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benevolent to all mankind." Dr. Johnson said impressions were deceitful and dangerous, and explained the nature of the Christian atonement. Boswell requested him to repeat his remarks, and proceeded to record them.*

Neglecting the practice of his profession, Boswell became wholly dependent on his allowance from Lord Auchinleck, and again ran himself aground. He explained his condition to Dr. Johnson as a reason why he could not visit London in the spring of 1782, adding that could he possibly reach the metropolis, he might obtain a post which would restore his fortunes. Dr. Johnson replied as follows:

"To come hither with such expectations at the expense of borrowed money, which I find you know not where to borrow, can hardly be considered prudent. I am sorry to find, what your solicitations seem to imply, that you have already gone the length of your credit. This is to set the quiet of your whole life at hazard. If you anticipate your inheritance, you can at last inherit nothing; all that you receive must pay for the past. You must get a place, or pine in penury, with the empty name of a great estate. Poverty, my dear friend, is so great an evil, and pregnant with so much temptation, and so much misery, that I cannot but earnestly enjoin you to avoid it. Live on what you have; live if you can on less; do not borrow either for vanity or pleasure; the vanity will end in shame, and the pleasure in regret; stay therefore at home till you have saved money for your journey hither."

In a letter written some months subsequently, Johnson resumed his discourse on the miseries of improvidence :—

Whatever might have been your pleasure or mine, I know not how I could have honestly advised you to come hither with borrowed money. Do not accustom yourself to consider debt only as an inconvenience; you will find it a calamity. Poverty takes away so many means of doing good, and produces so much "Life of Johnson."


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inability to resist evil, both natural and moral, that it is by all virtuous means to be avoided. Consider a man whose fortune is very narrow; whatever be his rank by birth, or whatever his reputation by intellectual excellence, what can he do, or what evil can he prevent? That he cannot help the needy is evident; he has nothing to spare. But perhaps his advice or admonition may be useful. His poverty will destroy his influence; many more can find that he is poor than that he is wise; and few will reverence the understanding that is of so little advantage to its owner. I say nothing of the personal wretchedness of a debtor, which, however, has passed into a proverb."

After a long illness, patiently borne, Lord Auchinleck died at Edinburgh on the 31st August. He had settled on his eldest son the ancestral estate, with an unencumbered rental of £1,600 a year. On receipt of the tidings, Dr. Johnson wrote to Boswell as follows:

"Your father's death had every circumstance that could enable you to bear it; it was at a mature age, and it was expected; and as his general life had been pious, his thoughts had doubtless for many years past been turned upon eternity. That you did not find him sensible must doubtless grieve you; his disposition towards you was undoubtedly that of a kind, though not of a fond father. Kindness, at least actual, is in our power, but fondness is not; and if by negligence or imprudence you had extinguished his fondness, he could not at will rekindle it. Nothing then remained for you but mutual forgiveness of each other's faults, and mutual desire of each other's happiness. I shall long to know his final disposition of his fortune."

At Auchinleck the deceased judge was deeply revered. In the Kirk-Session Records of that parish, Mr. David Murdoch,* schoolmaster and session clerk, has accompanied the entry of his death with the following lines, entitled" Essay towards a character of Lord Auchinleck:

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* This gentleman was, we believe, father of Mr. John Murdoch, the first and most efficient instructor of the poet Burns.



