The Supervision of Instruction: A General Volume
D. Appleton, 1926 - 626 pages
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ability activities administrative analysis applied assistance attention authority better Board building carried changes chapter classroom concerning conference constructive coöperation course of study criticism curriculum definite detailed determine devices difficulties direct discussion Education Education Association effective Elementary School excellent experience experimental facts field function give given grade illustrations important improvement individual instruction interest Journal learning lesson material means measure meetings ment method National Education nature necessary needs objectives observation organization outline points possible practice present principal problems procedure professional progress Public pupils questions reading record relation responsible scientific score selection situation social specific standards statement subject matter suggestions super superintendent supervision supervisor supplies teachers teaching tests things tion unit valuable visits
Page 372 - If an instance in which the phenomenon under investigation occurs, and an instance in which it does not occur, have every circumstance in common save one, that one occurring only in the former; the circumstance in which alone the two instances differ is the effect, or the cause, or an indispensable part of the cause, of the phenomenon.
Page 203 - Abandon the notion of subject-matter as something fixed and ready-made in itself, outside the child's experience; cease thinking of the child's experience as also something hard and fast; see it as something fluent, embryonic, vital; and we realize that the child and the curriculum are simply two limits which define a single process. Just as two points define a straight line, so the present standpoint of the child and the facts and truths of studies define instruction. It is continuous reconstruction,...
Page 203 - The child is the starting-point, the center, and the end. His development, his growth, is the ideal. It alone furnishes the standard. To the growth of the child all studies are subservient ; they are instruments valued as they serve the needs of growth.
Page 401 - Tor those teachers who make such contributions suitable recognition is provided. 1. The plan as here outlined includes instructional experiments and variations from standard classroom procedure of the following types: (a) variations in instructional records and forms, (b) changes in the course of study, (c) suggestions for better classroom organization and management, (d) improved methods of teaching, (e) experimental investigations, and (/) child welfare. 2. Teachers having such suggestions and...
Page 212 - The problem of the educator is to engage pupils in these activities in such ways that while manual skill and technical efficiency are gained and immediate satisfaction found in the work, together with preparation for later usefulness, these things shall be subordinated to education — that is, to intellectual results and the forming of a socialized disposition.
Page 202 - ... study," or branch of learning. A principle, for the intellect, has had to be distinguished and defined; facts have had to be interpreted in relation to this principle, not as they are in themselves. They have had to be regathered about a new center which is wholly abstract and ideal. All this means a development of a special intellectual interest. It means ability to view facts impartially and objectively; that is, without reference to their place and meaning in one's own experience. It means...
Page 211 - The knowledge which comes first to persons, and that remains most deeply ingrained, is knowledge of how to do; how to walk, talk, read, write, skate, ride a bicycle, manage a machine, calculate, drive a horse, sell goods, manage people, and so on indefinitely. The popular tendency to regard instinctive acts which are adapted to an end as a sort of miraculous knowledge, while unjustifiable, is evidence of the strong tendency to identify intelligent control of the means of action with knowledge. When...
Page 310 - To know it thoroughly involves knowing its quantity as well as its quality. Education is concerned with changes in human beings; a change is a difference between two conditions; each of these conditions is known to us only by the products produced by it — things made, words spoken, acts performed and the like. To measure any of these products means to define its amount in some way so that competent persons will know how large it is, better than they would without measurement.
Page 362 - The scientific man has above all things to strive at self-elimination in his judgments, to provide an argument which is as true for each individual mind as for his own.
Page 203 - They embody the cumulative outcome of the efforts, the strivings, and successes of the human race generation after generation. They present this, not as a mere accumulation, not as a miscellaneous heap of separate bits of experience, but in some organized and systematized way — that is, as reflectively formulated. Hence, the facts and truths that enter into the child's present experience, and those contained in the subject-matter of studies, are the initial and final terms of one reality.