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the present), his Charge of 1871,
cxxxvii. 196; his gallant defence
of Church policy, 224
Fraser (Professor A. C.), his Com-
plete Works of Berkeley, cxxxvi.
1; his new materials for his
edition, 2; merits thereof, 46

(W.), his 'Book of Car-
laverock,' Vols. I. II., cxl. 322
Fraserburgh, early history of, cxii.
524; attempt to found a Univer-
sity at, ib.
Fraser River (British America), its
course explored by Mr. Fraser,
cxix. 447; auriferous deposits
found in, 451; its rapid rise from
melted snow, 463; quantities of
fish in, ib.; description of its
course, 465: the Cascade Ranges,
ib.; its junction with the Thomp-
son River, 467
Frauenhoffer (Joseph von, 1787-
1826), on the dark lines in the
solar spectrum, cxvi. 298. See
Spectrum Analysis

Frederick V. (King of Denmark,

1723–1766), his protection of Prin-
cess Mary of Hesse, cxxiii. 486;
his government, 487; death, 492
Frederick VI. (King of Denmark,
1768-1839), his abolition of serf-
dom, exxiii. 488
Frederick II. (Landgrave of Hesse-
Cassel, 1720-1785), his marriage
with the Princess Mary, cxxiii.
484; his appearance described by
Walpole, ib.; turns Roman Cath-
olic, 485; estrangement from his
family, ib.; character of his rule,
ib. 486

Frederick Augustus II. (Elector of
Saxony, afterwards King of Poland,
1670-1733), his intrigue with the
Countess of Konigsmark, cxx. 501
Frederick Charles (Prince, of Prus-

sia, b. 1828), his operations during
the war of 1866, cxxv. 363, 389
his Essay How to beat the
French,' cxxxii. 480; his absorbing

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passion for German Unity, ib.; his
sketch of French military prin-
ciples, 481; his proposed transfor-
mation of Prussian service, 483;
his share in the Tactical Instruc-
tions of 1861,' 484; his services
against Denmark, 490; his first
command in 1870, 505. See Fran-
co-German War

Frederick Charles, the author of
Prussian success against France
in 1870, cxxxiii. 546
Frederick Lewis (Prince of Wales,
1707-1751), his character, cxxvi. 4
Frederick William I. (of Prussia,
1688-1740), his passion for tall
recruits, cxvi. 183, 186; his notions
of justice, 187; scene at his death-
bed, 193; his brutality, 195; his
character misrepresented by Car-
lyle, 196

his mania for tall soldiers,
cxxiv. 556; his cantonal divisions,

twofold contrast in his
character, cxxxii. 119

Frederick the Great (of Prussia,
1712-1786), Johnson's story of his
accurate knowledge of his wine-
cellar, cxvi. 191

his eulogy of Marshal Saxe,
cxx. 522, 536

his Bavarian campaign of
1778, cxxiii. 506; his habits at
table, 308; his irritation at fail-
ures in the field, 509; anecdotes
of, 510; his hatred of Maria The-
resa, 516; his habit of blasphem-
ing, 517; summary of his charac-
ter, 519; his proposed invasion of
the Crimea, ib. 520

his collection of snuff-
boxes, cxxiv. 360; his weari-
ness of the Seven Years' War,
553; ambition at his acces-
sion, 556; obtains Silesia, 557;
driven from Bohemia, ib.; his
bold conduct of the Seven Years'
War, ib.; his enmity to Austria,

558; his Bohemian campaign of
1778, 559, 562
Frederick the Great, the cause of the
Seven Years' War, cxxv. 504

immorality of his inter-
national policy, cxxviii. 312

his keen intellect an example
of family ability, exxxii. 119

his Papal policy, cxxxvii.

Frederick William II. (1744-1805),
his intervention in Holland, cxxiv.
562; rapacious partition of Poland,
ib.; restores Blucher to the service,
563; his French policy, 564 ;
meeting at Pillnitz, ib.; his mili-
tary prestige, ib.; failure of his
French expedition, 565; with-
draws from the Coalition, 566;
bribed by Napoleon, 568; his de-
feat at Jena, 569; gallant cam-
paign of 1807, ib.; his improve-
ments in recruiting, 572

his character by M. Von
Sybel, cxxviii. 317, 319

described as a Spiritualist,
cxxxii. 119
Frederick William III. (1770-1810),
his accession, cxxiv. 567

his friendship with Bunsen,

cxxvii. 479, 481

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Frederick William IV., his family
character as a visionary, cxxxii. 119

his professed admiration of
English institutions, cxxx. 420;
his grant of representation, ib.

his relations with the Church
of Rome, cxxxix. 366; his corre-
spondence with Bunsen, edited by
Professor Ranke, ib. note
Frederick William the Great (Elector
of Brandenburg, 1620-1688), the
founder of Prussian greatness,
cxxiv. 555; his territorial claims,

Free Churches, origin of their dislike
of Establishment, cxxviii. 265;
their extra-legal character, 276;
recent advocacy of, by foreign
writers, 283; misleading ideas as
to freedom in, 284

Free Labour, compared with slave
labour in Barbadoes, cxv. 43; in
the West Indies, 44; white set-
tlers indispensable for improve-
ment of coloured races, 60
Free Trade, its effects misrepresented
by Sir A. Alison, cxi. 120, 140;
problem of Government solved by,


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digressions, 197; prolixity of his
rhetoric, 198; indiscriminate eu-
logies, 201; inconsistent estimates
of character, 203; admiration of
Egbert and Edgar, 205; his view
of Scottish commendation, 206;
justifies Edward's invasion, 209;
his crude treatment of historical
difficulties, 211; advocacy of God-
wine and Harold, 214; his honesty
and vast research, 215
Fremantle (Mr.), Episcopal letter to,
on Essays and Reviews,' cxiii.

