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nations, they have gathered in more than five times their own. number from the vast field of heathenism. We are pleased when, as the result of a statistical survey of our principal missionary societies, Dr. Harris presents us with the information, that there are at present about 1500 missionaries, aided by about 5000 native and other teachers, occupying 1200 stations, employing 50 printing-presses, and having about 180,000 converts in Christian communion: but it abates the satisfaction when we are reminded, that if the Churches in our own land had done as much as these Moravians have done, instead of there being as now but one missionary to every 400,000, there would be one to every 1800 of the heathen-the whole heathen world would be within our reach, under effective Christian instruction, whilst instead of 180,000, we might have had eightyfive millions of converts to Christianity!*

* See The Great Commission, by Dr. Harris, p. 185; and Christian Missions to Heathen Nations, by Baptist W. Noel, pp. 311, 312.



MR. CHALMERS had hitherto taken no particular or prominent part in the business of the ecclesiastical courts. The records of the Presbytery of Cupar, of which he was a member for more than twelve years, exhibit but a solitary instance in which his name stands connected with any Presbyterial Act. At a meeting of that Presbytery, held on the 1st February 1814, he moved the adoption and enforcement of certain regulations which he had prepared relative to the repairs and alterations of manses. In his own case he had experienced the "sweetening and tranquillizing effect" of the Presbytery's intervention, and he desired to secure, in all time coming, the same benefit to all his brethren. "I am sure," he said, in moving his resolutions, "that the comfort of the heritors is as much involved in these regulations as the comfort of the clergyman; for I will venture to say, that a mode of proceeding which carries them to a prompt and immediate decision, though it should bring double the expense along with it, will be attended with a less quantity of unpleasurable feelings. I do not think we have to look far into human nature for the explanation of this; but instead of theorizing, I shall give you an

actual example of it. I believe that I am within limits when I say that I had at least sixteen meetings with my heritors on the subject of manse and offices. I am convinced that during that time they did not lay their account with an expenditure of more than £500, even if I got all that I asked. But to reduce this £500 was the mighty object, and in pursuit of it there was a world of harassment and occasional bad humour in both parties. Well, the matters went on and thickened to a crisis, and at the end of a most fatiguing two years, I did what I ought to have done at the commencement of them; I called in my Presbytery; and-mark the importance of the fact to my arguments —when at last the decision came upon them in the shape of a payment, not of £500, but of £1150, it brought not merely comfort to my heart, but it brought tranquillity to theirs." Instead of leaving it optional to the minister to apply to the Presbytery, the improvement suggested by Mr. Chalmers in his regulations was, that each minister should be bound to inform the Presbytery of every proposed repair or alteration, leaving it optional to the Presbytery to interfere. Having heard his regulations read, "the Presbytery highly approved of the spirit and object of these regulations, and ordered them to lie on the table till next ordinary meeting." In bringing them again before the notice of the Presbytery at their next meeting, Mr. Chalmers said,-" I have not forgotten your unanimous approbation of the spirit of these regulations. Now, spirit is a thin, vapoury, aerial kind of thing, ready to fly at every slight impulse, and therefore requiring to be fixed down and made to reside in a material substance. You have conceded to me a spirit, give me a body to place it in; for, be assured, we shall reap no solid advantage till we have embodied the said spirit in an actually adopted resolution. I remember reading of a motion of Mr. Fox's in Parliament, by which he carried it as the resolution of the House, That the influence of the Crown


had increased, was increasing, and ought to be diminished.'* But he could not get them to do anything upon this motion. They would come to no specific or operative measure in consequence; and I was a good deal struck at the time with the charge which he exhibited against them,-that they had given their assent to a declaratory proposition, and withheld it from an effective one. Now, I feel that I am speaking on a clearer and a better cause, and I trust, having got your declaratory proposition at the last meeting of Presbytery, that I shall obtain your effective one at this." The regulations which, with some slight modifications, were adopted, will be found at the foot of the page.f

But within the bounds of his own Synod a question had now arisen in which his interest was too great to suffer him to remain inactive. The junction of a professorship in a university with the charge of a country parish had been rarely known, and had frequently been disallowed in the practice of the Church of Scotland; and although the General Assembly of

*This resolution was moved not by Mr. Fox, but by Mr. Dunning, afterwards Lord Ashburton.

"29th March, 1814.-The Regulations relative to Manses, &c., proposed by Mr. Chalmers, were again read, and being maturely considered, were unanimously adopted, and ordered to be observed by all the members of the Presbytery in future; the tenor whereof follows, viz. :—

"1. That every minister within the bounds shall henceforth give information to the Presbytery of the repairs or alterations upon the manse or offices which he wishes to propose to his heritors.

"2. That the Presbytery shall judge whether, from the extent of the repairs wanted, or other circumstances of the case, it will be right or prudent for them to leave the matter to be negotiated by the minister, or to interfere in the business themselves.

"3. That if the affair be committed to the minister, he shall be held bound to inform the Presbytery of its progress and result.

"4. Provided always, that if the manse shall be in so doubtful a state as to render a report from tradesmen necessary before the specific repairs or alterations can be fixed upon, the Presbytery shall appoint a visitation and inspection of the said manse, with a view to obtain the said report from tradesmen upon oath."Extracted from the Records of the Presbytery of Cupar.

1800 had decided in favour of the junction of the two offices. in the instance of Dr. Arnot's settlement in Kingsbarns, the conviction gained ground that it was a union which violated the constitution of the Scottish Establishment, which had always required constant residence in their parishes on the part of all its ministers. That conviction was very unequivocally expressed when, in the year 1813, the Rev. William Ferrie, Professor of Civil History in the University of St. Andrews, was presented to the living of Kilconquhar. At first the Presbytery of St. Andrews refused to admit him to the pastoral charge, unless he gave them the assurance, which he refused to do, that before or at the time of his ordination, he would resign his professorship. Upon appeal to the General Assembly, held at Edinburgh in May 1813, by the narrow and at that time unusually small majority of five the decision of the Presbytery of St. Andrews was reversed, and they were appointed to proceed with Mr. Ferrie's settlement as minister of Kilconquhar," with all convenient speed, according to the rules of the Church." In compliance with this decision of the supreme Court, a committee of Presbytery met at Kilconquhar for the purpose of moderating in a call, and reported to a subsequent meeting that no signatures whatever had been attached to it. At the same time, however, a letter was laid before the Presbytery, in which' all the principal landholders of Kilconquhar, three out of four of the elders, and many heads of families, apologized for not having signed the call at the proper time, and expressed their concurrence in Mr. Ferrie's settlement. At this stage the matter was referred to the Synod, for the meeting of which, on the 12th October, Mr. Chalmers, as his Journal has already informed the reader, made the most anxious and careful preparation.* It had been his impression that the

* Extracts from the speech prepared for this occasion will be found in Appendix L.

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