"For every sovereign virtue much renowned,
Of judgment steady, and in wisdom sound,
Through a long life in active bus'ness spent,
For justice and for prudence eminent;

Well qualified to occupy the line
Allotted him by Providence divine;
Employed with indefatigable pains

In very num'rous and important scenes;
And as his fame for justice was well known,
His clemency no less conspicuous shone ;
Reliever of the needful and opprest,
The gen'rous benefactor of distrest,
Ready to hear and rectify a wrong,
To re-establish harmony among
Contending friends, or such as disagreed,
And of his interposing aid had need;
Successfully he laboured much and long
As healer of the breaches us among;
And still from jarring order brought about,
Carefully searching unknown causes out.
A foe to vice, detesting liars much,
Of shrewd acuteness in discerning such;
Averse to flattery, hating all deceit,
Though in resentment mod'rate and discreet;
And ready still, with sympathizing grace,
To wipe the tear from every mourning face.
Whether we see him talking at the Bar,
Or on the Bench, a step exalted far,
Display the spirit of his country's laws,
Or ruminate the merits of a cause;
Or in retirement from such legal strife
View him a gentleman in private life,-
In all connections, and in him we find
The husband loving and the parent kind,
The easy master and the faithful friend,
The honest counsellor, as all will own,
And most indulgent landlord ever known.
In all departments on the earthly stage,
In every scene in which he did engage,

Such steadiness, such truth and candour shone,
As equalled is by few, surpassed by none;
In everything important less or more,
Supporting well the character he bore.

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A person thus disposed and thus endowed
Must have been universally allowed

The tribute of our praises heretofore,

And claims our tears when now he is no more.

All ranks in him a mighty loss sustain,

Both rich and poor, the noble and the mean;
For why? his services did far extend

Through town and country to the kingdom's end;
The whole to him in obligations bound,

As to his honour ever will redound.

Revere his memory, and his death lament,
As well becomes, with uniform assent;
Your high concern by loud encomiums show,
Unite the shout of praise and tear of woe;
Your warm effusions only can reveal
(And faintly too) what every heart must feel.
This benefactor lost, the meaner man
May quiver, and so he will, that's all he can;
Let those descended of a station higher,
To imitate his virtuous life aspire ;
Transcribe the bright example set by him,
Best way to evidence their true esteem.
May after generations who succeed,

From Register, his famed remembrance read.
Alive his character afar was known,

So may it long continue when he's gone;
And let the undissembled voice of fame

To distant ages celebrate his name—

A name of veneration and respect,

Of honour and esteem, Lord Auchinleck."

On Friday, the 21st March, 1783, Boswell arrived in London. He found Dr. Johnson at Mrs. Thrale's in feeble health. former occasions, the friends worshipped together in St. Clement's Church on Good Friday, while Boswell again kept Easter in

St. Paul's. When congratulating his friend on his position as a landowner, Dr. Johnson unsparingly exposed his egotism.

Boswell," said he, "you often vaunt so much, as to provoke ridicule. You put me in mind of a man who was standing in the kitchen of an inn with his back to the fire, and thus accosted the person next him:-'Do you know, sir, who I am?' 'No, sir, said the other, 'I have not that advantage.' 'Sir,' said he, 'I am the great Twamley, who invented the new floodgate iron.'

Boswell left London for Scotland on the 29th of May. From Dr. Johnson he received these parting counsels :-" Get as much force of mind as you can. Live within your income. Always have something saved at the end of the year. Let your imports be more than your exports, and you'll never go far wrong."

On the opening of Parliament in November, 1783, Mr. Fox introduced in the House of Commons his celebrated East India Bill. By this measure he proposed to vest the Government of India for five years, in a commission of seven, who were to be appointed by Parliament, and to be irremovable by the Crown. The Bill was accepted by the Commons, but was, on the 17th December, rejected in the Upper House, through the influence of the King. The rejection of this measure compelled the coalition ministry to resign, and Mr. Pitt became Prime Minister on the understanding that he would appeal to the country without loss of time. Having become a landowner, Boswell conceived himself a fit candidate for parliamentary honours, and in prospect of a dissolution resolved to offer his services to a constituency. He published a pamphlet entitled "A Letter to the People of Scotland on the Present State of the Nation" (43 pp. 12mo.). In this composition he denounces Mr. Fox's India Bill as "an attempt to deprive

* A Mr. Twamley invented a kind of box-iron for smoothing linen.

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