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upon the certainty of your belief that you act, and not upon the kind of evidence that produced it. You pretend that the manner in which the knowledge was conveyed affects the merits of the question. This appears to me a quibble-a subterfuge-a poor and pitiful attempt at consistency —a shift that has not even plausibility to support it—a topic of sophistry that may serve to eke out a speech, and give the stress of argument to nonsense. Does any man think, in the sincerity of his heart, that the publication of my proceedings renders me a worthy object of presbyterial reprobation? I will subunit, as I am bound to do, to the warrantable decisions of my superior court, and I will only ask one question,-Is this the way to extend my usefulness, or to heighten the efficacy of my instructions? Will this advance the interests of religion, to attach an undeserved stigma to one of its ministers, to cover him with infamy, or render him the object of hasty and precipitate reprobation?"

APPENDIX F.-P. 94.

"There is almost no consumption of intellectual effort in the peculiar employment of a minister. The great doctrines of revelation, though sublime, are simple. They require no labour of the midnight oil to understand them-no parade of artificial language to impress them upon the hearts of the people. A minister's duty is the duty of the heart. It is his to impress the simple and home-bred lessons of humanity and justice, and the exercises of a sober and enlightened piety. It is his to enlighten the sick-bed of age and of infirmity; to rejoice in the administrations of comfort; to maintain a friendly intercourse with his people, and to secure their affections by what no art and no hypocrisy can accomplish-the smile of a benevolent countenance, the frank and open air of an undissembled honesty. The usefulness of such a character as this requires no fatiguing exercise of the understanding to support it; no ambitious display of learning or of eloquence; no flight of mysticism; no elaborate discussion; no jargon of system or of controversy. What can we find in the peace and piety of a minister's retirement to withdraw his attention from the exalted occupations of philosophy; that philosophy which the light of mathematical science unfolded to the immortal Newton; that philosophy which has introduced us into a new creation of order and magnificence; that philosophy which has opened up to us an immense theatre, where the divinity of wisdom presides, and worlds on worlds revolve in silent harmony; that philosophy which raises us in adoration to the Almighty Being, whose all-seeing eye

no variety can bewilder, whose care extends to the minutest of His works, and who, while He reigns in the highest heaven, can look down on earth, to revive the spirit of the desolate, and to enlighten the sick-bed of age and of infirmity ? * * *

"Sir Isaac Newton has demonstrated to us the triumphs of the inductive philosophy when applied to the investigation of material phenomena. I will not pretend to say whether it is the same cautious and hesitating spirit of induction that has led Mr. Playfair to his wonderful discovery, to this his curious and unexpected fact in the philosophy of the mind, to this stubborn peculiarity in the science of the mathematics, that it should deny every clergyman of the Church of Scotland access to its mysteries. The discovery of unexpected connexions is the evidence of original genius, and of a mind superior to the dull sobriety of vulgar apprehensions. Let Mr. Playfair go on and prosper. He has opened up to us a new and interesting field for original observation. I would advise him not to stop short in the career he has so successfully begun. Go on, sir, and give us some more specimens of this magical and unheard of influence. Extend your observations to all the other trades and professions in the country; record their friendly and adverse tendencies to mathematical science; you have settled the clergymen ; proceed in the plenitude of your sagacity, and give us your decisions upon the physician, the lawyer, the mole-catcher, the currier of leather, &c., &c., to the enrichment of the philosophy of mind, and the great edification of patrons to university livings in all future ages.

"To encourage Mr. Playfair to attempt this new and unbeaten track of investigation, I shall unfold to him a discovery which has lately rewarded the patience and industry of my own inquiries, and promises the accession of a new set of phenomena to physical science. The author of this pamphlet, though a very young man, is old enough to have a beard, and that too of sufficient toughness and obstinacy to have seen out twelve pairs of razors since he commenced his series of inductive observations on the phenomena of shaving. The first circumstance that attracted his attention was the razor; and he has been laughed at for years by all his acquaintances for asserting that a razor with a yellow handle possesses more spirit, more smoothness, more temper, more durability, and more of all those virtues and qualifications which are set off with so much eloquence in Mr. Packwood's advertisement. But to silence all ridicule and sophistry on the subject, he fell on the following decisive experiment :-He took a blade of the best temper, wrested it of its yellow handle, got a watchmaker of careful execution to fasten a black handle in its place, and what is remarkable -from the very first moment of this melancholy transformation, the blade

