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MM. Molard and Ampère read a report on the new lamp invented by Lord Cochrane; but the Academy being informed that a similar investigation had been undertaken by orders of the Minister of Marine, suspended further proceedings on the subject, and ordered the committee to give their assistance to the commissioners appointed by the Minister.
M. Girard gave in the report of a committee on the alidographe of M. de Saint-Far. This instrument resembles the common plane table, with the addition of a graduated arc, which may be read off to minutes, and to which a telescope may be adapted, in order to enable it to serve the purpose of a theodolite. M. Cauchy read a memoir on the resolution of polynomials into real factors of the second degree.
Oct. 20. The death of M. Genty, Correspondent of the Academy, was announced.
M. Coquebert-Montbret concluded his report on the voyage of M. Krusenstern round the globe.
A memoir by M. Opoix on a method of preserving butter fresh was read, and was referred to M. Thenard.
Oct. 27.-M. Sorlin presented a memoir on spherical trigonometry, which was referred to MM. Legendre and Delambre.
M. Girard read a memoir on the flowing of ether and certain other fluids through capillary glass tubes.
M. Bosc presented the report of a committee on a statistical description of the district of Maremmes, by M. Guillet. this paper the most important article is a relation of the management of the oyster pools. The oysters are obtained by dredging off Oleron and the Isle of Aix, and such as are small and round are selected to be fattened in the pools. These pools are spaces on the river bank from 800 to 900 yards square in extent, and are surrounded with a dam to keep out the tide. The successful management of these pools depends on four circumstances: first, not to overcrowd the pools with oysters: secondly, to transfer the oysters once a year from the exhausted pool to one which has been vacant for an entire twelvemonth before: thirdly, to increase the depth of water during winter, that the oysters may not be hurt by the frost: fourthly, to prevent the rain-water from finding its way into the pools. Three years at least are required to bring the oysters to a marketable state, and the longer they remain the more fat and delicate they become.
MM. Laplace and Coquebert-Montbret were appointed to draw up the bill of mortality, to be inserted in the memoirs of the Academy, according to custom.
SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE, AND NOTICES OF SUBJECTS
MRS. LOWRY is about to recommence her Lectures on Mineralogy.
Mr. Guthrie, Deputy Inspector of Military Hospitals, will commence his Spring Course of Lectures on Surgery, on Monday, Jan. 19, at five minutes past eight in the evening, in the waiting room of the Royal Wesminster Infirmary for Diseases of the Eye, Marylebone-street, Piccadilly. To be continued on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays.
Mr. Thomas Bell, F.L.S. will commence his Lectures on the Structure and Diseases of the Teeth, &c. at Guy's Hospital, on Friday, Jan. 9, at half-past five o'clock.
II. Safety Lamp for Coal-Mines.
A publication has been forwarded to the Editors, eutitled, a "Report upon the Claims of Mr. Geo. Stephenson relative to the Invention of his Safety Lamp, by the Committee appointed at a Meeting holden in Newcastle, on Nov. 1, 1817." The Editors of the Annals, not choosing to take any part in the controversy between the friends of Sir H. Davy and of Mr. Stephenson, have not inserted the Report of a Committee of Sir H. Davy's friends assembled at Sir Joseph Banks's; and for the same reason shall abstain at present from noticing the proceedings of Mr. Stephenson's friends. At some future time, however, they mean to take up the subject, and to give, with all the impartiality in their power, a history of the experiments instituted, and of the machines invented, for the purpose of preventing explosions in coal-mines.
III. Fluor Spar in Scotland.
Fluor spar, although abundant in England, is one of the rarest simple minerals found in Scotland. Hitherto it has been met with but in two places: at Monaltree, in Aberdeenshire, where it forms one of the constituents of a galena vein in granite; and in the remote island of Papa-Stour, one of the Shetlands, in vesicular cavities in amygdaloid, associated with chalcedony, calcareous spar, and heavy spar. A few months ago Professor Jameson, during his investigation of the mineralogy of Renfrewshire, again met with this rare substance, near the village of Gourock, in vesicular cavities in porphyry.
IV. Chromate of Iron in Shetland.
Dr. Hibbert, who lately visited the Shetland Islands, with the
view of determining their geognostical structure and relations, found in the Island of Unst considerable masses of that valuable substance the chromate of iron.
V. Botanical Specimens from Switzerland.
J. C. Schleicher, of Bex, in the canton de Vaud, who has long been known as a dealer in seeds and dried specimens of Swiss plants, is now in London, for the purpose of furnishing the herbaria of English botanists with the Alpine, and other indigenous plants of Switzerland. He has published a catalogue of genera and species, from which persons may select whatever specimens they wish at a very moderate price.
VI. Davy's Safety Lamp.
An addition has been made to this valuable apparatus by Mr. Newman, by which it appears probable that its utility will be increased. It consists in attaching to the lower part of the wiregauze a convex lens. The effect of this is, that the miner will have it in his power to direct a strong light upon any particular part where it may be required, while the lens has the further advantage of covering a portion of the gauze, and preserving it from the coal dust and oil, by which, without considerable care, it is liable to be obstructed.
