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mand the commerce of that very cautious nation, which so unwillingly admits strangers to its own ports.
'Observations on the monsoons, so far as they regard the commerce and navigation of the port of Bombay,' are chiefly nautical, and not interesting to general readers.
A curious mode of process, among the Hindus, in trials for witchcraft.' The absurdity of these processes is equaled only by our own vulgar and obsolete superstition of throwing a reputed witch into the water, who, if not drowned, was formally condemned to be hanged. We shall select the Indian proofs.
The natives of India observe three modes of incantation, in order to prove the crime. First, in the day time, by planting in water branches of the Saul tree, in the name of every woman in the village, from the age of ten years and upwards; for if, after remaining in the water a certain period of time, a branch withers, the woman in whose name it is placed is deemed a witch.
Secondly, by lamp light in the night, by dropping oil of mustard into water contained in the hollow of a certain leaf, and with each drop calling on the name of every woman of the village; and if the shadow of the woman in whose name the oil is dropped appeared in the water, she was immediately pronounced a witch.
The third mode is by placing small parcels of rice, tied in bags, in a nest of white ants, in the name of each woman of the village; when as many of the bags of rice as were destroyed by the ants, each of the women, in whose names such bags were placed, were declared witches. All these several processes were performed before the selfcreated tribunal as above described, and which generally consisted of a pretty numerous assembly.' P. 91.
Letters from the emperor Aurengzebe to his sons, with an authentic copy of his will, translated from the Persic originals, by the late Joseph Earles, esq. now first published.' These letters display much superstitious bigotry, and show that the most unfeeling heart may be still susceptible of parental tenderness. Two paragraphs from the will we shall select.
7th. There is none better calculated for a minister of state than a Persian. In war also, from the reign of his majesty of blessed memory, till the present time, none of this nation ever fled from the field of battle, or slipp'd from their feet of firmness; nor have they ever been refractory or perfidious: but as they require much attention and respect, it is difficult to satisfy them, though by all means highly necessary, and more so, not to treat them with neglect.
8th. The Tartars are undoubtedly a race of excellent soldiers. They are very expert and judicious in plundering and devastating a country, and in making night attacks and prisoners; nor do they account it any disgrace to retire from action fighting; being in this respect far remote from the gross ignorance of the Hindustanians, whose heads may go 'ere they will go themselves. It is by all means neces
sary, therefore, to treat these people with regard, as they will be ser viceable upon many occasions where others will not *.' P. 95.
From the letters, which are often highly curious, we shall add a short extract.
The emperor Jehangier says, in his Jehangier Namé—“ divisions daily arising from the commencement of our reign, we deemed repose unlawful for ourself; and in order to protect and defend the people of God, we never slept with the eye of a friend:
To give rest to every body beside,
We inured our own to the want of it.'
"By the favour of God, our custom by degrees became such, that sleep never plundered more of the wealth of our time than two astronomical hours in the space of a day and a night; whence we derived these two advantages, a thorough knowledge of the affairs of the enpire, and wakefulness in the remembrance of God."
It is a shame that this life, of an imperfect day, should be passed away in sloth and forgetfulness, when the long sleep of death is before it: Deeming it precious, one should not, on the contrary, be the twinkling of an eye divested of the thoughts of God.
Be wakeful, a strange sleep is just before you.' r. 96.
Vindication of the liberties of the Asiatic women, by Mirza Abu Taleb Khan.' This learned native of Oude has been for nearly two years in England, and has composed a poem, in the Persic language, descriptive of London, its amusements, the adjacent country, and English manners. This little tract is written in consequence of a conversation on the subject with an English lady, and designed to show, that the real possession of liberty and power is in the Asiatic, and not in the English, ladies. The discussion is truly curious, though we think the Hindu fails somewhat in his proofs. One of the superiorities of the Asiatic ladies will not be allowed an exclusive advantage-viz. a prescriptive power of teasing their husbands by every pretext.