French, the causes of their sympathy
with America, cxxx. 63; ethno-
logical character of their Catholic-
ism, 67

their want of national self-
knowledge, cxxxii. 577

not an immoral or irreligious
people, as alleged, cxxxiii. 17;
their want of clerical guidance, ib.
French Army, new tactics at the
Revolution, cxxiii. 100, 101

the Bill of 1866, cxxvi. 269;
lessons of the Prusso-Austrian War,
270; history of the regular army,
271; its organisation by Louvois,
272; voluntary enlistment, ib.;
its royalist character in 1789, 273;
volunteer movement in 1792, ib. ;
reforms of Carnot, 274; its organic
constitution not improved by
Napoleon I., 276; conscription in-
troduced in 1798, ib.; decline of
the Imperial Guard, ib.; condition
after Waterloo, 278; St. Cyr's
reforms in 1818, ib.; increase of
the peace establishment, 279;
drain of annual contingents, ib.
280; efficient strength in 1867,
282; large number of exonera-
tions, 283; present need of men,
b.; short service discouraged by
Napoleon III., 286; re-engage-
ments opposed by Trochu, ib.;
bad influence of politics on its
moral tone and discipline, 288;

question of Commissariat, 289;
improvements necessary in tactics,
292; loose methods of attack, 294;
present resources compared with
the German Army, ib. 295
French Army, uniform of, in 1804-5,
cxxvii. 217; rules as to position
of sergeants disregarded, ib. 218;
Buonaparte's system of promoting
officers to the staff, 231; his sys-
tem afterwards abolished, ib.

principles of service in the
War of 1859, cxxxii. 481; sub-
sequent neglect of reform, 493;
Marshal Niel's law, 494; his
scheme marred by exonerations
by fine, 495; inferiority of num-
bers and moral power in 1870, ih.;
commonplace leaders, ib.; luxury
and carelessness of imperial fa-
vourites, 496. See Franco-German

recent collapse of, under de-
feat, cxxxiii. 26; average age of
generals, ib.; want of military
spirit in the late war, 27; break-
down of the Intendance system,
215; unpopularity of Line service,
557; the Staff-system condemned,


evils of Élite corps in, cxl.

French artillery, system of rifled
ordnance for field-pieces, cxix.
482; recent experiments on the
effect of windage, 488-490; rapid
fire of, at Solferino, 491; absence
of fouling in, 492; imitations of,
by other nations, 496; secresy of
experiments, 497; the Comité
d'Artillerie,' ib.; methodical sys-
tem of, 498; simplicity and eco-
nomy of, 499; leading principles
of improvement in, 500; the
'Canon de l'Empereur,' ib.; the
new 4-gun, 501; its extreme
handiness in warfare, 503; its
durability, 504; the 12-gun
of reserve, 505;
tabular com-

parison of, with English rifled
ordnance, 508; importance at-
tached to bursting charges of
projectile, 509; system of hooping
guns with steel, 517; transforma-
tion of siege guns, 521; new guns
for coast defence, 523; attempts
to apply breech-loading to heavy
ordnance, 526; experiments with
hollow projectiles, 528
French coinage, displacement of sil-
ver by gold, cxii. 21; rise of prices
not due to depreciation of gold, 27

recent changes in, cxxiv. 386,
387. See Coinage, International
French finance. See Finance, French
French language, absurd use of, by

modern English writers, cxx. 49;
predominance of, in Europe, 176
French literature, effects of the
Revolution on, cxxi. 321

influence of the Parisian
Academy on, cxxix. 497; defects
of, 498

French Navy, its admirable organi-
sation, cxiii. 286, 290

first iron-plated ships, cxviii.
168; launch of 'La Gloire,' 169;
revival of enterprise after 1815,
173; rapid system of manoeuvres
in, 178; evils of the 'Inscription
Maritime,' 182; strength of, in
1861, compared with that of
England, 184; the Warrior' and
the 'Gloire,' 185; floating batte-
ries, 197

