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false oath-estimable citizens, you have already taken the civic oath, which all men worthy to be free, have looked on rather as an enjoy ment, than as a duty; you have not taken God to witness, but you have attested your conscience; and is not a pure conscience, a cloudless sky? Is not this part in man a ray of the divinity?
You say again, that an article of your religion forbids you to bear arms, and to kill, under any pretext whatever. It is without doubt a finé philosophic principle, which he who holds forth in some measure deifies humanity; but consider whether self-defence, and that of our neighbour, be not also a religious duty-You would then have to sink under tyrants! Since we have acquired liberty for you, and for us, why will you refuse to preserve it. Your brethren of Pensylvania, if they had been nearer savages, would they have let them destroy their wives, their children, and their old men, rather than repulse the violence? and stupid tyrants, ferocious conquerors, are they not also savages? The assembly will discuss all your demands in its wisdom, and if ever I meet a Quaker, I'll say to him, "My brother, if thou hast a right of being free, thou hast a right to hinder thyself from being made a slave."
ver. (which here divides the estates of the Marquis of Donegall, and Countess of Antrim), and entered the parish of the same name, which is now united in the established church to that of Larne. In this parish was anciently an abbey of Friar's Cisterrians of St. Augustine, which was dissolved at the general dissolution of monastic houses, about the year 1542, and was afterwards, with its appurtenances, granted by James I. to Sir Arthur Chichester:-at present not a vestige remains. The road here wound. agreeably along the shore of Larne lough; the land on the right bold and broken, and here and there covered with shrubs, among which some cattle were browsing: where the ground was broken, limestone generally appeared, and a considerable quantity of it is annually exported to Scotland. The horn of a deer was found a few years ago in
For the Belfast Monthly Magazine. RAMBLE, IN 1809, (Continued from page 183.) LEAVING Larne, I crossed by a bridge the small river, called In
BELFAST MAG. NO. XXXIII.
a mass of this limestone. Here is a well in which is found, among its pebbles, some bones of animals or fish, completely petrified: when broken and put into vinegar, they evince an attractive quality, from which this spring is usually called the vinegar well. I now came in sight of the irregular hamlet of Glynn, which has truly a rural appearance, from its secluded situation, and the houses, chequered with trees gardens and cornfields, presenting to the eye a scene highly rural and romantic. Some of the houses were pretty neat, and I could not avoid repeating with the poet, "Ah! that for me some honie like these would smile." This place was anciently called Linn, signifying a pool of water, and here St. Patrick founded an abbey, of which St. Darerca his sister was abbess; some ruins of its chapel still remain; the abbey with its lands were granted by James I. to Sir Arthur Chichester, by the title of the Chapel of Glynn. Novem
ber, 4th, 1597, a sharp conflict took place here between the English forces, commanded by Sir John Chichester, Governor of Carrickfergus, and the Irish and Scots, commanded by James Mac Sorley Mac Donnel, (afterwards Earl of Antrim); the English were defeated with great slaughter, and Sir John Chichester being taken prisoner, was beheaded by Mac Donnel on the field of bat tle. I here quitted the main-road, and ascended by a cross one into that leading from Larne to Carrickfergus, by the way of Gleno; and the country presenting nothing striking, I scon reached the latter place. This hamlet is agreeably situated in a deep dell, through which runs a small river, on which is a beautiful cascade, adjoining the hamlet. The proprietors of this place, G. A. M'Claverty, and J. A. Farrel, esqrs. seem to have vied with each other in adorning the banks of this river near the cascade, by laying it out into delightful walks, planted with a variety of trees and shrubs, the foliage of which in many places nearly excluded the rays of the sun. The sombre tints of autumn was visible on each leaf, and announced, that
"Summer's painted foliage fades away." The constant murmuring of the cascade, the noise of the river gurgling down its rocky channel, and the soothing stillness that ran through the scene gave a pleasing melancholy charm to the whole; which was only now and then interrupted by the murmurs of the breeze, that seemed to sigh over the tops of the tallest trees; the scene infused a kind of awe on my mind, I felt "smit with the love of poesy and of song," and sat down beneath the brow of a fractured rock, and wrote the following lines:
Reader, if you have a taste,
For sylvan dells, where cascades flow,
Here nature with a liberal hand,
The trees here form a verdant arch,
The limpid stream from rock to rock,
Reader, if solitude has power
Just as I had finished these lines, the voices of people in the opposite walks drew my attention; I arose and immediately left the place, as the gloom of evening was now visibly ap proaching. The road I took was steep, which, a new one has been lately and much broken up, to remedy made, which avoids the hills of the former, and renders it much easier for loaded carts, &c. I had almost forgot to mention, that the ancient boundary of the corporation of Carrickfergus extended to Johnston'sford, near Gleno; even in 1768, the late Marquis of Donegall rode the franchises to this place, touching the water-wheel of the corn-mill with his wand. The general appearance of the country here is indifferent, being nearly destitute of planting; the soil a light mould, approaching a moory nature, mostly incumbent on rock or gravel. After travelling about a mile, I entered the county of the town of Carrickfergus, the country here was still more indifferent, in many places covered with heath, which was now truly “unprofitably gay," its purple tinta. were set off by the glow of evening,
and the long slanting beams of the sun, which recalled to my recollection the following lines:
"The broad sun verging on the close of day,
A fuller red beams o'er th' etherial plain,
The streaky clouds attend his last bright
And silver Vesper leads his starry train."
