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Patent of Jonathan Varty, of Liverpool, coach-maker, for improvements in the axle-trees of carriages. Dated Sept. 1810.
When night pullucid warbles into day, And morn sonorous floats upon the may, With well blown bugle through the wilds
I roam discordant, while the bounding hare In covert claps her wings, to see me pass Ethereal meadows of translucent glass.
Magnetic thunders now allume the air, And fragrant music variegates the year, Light trips the Dolphin through cœrulean woods,
And spotless Tygers harmonize the floods, Even Thetis smooths her brow, and laughs
Kind nature weep in symphony with me.
This young conundrum let me first propose, It puzzles half our dainty belles and beaux, What makes my lays in blue eyed order shine,
So much superior when compared with thine?
Fxpound me this, and I'll disclaim the prize, Whose lustre blushes with Peruvian dyes, When crowing foxes whistle in their dens, Or radiant hornpipes dance to cocks and hens,
What makes sly reynard and his cackling
That saved the capitol, resign to fate?
But see Aquarius fills his ample vase,
Adieu my goats! for ne'er shall rural muse Your philosophic beards to stroke refuse.
DISCOVERIES AND IMPROVEMENTS IN ARTS, MANUFACTURES, &c.
IN making the arm of the axle
tree, I divide the bottom half of the axle-tree into several parts, according to the weight intended to be
Patent of Mr. Charles Williams, of Gravel-lane, Southwark, Millwright, for a machine for grinding or cutting malt, splitting beans, or other grain, and various other articles.
carried. I then cut out of the two upper thirds, supposing the under half to be divided into three parts, sufficient to take the bearing of those parts, so that the friction and weight rest only on the sixth part of the axle-tree. The bearing part I leave larger or smaller, agreeable to the weight intended to be carried.
In some cases I fix small rollers, two or more, as occasion may require, in recesses cut for that purpose in the bottom of the axle-tree. These rollers turn on their own axis in pieces of steel, or any other hard metal, also fixed in the said recesses. In this case the bottom of the axle-tree must be flattened, in order to throw the weight on the rollers. I then make a groove the length of the arm on the top-side, with small holes through the axle-tree to admit of oil flowing through to supply the axis of the rollers with sufficient moisture. In this case the box or bush must be made with a cap at the point or shoulder, or with caps both at the point and shoulder, to contain oil, as is frequently practised on different principles: or I supply the axle-tree with oil through a pipe, introduced through the shoulderwasher; at the upper end of which pipe I screw a can, cap, or hollow ball, to contain oil.
These several improvements may be used either separately or collectively. In cases where the box or bush is a fixture, instead of cutting away the axle-tree, I make the alteration in the bottom half of the box in the same way as described for the axle-tree. When horizontal axle-trees are used, the arm of the axle-tree should be of the same size at the point as at the shoulder, and the wheel made perfectly up right, without any dish.
In witness whereof, &c.
Dated, August, 1810.
THIS machine is composed of a horizontal roller of steel or iron, grooved longitudinally on its surface, with channels a little inclined to a spiral direction, and having an angular section, with one side of the angle nearly in the line of the radii of the roller: a piece of steel or iron, hollowed to correspond with the curvature of the roller, and furnished with similar grooves at its concave side, is placed in the same direction with it, at a proper distance, which may be encreased or diminished by adjusting screws, that pass from its ends towards the axis of the roller; this latter part may also be formed of a number of cutters or knives, placed in the direction mentioned, and kept tight together by screw bolts passing through them.
Each end of the axis of the roller works in a brass socket, that is capable of a sliding motion at right angles to the axis, in a frame properly fitted for this purpose; at each of these sockets a bent lever adjusted in such a manner, that a weight on its longer arm tends to press the socket (and consequently the roller) towards the cutters, or hollow grooved bar; and the weight on the lever can be moved closer to or farther from the center of motion, so as to adjust the pressure to the degree desired; by this means if any extraneous body, should by chance get among the corn, which is too hard to be cut, it will force the roller from the cutters, and pass through without damaging the engine, and the weighted levers will immediately bring the roller again to its proper place.
