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minal is applied to the payment of his expenses of maintainance, then to make restitution to the persons he has injured, and afterward to reimburse the County for the costs of his prosecution. Whatever remains, and it sometimes amounts to a handsome sum, is given to the offender on his liberation. He has thus had his morals probably considerably improved, and is turned out, with an opportunity to retrieve his shattered character, by future good conduct, and with a stock to assist his industry. If such a system could be realized in these countries, I think it would answer much better, and be of more practicable attainment, than a plan of a refuge for prisoners. It is very commendable in W. L. to offer his hints, for by a free communication of hints, and free comments on these hints, the science and practice of benevolence may be materially promoted and improved. K.

For the Belfast Monthly Magazine.


Ο N reading in the last month's magazine, the trial of Samuel Penrose, for the assault of Joseph Peters Rickman, in Cork, I was surprised to see at the conclusion of a note attached to it, something like a censure passed on the Quakers, for not publicly expressing their disapprobation of the cruel treatment of the prosecutor.

entirely without their approbation or sanction this they thought the least they could say to clear themselves of any imputation of blame which those of other societies might attach to them, saying also, that neither the person who had been treated in that manner, nor the person who had treated him so, were members of their society."

The author of this note may know the society are not in the practice of printing such publications. They however, ordered one of their members to publish on the evening of the same day, in their meeting for public worship, "that the transaction of the morning had taken place with

ut their previous knowledge, and

The Quakers also appear to be censured for not adhering to their own doctrine of forbearance. In this instance they have exercised some patience in quietly and repeatedly hearing a person of this description haranguing them "almost during the whole time of meeting." It is but common justice not to censure indiscriminately. As the proprietors of the Magazine profess to be the friends of free discussion, it is hoped they will not refuse to re move the censure thrown on a society, blameless in this instance. They cannot be accountable for the conduct of those not of their communion, which S. Penrose is not. From all the information I can collect, the only step taken against Rickman by the society, previous to the affair alluded to, was, to inform the people at the conclusion of his vehement sermonsthat he was not a member of their society.

A friend to liberality,


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For the Belfast Monthly Magazine. safety, and policy of pursuing vaccine inoculation.



Opened on the 14th of January, 1804, under the direction of the undersigned Physicians and Surgeons of this City, for the purposes of securing a succession of Cow-Pock Matter, of Inoculating gratuitously the Children of the Poor, and of supplying the different parts of the Kingdom with genuine Infection.






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Some alarming accounts of the failure of vaccination, in the vicinity of Dublin, were propagated during the last year. On a careful investigation, they were found to have originated from falsehood, and ultimately tended, after numerous trials, to confirm the security afforded by vaccination.

In the last report, three cases were recorded, in which the vaccine infection formed fairly on the arm, and appeared to go regularly through its several stages, though the patients were not constitutionally affected. During the year 1810, one failure only of this kind has occurred. There appears no good reason for supposing that contingencies of this nature, will be more frequent in vaccine, than they have been in variolous inoculation.

The test proposed by Mr. Bryce, and recommended in the report of last year, has been practiced extensively by the directors. In a large proportion of cases, it has afforded very satisfactory evidence of constitutional affection. It can hardly be necessary therefore, to recommend to further notice, a practice calculated to obviate the principal objection to vaccine inoculation. Infection for the second inoculation, which should be performed on the opposite arm, may be always conveniently obtained, on the fifth or sixth day, from the vesicle, 284 duced by the first insertion of


in general.


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The most satisfactory accounts of the progress of vaccination throughout the interior of Ireland, have been received from several correspondents of the institution. And the directors have grear pleasure in observing the zeal and disinterestedness of the country practitioners, who sacrifice prvate interest to the public good, in strongly recommending the practice.

The directors have to acknowledge with gratitude, the privilege of a free and unlimited transmission of letters, relating to the institution, through the post office, which has contributed essentially to extend the benefits of vaccination throughout

this island.

Signed by Order,

SAMUEL B. LABATT, Secratary. January 1st, 1811..

For the Belfast Monthly Magazine.



IN N opposition to a maxim of Dr. Hunter's, of York, that "trade gives narrow notions, but wide pos

more largely. The quantity of ready money passing through his hands, and actually in his possession at one time, being greater than in the hand of the landed proprietor, may in part account for the readiness of parting. But the trader is less of an isolated being, he mixes more with the various classes of society, and his heart is consequently more expanded. As for the comparative degree of liberality, on religious and political subjects, the trader will in most cases be found the most tolerant, and especially more ready to join in plans for improvement, without being frightened by the bugbear of innovation. Traders find employment for their sons at home. The country gentlemen look more to provide for their younger sons in the church or the army. Hence arise political and ecclesiastical subjection; and the soldier and the churchman give a tone of servility to the manners of the family.

More independent is he, who according to the honest boast of Horne Tooke, can support himself and his family, without pulling one stake out of the public hedge, or adding a useless stipendiary to the overbur dened state.