VII. Effect of Hot Water on Flowers.
The following fact, as far as we know, has not yet appeared in print. It is, however, deserving of record, as an interesting contribution to what has hitherto been discovered on the subject of vegetable physiology, and as enabling the lovers of flowers to prolong for a day the enjoyment of their short-lived beauty.
Most flowers begin to droop and fade after being kept during 24 hours in water: a few may be revived by substituting fresh water; but all (the most fugacious, such as the poppy, and perhaps one or two others excepted) may be completely restored by the use of hot water. For this purpose place the flowers in scalding water, deep enough to cover about one-third of the length of the stem: by the time the water has become cold the flowers I will have become erect and fresh: then cut off the coddled end of the stems, and put them into cold water. Probatum est.
VII. Third Volume of the Memoirs of the Society of Arcueil. The third volume of the memoirs of this respectable society has been lately received in London. It contains a number of valuable papers; but many of them have been written for some time, and their contents have been already made public: an account of several of them has been given in the preceding volumes of the Annals. We shall embrace an early opportunity of communicating to our readers an abstract of the more recent papers in the mean time, it may not be uninteresting to have a list of the whole :
On the Properties of the different Species of Rays which may be separated by Means of the Prism from the Solar Spectrum. By M. J. E. Berard. (For an account of this paper see Annals of Philosophy, vol. ii. p. 161.)
Memoir upon a new detonating Substance. By M. Dulong. (For an account of this substance, see Thomson's Chemistry, vol. i. p. 215, fifth edit.)
Considerations on Vegetable Analysis and Animal Analysis. By M. Berthollet.
Observations on the Mercurial Precipitates, and on those of Sulphate of Alumine. By M. Berthollet.
Experiments to determine if Alcohol exists ready formed in Wine. By M. Gay-Lussac.
On a Method of imitating artificially the Phenomena of Colours produced by the Action of thin Plates of Mica upon polarized Rays. By M. Biot. (For an account of M. Biot's experiments on the manner in which light is affected by passing through thin plates of various substances, see Annals of Philosophy, vol. i. p. 225; vii. 4; viii. 294.
Description and Use of a repeating Goniometer.
On a remarkable Law which is observed in the Oscillations of luminous Particles, when they cross obliquely thin Plates of Sulphate of Lime or Rock Crystal, cut parallel to the Axis of Crystallization. By M. Biot.
Continuation of the Observations on the inflammable Gases, styled Carburetted Hydrogen and Oxicarburetted Hydrogen. By M. Berthollet. (The paper of which this is stated to be the continuation is contained in the second volume of these memoirs.) Experiments on the Proportion of the Elements of Nitric Acid. By M. Berthollet.
Observations on the Composition of Oxymuriatic Acid. By M. Berthollet..
On the Influence of the Pressure of the Air upon the Crystallization of Salts. By M. Gay-Lussac.
Researches upon the Laws of the Dilatation of Fluids at all Temperatures. By M. Biot. (A translation of this paper was inserted in the Annals of Philosophy, vol. ix. p. 363.)
Memoir on the Geography of the Plants of France, considered in its Relations with absolute Height.
Memoir on the Colour of thin Plates. By M. Arrago. (Some account of M. Arrago's experiments on light will be found along with those of M. Biot, as referred to above.)
Comparative Examination of the Intensity of Action which the extraordinary repulsive Force of Iceland Spar exercises upon the luminous Molécules of different Colours. By M. Biot.
General Considerations on double Flowers, and in particular on those of the Family of the Ranunculacea. By M. Delandolle.
Memoir on the Combinations of Phosphorus with Oxygen. By M. Dulong.
Notice respecting the Decomposition of the Sulphate of Barytes and of the Subcarbonate of Lime by Potash. By M. Berthollet,
On the Isothermal Lines and the Distribution of Heat over the Globe. By Alex. von Humboldt.
The Editors have received an account of some experiments that have been performed by Dr. Murray, of Edinburgh, on the composition of muriatic acid, which they regret they were not able to insert in the present number.
GEORGE MANWARING, Esq. Marsh-place, Lambeth; for improvements in steam-engines. May 22, 1817.
PHILIP HUTCHINSON CLAY, of London, gentleman; for a combination of machinery for repairing and improving turnpike and other roads and highways, and keeping the same in good order. May 22, 1817.
SETH HUNT, late of the United States of America, now living in Covent Garden, Esq.; for an improved escapement for clocks, and watches, and chronometers. Communicated to him by a foreigner residing abroad. May 22, 1817.
SETH HUNT, late of the United States of America, now of Covent Garden, Esq.; for certain combinations of improvements in machinery for making pins. Communicated to him by a foreigner residing abroad. May 23, 1817.
GABRIEL TIGERE, Duke's-court, Bow-street, gentleman; for a process of manufacturing writing paper in such a way that it will be extremely difficult, if not impossible, afterwards to extract or discharge any writing from such paper. June 3, 1817.
CHARLES WYATT, of Bedford-row, coppersmith: for a new method or methods of preventing any disadvantageous accumulations of heat in manufacturing and refining sugar. June 3,
BENJAMIN AGER DAY, of Birmingham; for certain improvements in chimney ornaments, which are so constructed that they may be used for fire-screens, flower or sweet jars, time-piece cases, candlesticks, toast-stands, and various other purposes. June 3, 1817.
JOHN PARNALL, brazier, of Saint Anstell, Cornwall; for a