A double wire screen, about three times the length of the roller, is placed above it, inclined towards it in an angle of about 25 degrees; at the upper end of this screen the hopper is fixed, in which is put a wire screen to take out the thickest of the rubbish, of straw and other matters mixed among the grain Projections from the rolier act against a part of the lower end of the screen prepared for the purpose; by which a motion is given to the screen, that shakes forward the malt or other matter; at the front of the hopper a small slider is fixed, to adjust the size of the aperture, through which the grain passes to the screen; and the screen is enclosed in a sort of trough, with sides which rise above it; and from one side of its lower end, a spout projects, to clear, off the rubbish that is separated from the grain.
Each of the blades is the length of the trough's breadth, and somewhat deeper than the trough, and has two tenants rising from its back, which passing through corresponding mortices in a piece of wood fixed beneath the handle or lever, serve to keep them firmly united to it, and are farther secured by pins which pass through them transversly through holes in the parts of them that project beyond the wooden bed. An iron plate having slits made through is, to admit the blades to pass, and of the same length and breadth as the blades, is by a bar that projects from it, fastened to a hinge beneath the lever, so as to admit the blades to move up and down through the slits, at the same time that it accompanies them in the lateral motion to different parts of the trough, as the lever to which they are attached is moved round the pivot: The use of this plate is to clean the chopping blades from any part of the cut substance which sticks to them; two pieces rise from the tail of the plate at each side of them, which ho'd a pin that prevents the blades from coining quite through; and a spring is placed between the tail of the plate and the lever, which raises the lattor up, and causes the chopping to he performed more speedily, as the hand has only to free down the lever, which the spring raises.
The grooved roller may be turned by any power most convenient.
THIS machine is particularly well calculated for the chopping of saysage meat. Though its value in this latter respect may at first appear inconsiderable, yet the great demand in inost towns for that article, and the many hands it requires to make the meat fit for use, will, on enquiry, shew that it is of consequence. Many of the sausage-makers employ four or five men constantly in this business, and frequenty three or four hundred weight of
meat is cut up by one house in a An aquatic sledge, or unsubmersible
The advantages of this invention consists in saving labour, time, and waste of meat. There are in this machine five knives, which are let into an iron plate, which is screwed to the working bar.
The knives are fastened by bolts passed through them close under and above the plate.
The sliding plate is for the purpose of preventing the meat being scattered; and to this plate are added scrapers; which are serewed underneath, for the purpose of clearing the knives at every stroke.
The spring raises the knives, and enables any person to chop at least twenty-times as much meat in the same time as can be done by the
The length of the knives being equal to the breadth of the trough, no meat can possibly escape the knives, nor will the meat require so much turning as is usually wanted. If it should require turning, it is easily done by alternately pressing the knives at either end of the trough, sliding them towards the middle.
When the meat is sufficiently chopped, the bar to which the knives are fixed may he lifted entirely free from the sliding plate, by tak ing the pin out of the guide. Indeed, the whole of the moving apparatus may be turned in any direction as occasion may require.
The same machine is also applicable for cutting fat, suet, &c. previous to rendering them into tallow; likewise to chopping madder and other roots for calico-printers, or as used in their recent state for dyers; also for dividing potatoes, carrots, and other esculent roots for farmers in feeding cattle, and may be made at a moderate expense, is worked with éase by the hand, and, when occasion requires, is easily repaired.
M. Badir counsellor of mines, at Munich in Bavaria, has invented what he terms an aquatic sledge, constructed on such a principle that it may be impelled and guided on the water by the rider himself without any other aid. The first public experiment was made with this machine on the 20th of August last, before the royal family at Nymphenburgh, with complete success.— It consists of two hollow canoes, or pontoons, eight feet long, made of sheet copper, closed on all sides, joined to each other in a parallel direction, at the distance of six feet, by a light wooden frame. joined they support a seat resembling an arin chair, in which the rider is seated, and impels and steers the sledge, by treading two large pedals before him. Each of those pedals is connected with a paddle, fixed vertically in the after part of the machine behind the seat, and in the interval between the two pontoons. In front of the seat stands a small table, and behind it is a leathern bag to hold any thing wanted. It is so contrived that it can be taken to picces in a few minutes, packed in a box, and be put together again in a very short time. This vehicle is far safer than a common boat, the centre of gravity being constantly in the middle of a very broad base; a circumstance which renders upsetting impossible even in the heaviest gale.
It is evidently extremely well calculated for use in taking sketches of aquatic scenery, as also for the diversion of shooting water fowl, in which case the sportsman conceals himself behind a slight screen of branches, or rushes, so as to approach the birds unperceived.