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sessions," it may be asserted, that I have read of many great kings,

traders are more liberal, in general, than persons of landed property.Ask one of those classes respectively for money for any charitable, or useful purpose, of a public nature, and the trader's donation will probably be given more freely, and

liam the third.

but I think the most honest man that ever wore a crown was WilNor do I believe that the whole course of history can afford us such a complete contrast of character, as is presented by him and his predecessor, by William

the worthy, and Charles the worthless. To the truth of this assertion sir William Temple is, in his memoirs, a most unexceptionable witness. He was an able man, attached to his king, Charles the 2d, by principle, and to his person, by the fascination of the royal manners, those attractive externals, which indeed give an embellishment to virtue, but often masque the purposes of the insincere and double-minded. I love, said some oue, the light parts of a solid character, but that of Charles was made up of levity, selfishness, and deceit.

He employed Sir William Temple in commissions abroad, probably as an honourable spy upon the prince of Orange, and entrusted him to a certain length; that his own character might acquire or regain some degree of credit or confidence on the continent from the ability, and acknowledged integrity of his agent. But there was a sort of instinctive honesty in William, which held Charles always in distrust, and could not help displaying itself even before his envoy. "Will the king (Charles 2d) will your king said he to Temple, that is so often at sea, never learn a word that I shall never forget since my last passage, when in a great storm, the captain was all the night, crying out to the man at the helmSTEADY, STEADY." Such, truly, was the epithet most applicable to his own character and conduct, always firm and inflexible "that he never would betray a trust that was given him, nor ever sell the liberties of his country, that his ancestors had so long defended.” "I saw, said he, this morning, a poor old man, tugging alone, in a little boat with his oars, against the eddy of a sluice upon a canal, when with the last endeavours, he was just got up to the place intended, the force of the

eddy carryed him quite back again,

but he turned his boat as soon as he could, and fell to his oars again, and thus three or four times while I saw him. This old man's business and mine resemble. I ought to do just as the old man did, without knowing what would succeed, more than he did.” Such was the lively portraiture of his own patient magnanimity, even in the depth of political and personal misfortune, and the confidence in his personal honour and justice was the great bond of attraction in the confederacy against France, so much so indeed that some of his allies took the most ungenerous advantage of it.

"When they desired his highness (prince of Orange) would not take it ill of the queen (regent of Spain) the prince answered, "No, not at all; on the contrary, I have reason to take it well of the queen, for if she did not think me the honestest man in the world, she would not use me so; however, nothing of the kind shall hinder me from doing what I owe to my allies and my honour."

When this incomparable man was offered the sovereignty of the provinces, under the protection of England and France, it seemed a lare to which a meaner soul might very well stoop; his was above it, always firm in his answers, that he never would betray a trust that was given him nor ever sell the country of his ancestors; yet the game he played was then thought so desperate, that one of his nearest servants asked him at last, how he intended to live after Holland was lost, and whether he had thought so far. The prince told him he had, and that he was resolved to live on the lands he had left in Germany, and that he had rather pass his life in hunting there, than sell

his country, or his liberty to France at any price; and, at another time, said he," for my own part, I would charge a thousand men with a hundred, and die in the charge, rather than enter into any concert of a peace upon these conditions. "CUNCTA


When Charles, after representing the inevitable ruin of his country as the consequense of his obstinacy in rejecting a peace with France, asked him what he would do, when that should happen, “Die in the last Dike," answered William. This man is said to have been by nature most silent and reserved, but I think, when he does speak, he contrives to concentrate more meaning in three words, than that merry and garrulous monarch ever uttered in his life time, who was represented never to have said a foolish thing, nor to have done a wise one. It is in the contemplation of such a character as William presents to us, that we feel a portion of that sublime in word and action transferred to our Own breasts; our hearts expand with great sensation, and in the sympathetic thrill of feeling, we are pleased and even somewhat proud of resembling, in some degree, what we venerate and admire. The best instruction for boys is the biography of great men. That William had a heart made not only for the grand and sublime in public and political conduct, but to form and inspire the warmest personal affection, and most disinterested private friendship; is evident from the attachment of Bentinck to his master, in the most hopeless state of his affairs, when prince of Orange. He tended his master both night and day, during the whole course of the disease (small pox) from which he recovered, in great part, by his evenness of temper, and constancy of mind. Nothing


he took was given him, nor was he ever moved in bed, by any other hand than Bentinck's, and the prince told me, says sir Wm. Temple, that whether he slept or not, he could not tell; but in sixteen nights and days, he never called once that he was not answered by M. Bentinck as if he had been awake. The first time the prince was well enough to have his head opened and combed, Bentinck as soon as it was done, begged of his master to give him leave to go home for he was able to hold up no longer. He did so, and fell immediately sick of the same disease, and in great extremity; but recovered just soon enough to attend his master into the field, where he was ever next his person. It was in that campaign, when at Mont-Cassel, the Dutch infantry began to break, and William was borne down by the flight of his men, he cut one of the first across the face, crying, " rascal, I'll at least set a mark on thee, that I may hang thee afterwards," yet even then he made a retreat, that wanted little the honour of a victory.

He showed himself as worthy to be beloved by women, as to be res pected and admired by mankind.When he came over for the purpose of a matrimonial connexion with the princess Mary; he told Temple that he was resolved to see the young princess, and know, not by report of others, but with his own eyes, and his own heart, how he liked her, before he would proceed a step in the affair of the peace. The king laughed at his piece of nicety, when told of it. The prince saw and was pleased, then made his suit to the king and the duke, which was well received and assented to, but with this condition, that the terms of the peace should first be agreed upon. The prince said he must end one business before he began

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