exhibited symptoms of degeneracy; its spirit began to languish and decay ; the beard of its unhappy master grew to the terror and admiration of his neighbourhood; till at last decency compelled him to condemn his favourite as a piece of old and useless iron, fit only for hire to kettle-menders, or for adding to the inventory of his lumber-room. I take the opportunity of thus announcing my discovery to the public, that it may at once establish my pretensions to original genius, and at the same time serve for the great edification of barbers and natural philosophers in all future ages. In appreciating the merits of these our respective discoveries, I cannot help thinking that it required nearly an equal effort of originality to arrive at them. I have discovered the secret and mysterious influence which connects the power and execution of the blade with the colour of the handle; and Mr. Playfair has discovered the no less incomprehensible influence which resides in the name, the vestments, or the situation of a clergyman—an influence that is able to obliterate the general characters of humanity, to extinguish all the fine ardours of literary ambition, and to palsy the energy of that mind on which the vigorous hand of nature had before impressed the rudiments of genius."

APPENDIX G.-P. 122.

"ST. ANDREWS, December 7, 1801. "Mr. Thomas Chalmers has long been known to me as a young man of uncommon talents and worth, as well as eminent attainments in literature and philosophy. During the course of his academical studies at the University of St. Andrews, he distinguished himself greatly in the various classes of that seminary, especially the mathematical, at that time under my direction, in which he acquitted himself with singular assiduity and success. Since that period, in order to enlarge his views and enrich his mind with the science and methods of other Universities, he has attended the lectures of the principal masters in that of Edinburgh, with much approbation and advantage, and he is at present with genius and ability investigating some of the difficult and interesting subjects of Philosophy and Political Economy. To great industry, ardour, and originality in the pursuits of science, he adds the most benevolent temper and dispositions, and his moral character is at once blameless, manly, and decisive. In conducting the studies of young men entrusted to his care, he has discovered excellent talents for simplifying and conveying instruction. In ability for composition, in fitness for unfolding science and its practical uses, in energy of thought and expression, in precision and clearness of ideas, in vigour and

ingenuity of conception, as well as powerful habits of abstraction and demonstration, I have reason to say, from frequent opportunities of conversing with him, that he has very few equals; and, upon the whole, he appears to me, in an uncommon degree, qualified in every respect for directing the education of youth in any department of literature where an intimate knowledge of mathematics and philosophy is required. JAMES BROWN."

APPENDIX H.-P. 222.

"Mr. Robert Mudie, who is alluded to in Mr. Chalmers' Journal as a visitor at the manse of Kilmany, was then a teacher in the Academy of Dundee, of which Mr. Duncan was rector. He is rather remarkable as one of those men, not very rare in this country, who, though almost entirely self-taught, have, by the force of their genius and industry, raised themselves to considerable eminence in literature or science. He was the son of a country weaver, at a place about six or seven miles north-east of Dundee, where he was born about the year 1781, and where he received the humble rudiments of education at a country school. Leaving the school in early youth, he plied the loom for several years, until, being drawn for the militia service, he became a soldier for four years. From his earliest youth he discovered an insatiable desire for knowledge of every description, and all the hours which he could spare from the business of the weaver or the soldier he earnestly devoted to the perusal of books. He used to mention that, before he left home, he was much indebted to a gentleman who lent him some volumes of the Encyclopædia Britannica, where he indulged at large his taste for variety, and that in the towns where his regiment was stationed he always contrived to find a good supply of books. By these means it happened that, by the time his militia service of four years expired, he had acquired so much knowledge that he was emboldened to undertake the duties of a village school in the south of Fife. His quickness of apprehension was great, and his memory extraordinary, so that his knowledge was very various, indeed almost universal. Besides other accomplishments, he had acquired considerable skill in the art of drawing, a respectable acquaintance with arithmetic and mathematics, and great facility in English composition. He also wrote verses with ease. He was soon appointed to the situation of drawing-master in the Academy of Inverness, and afterwards in that of Dundee, where he was not long in being transferred to the more intellectual department of arithmetic, theoretical and practical, and English composition. He remained for ten or twelve years

