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cannot reasonably misunderstand the opinions it maintains, however he may estimate them; he must be struck with its uniform force and precision, and pleased with the cordial and scriptural piety of its intelligent author.
Art. X. Observations on the Utility, Form and Management of WaterMeadows, and the draining and irrigating of Peat-Bogs; with an Account of Prisley-Bog, and other extraordinary Improvements, conducted for his Grace the Duke of Bedford, T. W. Coke, Esq. M. P. and others. By William Smith, Engineer and Mineralogist. 8vo. pp. 121. Price 10s. 6d. Longman and Co. 1806.
IRRIGATION, or the artificial watering of meadow-land, is an excellent, but in general an expensive, method of improvement, practicable only by wealthy agriculturists, and confined in its application to lands locally adapted for the purpose.
Mr. Smith, who appears to have been very successful in his undertakings of this nature, is a strong advocate for the prac tice; he writes on the subject con amore, and if his advice were taken, would not only drain and irrigate bogs and barren wastes, but would convert most of our arable land into luxuriant water meadows,
"to fatten fleecy flocks, and sturdy steers."
as be himself expresses it.
"The fertility produced by irrigation," he very truly observes, « ir drawn from a source that deprives no other land of its benefit. Not so with land improved by manure, particularly in the vicinity of great towns All extraordinary improvements of lands that are so situated, are derived from an extra quantity of the general produce carried there for consumption; consequently those lands which have furnished supplies, and are too remote to get manure returned, must be deprived of as much fertility as is added to the other; therefore such improvements cannot be of general utility.
There are many dreary wastes where no previous preparation is necessary to convert the worst of bog into the very best of water-meadow; nor will it be necessary to remove those large stones which, in many rocky situations, would be insurmountable obstacles to the plough. Irri gation has also the important advantage of perfecting a crop in cold and moist climates, where corn will not ripen; and therefore it is admirably calculated for high and damp districts, which are chiefly appropriated to the rearing of stock.' p. 36.
We are unwilling to agree with Mr. S. in advising farmers. pot to grow so large a quantity of wheat as they do, or in considering irrigation, in most cases, as the best, and eventu ally the cheapest, mode of improvement to be adopted.
It is not only to the amelioration of meadow land that Mr. S. expects irrigation will be found applicable. "It is a question," he says, " of the highest importance, whether,
upon particular soils, and under certain circumstances, it might not produce similar effects upon wheat, vetches, clover, saintfoin, ryegrass, or spinach, cabbage or broccoli, and many other plants of the field or garden."
With the exception of Mr. Smith's undue partiality for this system, we can recommend his book as of considerable merit and utility; conveying information of the modes he successfully adopted, with great perspicuity; and reasoning on their principles and effects with much force and judgement. His experience in draining and irrigation has been extensive; and he has had opportunities, under the patronage, and in the employment, of the elevated characters mentioned in the titlepage, of conducting his plans to an extent unrestrained by pecuniary considerations. The water-meadows formed from Prisley-bog, of which engravings (on pewter-plate) are annexed, he aimed to make a pattern of perfection, and spared neither expense nor trouble in their formation. The adoption, therefore, of all he recommends, can only be the subject of contemplation with opulent landholders; and to such his book will be useful and acceptable.
Mr. Smith does not decide, whether the preference should be given to limpid, or to turbid water, for the purposes of irrigation; but he inclines to the former. It is probable that both opinions are in some measure well founded; where there is much sediment, the produce of grass may be more abundant, but of a rank and inferior quality; while pure limpid water may yield a finer, sweeter, and more valuable herbage, though less in quantity.
The results that are here given of the improvements at Prisley-bog, on which the attempts of the celebrated Mr. Elkington had been unsuccessful, are likewise inserted in the 4th volume of the Communications to the Board of Agriculture, with the same engraved plan.
The present Work contains also an account of the formation of Lexham water-meads, for which Mr. Coke obtained a gold medal; together with a description of some ancient water-meads in Cambridgeshire: the pope's legate, as Mr. Smith was informed, bought those manors of Queen Mary; and being versed in the Italian method of irrigation, esta blished the works in question.
Mr. Smith writes with ease, and general propriety; but we disapprove, in such a work, the addition of poetical mottos to the several chapters. They are the progeny of the author's own muse; and as we have not understood them all, it is the ·less surprising that we should not see their beauty or aptitude. His favourite figure is alliteration; of which the two following lines may be added to our former specimen :-
Slide softly o'er each shaven slope.'
By moving mills make meadows green,'
The work is neatly printed (at Norwich), and hot-pressed. Its external appearance very properly qualifies it for a place in the libraries of wealthy and intelligent land proprietors.
Mr. S., we understand, has been for some time engaged in investigating the stratification of this country; a task in which he is said to have been very successful. Part of his researches will shortly be communicated to the public.
Art. XI. A faithful Account of an important Trial in the Court of Conscience. By J. Jamieson, D. D. F. R. and A.S. S. Edin. &c. pp. 132. Price 2s. 6d. Williams and Smith. 1806.
THE proceedings of a court of criminal judicature, have
furnished the ingenious author of this little volume with the structure of an allegorical representation of the trial of Man, as a sinner, at the bar of Conscience, the deputy of Divine Justice. The indictment is for High Treason against his legitimate Sovereign, not merely meditated in the mind, but manifested by overt acts. On this arraignment, Conscience is the judge; the word of God the counsel for the prosecution; and the multiform sophistries of the human heart, the advocates for the Prisoner. There is a quaintness in the names given to several of the persons introduced as witnesses and jury, which savours of the pen of our old friends Bernard and Bunyan, and which, we think, the author's ingenuity. might have enabled him to avoid, without injury to the force of his narration.