French Protestants, their condition

in 1702, cxxxviii. 203; the Dra-
gonnades, ib. 205; progress of
Calvinism, ib.; Cavallier and the
Camisards, ib.; their restoration
by Antoine Court, 207; persecu-
tions in the last century, 211;
Monclar's account of, 216
French Revolution, the, the Sep-
tember massacres, cxviii. 112;
conduct of Danton, 114; proceed-
ings of the Conseil-Général, 115;
and of the Sections, 116; the

massacres premeditated, 117; effect
of the 'Maximum' on assignats,132
French Revolution, the, its effects
on literature, cxxi. 321; fate of the
chief actors in, 392; M. Lanfrey's
masterly essay on, 393 note; the
September massacres excused by
Buonaparte, 414 note; M. Mor-
timer-Ternaux's Histoire de la
Terreur,' 415 note

De Tocqueville's intended

essay on, cxxii. 458

new military tactics intro-
duced at, cxxiii. 100, 101

history of, must be analy-
tical, cxxviii. 292; its effects on
landed property, 294; previous
morcellement of land, 296; views
of Léon Faucher and De Tocque
ville thereon, 297; effects of, on
the peasantry, 298; its commu-
nistic tendencies disputed, 304;
failure of coalitions against, 309;
mistaken predictions of its col-
lapse, 310; war declared against
Austria in 1792, 313; France not
then the aggressor, ib.; rupture
with England in 1793, 319

still an unsolved problem,
cxxxiii. 1; changes in social
life effected by, 2; the work of
reconstruction, 3; Prussian hatred
of, 7; destroyed the tradition of
monarchy in France, 12; change
of land tenures, 13, 14; levelling
effects of, on later statesmanship,
14; it separated the clergy from
the higher classes, 16; a conflict
between extreme views of order
and liberty, 30

policy of, to the French
Communes, cxxxiv. 265; M.
Mortimer-Ternaux's view of the
Reign of Terror, 273; evil effects
of, 289. See Paris Commune
Frere (John Hookham, 1769-1846),
works of, edited by H. and Sir
Bartle Frere, cxxxv. 472; his early
life, ib.; his peculiar inventiveness,

473; love for classical studies, 474; Eton friendship with Canning, ib.; writes in the Anti-Jacobin,' 475; his singular talent for adaptation, 477; his 'Ode on Athelstan's Victory,' b.; his passion for old English, ib.; Under-Secretary for Foreign Affairs, 478; missions to Portugal and Spain, ib.; his 'Translations from the Poems of the Cid,' 479; literary indolence, 481; sent to Spain again as envoy, ib.; his friend Romana, ib.; relations with Sir John Moore, 482; recalled, 483; country life in Norfolk, ib.; article in the Quarterly Review, 485; success as a man about town,' 486; his 'Monks and Giants,' 487; Southey's criticism, ib.; his popular treatment of Arthuriau legends, 491; his influence on Byron and Scott, ih.; his verdict on Don Juan,' 492; his marriage, ib. ; life at Malta, 493; translations from Aristophanes, 495 - 500; his

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Theognis,' 501; not a popular writer, ib.; his literary defects, ib. Frescoes, modern, English climate

unsuited to, cxxiii. 2; causes of decay, 3, 4; use in the Palace at Westminster, 4; evidence as to durability of, 5; German revival of, 6; the Nazarenes, 8; mannerism of German painters, 9; frescoes at Munich, 10, 11; German artists proposed for Westminster, ib.; cartoons, 13; preparation of the wall, ib.; constituents of intonaco, 15, 16; choice of colours, 17, 18; brushes, b.; rate of workmanship in, ib.; retouching in secco, 19; use of waterglass, 20, 22; the stereochromic process, 23; the scent-blower, 25; frescoes of Maclise, Herbert, and Dyce, 25-31; remuneration at home and abroad, 31, 32; Mr. Parry's proposed composition for,

33, 34 note; Mr. Leighton's fresco at Lyndhurst, ib. Frescoes, their failure in the Houses of Parliament explained, cxxxi. 412

Freshfield (Mr. Douglas, W.), his

Travels in Central Caucasus and Bashan,' cxxx. 337; his companions, 338; failure to ascend Ararat, 339; his vague information from local sources, ib.; scientific results of his tour, 340; ascent of Mount Kazbek, 343; jealousy of Russian officers, 345; peak of Uschba, 347; conduct of natives, 349, 350; ascent of Mount El bruz, ib.; his three objects accomplished, 352

Fresnel (Augustine John, 17881827), his lighthouse apparatus, CXxv. 179

Fresnoy (Du), his landscape-gardening, cxxiv. 372

Friedland, battle of (1807), cxxxi. 70

Friendly Societies, early types of, cxxxiv. 343. See Guilds

first legislation respecting, cxxxviii. 101; the Acts of 1793 and 1819, ib. 102; liable to miscalculation, ib.; question of State patronage, 105; protection from fraud, ib.; break-down of the present system, ib.; Commission on, ib.; sick-clubs, 106; evils of the pension system, 107 Frontage system, the, cxvii. 108 Froude (Mr. J. Anthony, b. 1818), his

History of England,' Vols. V. to VIII. cxix. 243; his gloomy picture of the reign of Edward VI., 244 ; extenuates Henry's debasement of the currency, 245; on the political shortcomings of the Reformation, 247; depreciates the character of the Protector Somerset, 248; his argument in favour of the Act of Attainder, 250; his contempt of Hooper, 252; ascribes the acces

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