in Dundee, where, beside his occupation as a teacher, he contributed much to the local newspaper, conducted for some time a monthly periodical, published a novel, and, becoming a member of the Town-Council, engaged fiercely in the cause of Borough reform. His pen was very satirical, and procured him many enemies. He at last left Dundee for London, where he could find employment for his talents as a littérateur. There he lived entirely by his pen. At first he acted as a reporter to the newspapers of the debates in Parliament. He afterwards extended his field, engaging in all such works as, by the popular interest of the subjects, might be likely to prove remunerative. In this most laborious course of life he became a very voluminous author. Perhaps his works that excited greatest interest were- The Modern Athens,' 'Babylon the Great,' and 'Feathered Tribes of the British Islands.' With all his industry and talent, he was constantly in poverty; and he died, exhausted by his mode of life, before he reached the age of sixty, leaving the widow of a second marriage in poor circumstances."-MS. Memoranda of Professor Duncan.

APPENDIX I.-P. 262.

TEXTS FROM THE JOURNAL-Sept. 30th, 1812-Sept. 3d, 1813. "Matthew i. 23; ii. 10; iii. 17; iv. 10; v. 44; vi. 14, 15; vii. 7, 8; viii. 2, 3; ix. 6; x. 32; xi. 27; xiii. 46; xiv. 27; xv. 8; xvi. 23; xvii. 20; xviii. 15; xix. 6; xx. 26, 27; xxi. 22; xxii. 37; xxiii. 37 ; xxiv. 44 ; xxv. 40; xxvi. 41; xxvii. 54; xxviii. 18.

"Mark i. 17; ii. 17; iii. 35; iv. 40; v. 19; vi. 50; vii. 7; viii. 34; ix. ; x. 52; xi. 23; xii. 30; xiii. 37; xiv. 38; xv. 39; xvi. 16.

"Luke i. 74, 75; ii. 14; iii. 8; iv. 4; v. 12, 13; vi. 46; vii. 47; viii. 21; ix. 23; x. 20; xi. 13; xii. 15; xiii. 34; xiv. 33; xv. 7; xvi. 13; xvii. 10; xviii. 1; xix. 10; xx. 35; xxi. 33; xxii. 19; xxiii. 34 ; xxiv. 49. "John i. 12; ii. 25; iii. 6; iv. 24; v. 23; vi. 37; vii. 38, 39; viii. 31, 32; ix. 41; x. 27, 28; xi. 25, 26; xii. 26; xiii. 34; xiv. 13; xv. 2; xvi. 14; xvii. 20; xviii. 11; xix. 30; xx. 31; xxi. 19.

"Acts i. 11; ii. 33; iii. 26; iv. 12; v. 31; vi. 3 ; vii. 59; viii. 5 ; ix. 36 ; x. 43; xi. 18; xii. 24; xiii. 38, 39; xiv. 22; xv. 9; xvi. 30, 31; xvii. 27, 28; xviii. 27; xix. 20; xx. 32; xxi. 19; xxii. 16; xxiii. 1; xxiv. 16; xxv. 25; xxvi. 18; xxvii. 25; xxviii. 31.

"Romans i. 16;

ii. 2;

iii. 21-26; iv. 20, 21; v. 1, 2 ; vi. 1, 2 ; vii. 24, 25 ; viii. 1; ix. 16; x. 11 ; xi. 6 ; xii. 1; xiii. 8; xv. 13; xvi. 20.

"I. Corinthians i. 9 ; ii. 14; iii. 22, 23; iv. 7; v. 8; vi. 19, 20; vii. 32; viii. 3; ix. 24; x. 13; xi. 26; xii. 3; xiii. 7; xiv. 40; xv. 58; xvi. 13, 14.

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