would were not my opinion, I would not act contrary to not answer our purpose, and others we could not his. Under these circumstances I have concluded procure. not to go on to Baltimore, as I could not act in such respecting the power and the inclination of the navy a plan. I hope you yourself will take a fuller view of the subject. If the mob should rise to pull down the press in George Town, the mayor or the ma gistrates may and will be induced to do their duty. We shall then act under the authority of the law, and the feelings of the people will go along with us; but this will seem too much like a plan to provoke an attack, that we may take into our own hands the sword of ustice, and you know this the law will not allow

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With respect, &c. &c. &c.

Your obedient servant,


yard to imitate the example of Baltimore, and the injury the establishment of the paper will occasion to the interests of the town, that we could not have Harry Gaia choice of houses which are to be let. ther's uncle has the right to lease the house l'allude to, and Harry himself can do in it as he likes best. It is proposed to lease from him the whole except the lower story, which is occupied as a grocery store. We ought to pay him $150 per annum, which is all that it is worth, but rather than be disappointed we might go as high as $200. It never has had a tenant,except that in the gambling season it is occupi ed for a few weeks by blacklegs and whores. To enable us to get the paper out as soon as possible, I could wish to have Mr. Gaither's written permission to enFrederick Town, July 24, 1812. ter it some time to-morrow. An united Irishman is the SIR-It was my intention to have done myself grocer who lives below; but though the upper part the pleasure of calling on you a few days since at has no connection by passages with his rooms, the Court House, but was deprived by indisposi-I am apprehensive that he and the Riggs' will intion, I know the manner in which you have been trigue to keep us out. You will therefore be prompt treated. If I can be of any service to you at any in your application, and obtain for me an indisputatime you may command me. I will lose my life for you. A. C. Hanson, Esq. Montgomery Court House, Md.

Frederick-Town, July 24th, 1812.


(No date.)

ble authority to warrant my entry into it. I have
received a letter that says the hosts of the mob are
chop fallen, and that the mayor himself has been
Should this prove
presented by the grand jury.
true, it evinces a determination in them, which must
have been produced by a fear, that the interests of
the city were ruined or only to be retrieved by a re-
solute and indiscriminate prosecution of all offend-
ers, Very respectfully and sincerely vours,
A. C. Hanson, Esq.

GEORGE-TOWN, Thursday morning. DEAR SIR,-The day before yesterday I sent you a rough sketch of part of the obervations for the first paper. Having no letter from Allison and none of the apparatus having arrived, I wrote to GEORGE TOWN, 23 July, 1812. him to send on the people and come himself. I expect him to-day. I had made an arrangement with Rind DEAR SIR,-With the assistance of colonel Mar to print the paper, if we should be reduced to the bury, I have surmounted all the difficulties mentionnecessity of resorting to any other office than oured in my letter by the express. own. But last evening he communicated his retrac count on receiving the paper at my house in Baltition of the accommodation, assigning as a reason, more on Monday morning, and go on with your arthat the post-master, in whose buildings the office rangements accordingly, Marbury says that the

You may therefore

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