Among the poetic pieces, we were greatly entertained with the literary characteristics of the most distinguished persons of the Asiatic Society, by John Collegins, esq.' It contains some curious accounts of authors, who have distinguished themselves in that collection, but is not remarkable for animated description or poetic imagery. Two little odes
Those nations in the two preceding articles, which have been translated Persians and Tartars, are expressed in the original by the words Iran and Toran. The former is generally understood for the kingdom of Persia, comprehending all those regions extending from the Oxus to the Persian Sea on the south, and the Tigris on the west; and the country beyond the Oxus is called Turan; but all the higher Asia, excepting India and China, is comprehended by Eastern historians under these twe
from Hafiz, with the originals, conclude this department, which, we think, might have been extended further.
The works noticed are, captain Turner's Account of his Embassy to Thibet; colonel Symes's Embassy to Ava; Persian Lyrics, from the Diwan-i Hafiz; Dr. Howison's Dictionary of the Malay Tongue; a continuation of Colebrooke's Digest of Hindu Law; Observations on the Report of the Directors of the East-India Company respecting the Trade between India and Europe, by Mr. Henchman, with a Letter to Sir William Pulteney, on the same Subject, by Sir George Dallas; the Tooti Nameh, or Tales of a Parrot, in the Persian, with an English Translation; Dr. Hager's Explanation of the Elementary Characters of the Chinese. The volume concludes with correspondence on literary subjects, chiefly announcing Mr. Drummond's Grammar of the Malabar Language, with a short analysis of that work.
ART. III.-Travels in Portugal, and through France and Spain. With a Dissertation on the Literature of Portugal, and the Spanish and Portugueze Languages. By Henry Frederick Link. Translated from the German by John Hinckley, Esq. with Notes by the Translator. 8vo. 9s. Boards. Longman and Rees.
OUR very intelligent author describes his journey, through France and Spain, to Portugal, in the course of which he accompanied count Hoffmansegg, whose object it was to examine the natural history of this last kingdom, and who wished for a companion, in some degree acquainted with mineralogy and botany. While the count is preparing his great work, the Fauna et Flora Lusitanica, our author has published his travels.
On my return I read all the accounts I could procure of travels in Portugal, and found that no one had seen so much of that country as ourselves. I also perceived that most of the authors of these works were grossly ignorant of the language, and gave many false accounts, or such as were only applicable to the inhabitants of the metropolis, but which they erroneously extended to the whole kingdom. In short I read of nothing but complaints against the lazy bigotted and thievish Portugueze, and saw with grief, that no one had described the delightful vales through which the Minho flows, the cultivation of which vies with that of England herself; that no one had bestowed due praise on the tolerant spirit of the common people, of which I had many pleasing proofs, (I speak not of priests, who have a character of their own, and are alike in all countries where the government favours them); that no one had proclaimed the security enjoyed in a country where in my botanical excursions I laid myself down by the road-side
in unknown spots, and, exhausted by the heat of the day, slept with out care or apprehension.
Thus I seized the pen to defend my friends the Portugueze, determining impartially to pourtray their character, their mode of life, and their agriculture, with which last my occupations rendered me intimately acquainted; till thus a mere apology grew into a book of travels. It being often needful to draw a comparison between the Portugueze and their neighbours the Spaniards, I added a short account of our journey through Spain, and France is too important an object of public attention to omit the few observations I have prefixed, more particularly on provinces through which travellers have of late very rarely passed.' .iv.
M. Link has certainly seen the Portuguese with a favourable eye; and, though we attach little credit to the accounts of travelers who have merely surveyed the capital, we know too much of the interior country, to be able to pay any great attention to the flattering account here given of it.
The author hastens through the road from Calais to Paris, but enlarges a little on what is most interesting in the me tropolis; and his remarks on England chiefly appear in the comparative statement of the conveniences and beauties of the two countries.-We shall select a short specimen.