The Picts are said to have made ale from heath, or heather; what a rare article for taxation we have lost, by the stupidity of our ancestors! Eutering the commons of Carrickfergus, I came in sight of Loughmorn, literally Lough-mor, i. e. the great lough, being about a -mile and a quarter long, and at 1 mean about half a mile broad, and is said to be the largest sheet of water of the same altitude in Ireland, being 566 feet above the level of Carrickfergus bay. The gloom of evening was now spreading fast over the landscape, so I did not halt to make any observation, but hastened home, where I soon arrived, both tired and pleased with my journey. Carrickfergus.
For the Belfast Monthly Magazine.
by a course of proper treatment be restored to usefulness.
According to the present mode of punishment, death is in many cases the certain consequence of prosecutions, and many people feel a reluctance in coming forward to prosecute in a transaction, where the least idea is entertained that the proceedings. may terminate in the death of the unhappy culprit. Thus, offenders often escape, and are as it were encouraged to proceed in their old habits, if not to greater lengths than ever.
ON THE REFORMATION OF CRIMI-
N reading an account in the public papers of so many acquittals at Carrickfergus assizes, most of which took place, for want of prosecution; I was led to regret tre present state of our laws, with respect to the punishment of offenders, and perfectly agree in the sentiment, that if the mode of punishment was changed, prosecutions would be more certain, and the offender, instead of being turned loose to molest again the peace of society, would meet with punishment proportionate to the offence he has committed, and might
The country swarms with shoplifters and pick-pockets, and it requires some effectual means to endeavour to lessen the number. The mode hitherto used, has not had the Neither transpordesired effect. tation nor punishment by death seems to diminish the number of crimes. It is I believe generally agreed that death is too severe a punishment for petty offences, and many entertain the opinion that the life should not be taken on any account, even for crimes the most enormous,' with which latter sentiment I fully unite. And in my view of the subject the mode of transportation appears to me to carry with it many serious objections. The dispositions of those transported are not likely to be much improved by the measure. The country to be sure is weil rid of the nuisance, but I do think that in the carrying on of prosecutions against delinquents some view should be had to something better than merely to get rid of the annoyance, without adopting some measure that might in some degree tend to their future amendment; and how far the present system of our Jails, or mode of transportation is adapted to that end, we are all pretty sensible.
I expect that very few instances could be produced of individuals
being reclaimed to a proper line of conduct by transportation or confinement in our Jails, the measures appear to me to have had a contrary tendency. Great reformation is necessary with respect to the mode of punishing offenders. To reclaim, should in my opinion be the great end in view, for though they may be guilty of many crimes requiring the strong interference of law, they are still our fellow creatures and demand our pity and serious at tention to be paid to their wretched situation. I would by no means be for a lax line of punishment, or that offenders should escape without due chastisement. The necessity of many cases requires in some measure severity, but I would have it tempered with a view, if possible, to their future improvement.
The institution at Philadelphia (I can hardly call it a prison) appears to be well worthy of imitation. It seems calculated to answer every purpose for which it was intended.