The allegory is well conducted, and the interest rises gradually through the several stages, till it reaches its highest pitch at the passing of the sentence. The Court of Justice, and its contiguous apartments, are forcibly represented, and bring to our recollection the sublime description of the di, lapidated palace of human nature, as ruined by the fall, to be be found in an esteemed old divine, whose pencil has fur, nished our author with some of his highest colouring.
Interesting, however, as this "Trial" is, to a mind previously furnished with the religious knowledge necessary to qualify a reader fully to understand it, it possesses not that simplicity of narration, and variety of incident, which charm every one, whatever his endowments may be, who peruses the Pilgrim's Progress. It is necessary to have been more than a spectator of the solemn procedure, to feel the justice and truth of many parts of the recital. Every stage of the proceedings shews the author to be well acquainted with the great
cause at issue between God and man. The rights of the Ma.. jesty of Heaven are asserted with dignity; the nature of sin, as being nothing less than a traitorous attempt to usurp his throne, is strikingly characterized; and the inmost workings of the heart, in its advances from obduracy to genuine repentance, are accurately displayed.
It will be evident from what we have said, that we recommend the work, rather as a touch-stone for the conscience, than as amusement for the imagination. "De te jabula narratur,’ "Thou art the man," whose fate is so solemnly pending, and whose eternal felicity is thus at issue, is the admonitory voice with which we would put it into the hands of our readers. Awful as the representation is, of the process against the prisoner, and calculated to excite the keenest emotions of the soul, it is but a dim and feeble picture of that solemn scene of which every eye shall be an interested witness.We shall give, as a specimen of the author's manner, the speech of the prisoner, after having accepted the pardon freely sent him by his Sovereign, subsequently to his being found guilty.
When his words at length 'found utterance, he said, "Suffer me thus for a moment to express my sense of unspeakable obligation to that gracious sovereign who hath given you a commission to proclaim pardon to so vile a wretch. I am indeed utterly unworthy of his mercy. While my heart is filled with joy in contemplating it, I at the same time feel the deepest sorrow on account of the ungrateful requital I have made. Now, now, I see that I have been hitherto blind to what especially constituted my guilt. I have indeed rebelled against one who still acted towards me as a father; but I have more than ever forfeited any claim to his favour by my conduct this day. The great cause of my refusal to embrace pardon, how muchsoever 1 have attempted to disguise it, has been the accursed pride of my heart. I was unwilling to be indebted to that Sovereign, against whom I had so heinously transgressed. I could not indeed believe that he whom I had so highly injured, could from the heart forgive me ; for 1 measured the perfection of his character by the crooked line of my own. I found that I could not be cordially reconciled to him. But the words which thou (a messenger truly like thy master) hast spoken, have subdued my heart. I have been hitherto unwilling to renounce all ideas of my own importance, and disposed rather to perish under the conse. quences of my guilt, than to submit to be indebted to the services, the sufferings, or the intercession of another. But now I admire the love of the son of my sovereign, no less than that of his royal father. His love is beyond all parallel!" Is this the manner of man?" Instead of being debased by this submission, I now account it my true, my highest honour, that " he loved me, and gave himself for me.” My life will be too short, my most faithful services totally inadequate to repay no, this is utterly impossible even to express my gratitude for such ineffable mercy,' pp. 129, 130.
Art.XII. The Conveniences, Principles, and Method of keeping Accounts with Bankers in the Country and in London; with accurate Tables, adapted to the calculating of Interest Accounts with Ease and Dispatch, and to the discounting of Bills of Exchange; wherein the Table of Interest for one day is extended to one million pounds, for calculating Interest Accounts on the Principle adopted by the London Bankers. Also, other useful and extensive Tables. To which is added, a concise and Prac tical Treatise on Bills of Exchange, and Promissory Notes, including Bankers' Cash Notes and Checks. By William Lowrie, Sheffield. 8vo. Price 10s. 6d. boards Longman and Co. 1806.
SINCE banking houses have become so numerous, and paper money is almost the only circulating medium in this country, a work which has for its object to facilitate transactions with bankers, and to caution the unwary against the errors and dangers incident to paper currency, cannot be deemed superfluous.
This volume contains a good deal of original matter. The First Part, after mentioning the advantages of opening accounts with bankers, clearly and concisely describes the usual nethods of conducting such accounts bearing interést, illustrated by specimens. Tables of Interest, beginning with the year, and continuing progressively to the end of it, on a scale rather extensive, are peculiarly adapted to these accounts, and are so constructed, that the interest may be found with great facility. Tables of Commission, Discount, &c are also introduced; they are at the most common rates, from 1-8th to 25 per cent.; the calculations are not confined to pounds only, as is usual in other Tables of the like description, but they are regularly brought down even as low as to sums producing one farthing. The author describes the me thods which he adopted to prevent errors, both in calculating and printing the Tables, and says, "he feels confident they are perfectly correct throughout, even to a single farthing."
The Second Part treats on Bills and Notes, under distinct heads, methodically arranged, shewing what is essentially necessary to be attended to, and what is principally to be avoided, in the different transactions with this species of currency; pointing out also the regular mode of proceeding in every stage of the progress of Bills, from the time of drawing to the time of payment, with the proper measures to be taken by all the parties when they are returned or dishonoured.
The book is recommended to the public by Mr. Nutt, Governor of the Bank of England, and several other Bankers and Merchants,