The country round Paris is, without comparison, more beautiful than that round London. How charming is the view of a part of the city from the Botanic garden! which is even exceeded by that of all Paris, from the pleasant hill of Montmartre. The continuation of this hill, with its numerous vineyards, to the neighbourhood of Charenton, presents an agreeable variety to the eye; and the banks of the Seine up to the spot where it receives the Marne, and to the majestic bridge over the latter, are equally pleasing. But still more charming is the spot, where, having passed the Elysian fields, it forms a curve toward the bridge over the Sevre, watering the foot of a charming hill, on which is the park of Meudon. Here it makes a sharp turn, and flows to the park of St. Cloud, amid the shady walks and thick foliage of which Peace seems to dwell, while the solitary castle gives as it were a soft elegiac murmur of sympathy. The extreme flatness of the country round London renders it naturally dull, and between Bagshot and Hounslow horrible: nothing, indeed, but art could have given it any attractions. Of the neighbourhood of London, the country about Chelsea is the pleasantest on one side; and at a farther distance, on the other side, on the banks of the river below the metropolis, are Greenwich park and hospital for decayed seamen, a magnificent building, the prospect of which is an ornament to the neighbouring country, which it greatly contributes to render extremely pleasant. The view at Richmond is remarkably fine; but the spectator must be placed on the hill in the park, or in the Star-tavern, to trace all the windings of the river, which often conceals itself amid a crowd of houses and gardens, meadows, fields, and foliage. It affords but a single view, and resembles a solitary bright thought in an otherwise significant work. I love not an epigrammatic country view. P. 24."
M. Link seems not to have availed himself of some of the advantages he might have found in England, particularly with respect to the collections of natural objects and botanic gardens.
In his progress southward, he follows the lime- and sandstone country, to the mountains of the Limousin, where the granite commences, which is again lost on the southern side of the Correze. The country, in general, is described as poor, and the people dissatisfied, particularly in the manufacturing towns. The young men, returning from the fields of war, to which they had been carried by compulsion, are said to have brought back the most rooted hatred of the go
From the banks of the Dordogne to those of the Garonne, the country is calcareous, with an occasional appearance of sand-stone: it is well described; and some of the peculiar politics of this part of the kingdom, particularly of the town of Montauban, diversify, perhaps enliven, it. Soon after passing the Garonne, the travelers enter Gascony-a country also of lime-stone, much diversified, and often singularly beautiful, though too deficient in woodland. The limestone continues, till they arrive at a little town called La Mirande. Beyond this is Rabasteins, on the declivity of a mountain, from which the view, described in the following extract, occurs: the whole country, from Mirande, rises considerably.
Here indeed the view is extremely delightful; exhibiting a cheerful and finely cultivated country, with numerous towns, villages, and detached houses, hills clothed with hanging woods, open cheerful valleys and excellent roads, together with the near view of the Pyrenees, the majestic summits that raise their heads above all the rest in Bigorre, the sharp peaks, almost resembling needles shooting into the air, in Foix and Roussillon, and a cheerful smiling country, over which the genius of sublimity seems to hover.
We entered the vale of Tarbes at Rabasteins. Across this vale, which however, rather resembles a wide-extended plain, runs a straight road as even as a floor, and planted on each side with trees. Near the road are meadows carefully watered by art, and fields and vineyards give variety to the view. The vines twine round the trees to a certain height, from which the branches hang in festoons; neat houses are seen half-concealed in groves of Italian poplars, and in front appears the city of Tarbes with its elegant towers; when suddenly and unexpectedly behind them arise the Pyrenees, in the midst of which is the Pic-du-midi, situated in Bigore, at only a mile and a half distance, being 9000 feet above the level of the sea, while the other lofty summits of this chain of mountains seem to crowd around it. There are perhaps few chains of mountains, where so perfect a valley can be found in the most charming of climates, and so near the foot of so lofty a mountain. The Alps are, throughout their whole extent, de