Humanity and a view to usefulness are so interwoven with the mode of punishment, and the manner of treatment so carried on as cannot fail to produce the most beneficial effects: effects beneficial to society, and highly useful to individuals, who have been the subjects of confinement have arisen from this wise establishment; an establishment which instead of being a burthen to the state, is amply supported by its own industry.
Who among us that contemplates with serious reflection on the state of such things here, would not wish that something of the kind was set on foot in this country, and that some of the vast sums of money voted away every year for worse than useless purposes were applied to erecting establishments similar to that at Philadephia. Much good would no doubt fesult there from, and
instead of those who have forfeited their liberty by a violation of the laws growing worse by punishment and acquiring stronger habits of vice, there would be a probability of their being made better, and restored to a due sense of their errors. But according to our present system of transportation and coufinement in our Jails, not the smallest hope of their amendment remains. Instead of coming out of confinement, or returning from transportation (if they should return) bettered by their past situation, they are worse, and acquire fresh degrees of strength to pursue with redoubled vigour, the path of vice, and commit fresh depredations on society.
I believe it is no uncommon thing in America for persons who have been confined in the Philadelphia prison for heinous offences, after undergoing the necessary restraint under proper regulations and the mode adopted there, to come out with confirmed habits of industry and impressed with a due sense of moral rectitude.
Instead of their minds being hardened, or remembering their former situation with disgust, it is contemplated by them with sentiments of esteem and gratitude to the managers of the institution; they become useful members of the community without their former conduct being remembered to them in terms of reproach, but receive all the respect due to a reformation of manners. And I suppose very few instances occur of offenders returning to their old habits, or requiring a second course of punishment.
Surely, these are subjects which merit the serious consideration of those in whose hands the power lies to bring about a reform in matters, that so nearly concerns the good of all; but it is much to be regretted, that statesmen are too much employ
ed in facilitating schemes of a con- necessity of rectitude of conduct trary tendency. in every department of human life. Much is called for at the hands of those whose situations in the world enable them to contribute their support to these institutions wherever scattered in the bounds where they reside, and also to the establishing of them where they are not. If the sums of money that are daily squandered in superfluities and extravagance, were appropriated to this purpose, how different would the appearance of things be among us. Thousands who are now wallowing in ignorance and sloth, would have the means of being instructed and becoming, instead of subjects for a Jail by the commission of crimes, useful members of the community, and patterns of these virtues that add a lustre to the dignity of human na
The war system seems to occupy nearly the whole attention of those in power and devising means for its support, to accomplish which the public good is sacrificed, and the consideration how to remove abuses too much lies dormant.
Great reformation is much wanting in almost every department of public and private measures, But amidst the gloom that a view of the present state of things presents, a ray of hope sometimes enlighteus the prospect, in observing the exertions of a few individuals in public life, in endeavouring after a change of system in more departments than one, that might tend to the general good. But alas! these are overborne by the corruption that so generally prevails, and the self-interested motives of too many at the head of public affairs. But whether the endeavours of the few steady advocates in the cause of reform avail or not, they will have, at least, the satisfaction of remembring that they have done all they could."
Nearly connected with the foregoing observations, is the considera tion of the benefit of right education among the lower classes, and it must be a source of real pleasure to every friend of the human race, to observe that the education of the children of the poor is become so much the subject of public attention. It is a subject that loudly calls for the support of all who are interested in the inprovement of their fellow-creatures, to forward the benevolent exertions of those individuals who have undertaken the arduous but delightful task of "teaching ignorance to see." Incalculable benefits may arise from their exertions and through their means the foundation laid in early life of strict morality and sound principle, and an impression of the
Before I close these observations I would just remark the regret I have sometimes felt in looking over the accounts of plans for public buildings, and could not help observing that if simplicity was sufficiently attended to in the design and execution, the sums allotted for such purposes would be much less, thereby reserving a portion that might be applied to the establishing of other useful buildings equally wanting. In a late newspaper I observed resolutions for building a new Church in the town of Newry, with a design of applotting a sum not less than £12,000 towards defraying the expences. I could not help remarking in my own mind, that if real usefulness be the object in view, how much less a sum than this would auswer the purpose, and the money intended to be laid out in superfluous ornaments be applied to the necessities of some useful, charitable institution.
What use for lofty spires? It may he said they are ornamental. They may be ornamental, but they are cer