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he who has asked is obliged to play, unless somebody else plays sans prendre.

20. If the ombre, or his friend, show their cards before they have won six tricks, the adversaries may call their cards as they please. 27. Whoever has only asked leave, cannot play sans prendre, unless forced.

28. You are at liberty to look at the tricks when you are to lead, but not otherwise.

20. Whoever undertakes playing for the sole, and does not succeed, has a right to the stakes sans prendre, and matadores if he has them, having won his game.

30. Any person discovering his game, is not entitled to play for the vole.

31. If there happen to be two cards of the same sort, and found out before the deal is ended, the deal is void, but not otherwise.

32. Nobody is to declare how many trumps are played out.

33. He who calls and does not make three tricks, is to be basted alone, unless forced spadile.

Glossary.

Alone. See Sans Appeller.

To ask leave; to ask leave to play with a partner by calling a king.

Basto; the ace of clubs, which is always the third trump, and from which the following term is derived.

Baste; a penalty, which consists in paying as many counters as there are down; and is incurred either by renouncing, or by not win aing, when you stand the game, which is called making the baste.

Creville; to be between the eldest hand and the dealer.

Codill; when those who defend the pool make more tricks than they who stand the game, the former are said to win codill, and the latter to lose it.

Consolation; a claim, which is always paid by those who lose to those who win, whether by codill or remise.

Decolce; when he who stands the game does not make a trick.

To do more; is when any player having askad leave, is required by a younger hand either to pass or play alone.

Doulle. To play double, is to pay the game and the stake double, as well as the consolation, the sans prendre, the matadores, and the devolve.

Force. The ombre is said to be forced, when you play a strong trump to weaken him, if he overtrump; he is likewise said to be forced, when he asks leave, and one of the other players, by offering to play sans prendre, obliges him to play sans prendre, or pass.

Friend; the player who has the king called. Impasse; when, being in cheville, you play the knave of a suit of which you have the Lag.

Manille; in black, the deuce of spades, or clubs; in red, the seven of hearts or diamonds; it is always the second trump, Mark; the fish put down by the dealer,

Matadores or Mats; spadille, manille, and basto,, which are the three first trumps. False matadores are any sequence of trumps, following the matadores regularly.

Mille; mark of ivory; stands for ten fish. Ombre; the name given to him who stands the game, either by calling or by playing sans appeller, or sans prendre.

Party; the duration of the game, according to the number of tours agreed upon.

Pass; a term used when you have not a hand to play.

Ponto or Punto; the ace of diamonds, when diamonds are trumps; or of hearts, when these are trumps; and it is then the fourth trump.

Pool. The pool consists of the fishes, which are staked for the deals, or the counters which are put down by the players, or the bastes that go on the game. To defend the pool, is to be against him who stands the game.

Prise; a number of fishes or counters given to each player at the beginning of the party.

Regle; the order observed at the game; it is called, being in regle, when the ombre trumps the return of the king called.

Remise; when they who stand the game do not make more tricks than they who defend the pool; and they then lose by remise.

Renounce; is not to play in the suit led, when you have it: it is also called a renounce, when, not having any of the suit led, you win with a card that is the only one you have of that suit in which you play.

Reprise, the same as party.
Reporte, the same as remise.

Roy rendu, the king surrendered; the me thod of playing, when the king called is exchanged with the ombre, for which a fish is paid and some other card given by him who is with that to win the game alone.

Spadille; the ace of spades, which is always the first trump. Forced spadille is when he who has it is obliged to play; all the other players having passed.

Sans appeller. This imports without calling; and is when you play without calling a king.

Sans prendre, the same as sans appeller. Forced sans prendre is, when, having asked leave, one of the players offers to play sans prendre; in which case you are obliged to play sans prendre, or to pass.

Tenace; to wait with two trumps, that you must necessarily make when he that has two others is obliged to lead; such are the two black aces, with regard to manille and punto.

Tours; counters put down by the winners, to mark the number of games played.

Vole; gaining all the tricks either with a friend or alone.

In order to vary this game, some introduce the mediateur, either with or without the favourite suit; the first term signifies a king, which any person may demand, in order to play sans prendre, giving in return some other card, and a fish; but if the king be of the fa

vourite suit, then two fishes are to be paid. The favourite suit is determined by drawing a card at the commencement of the party; and during the whole game, each player, asking leave in that, has a preference before others who have a good hand in a different suit, unless a mediateur is demanded, when it takes the lead; and if in the favourite suit, first; those who play alone, without the mediateur, precede even that, and, when in the favourite, take place of all,

Solitaire quadrille is where it is agreed not to call, but always play sans prendre, with or without the mediateur; and if in any deal no one can play alone, then the cards are to be dealt again, and such additions made to the stake as may have been settled.

Solitaire quadrille by three, or tredille, is by throwing out all (except the king of one, and only the six of the other red suit); each person playing on their own account, as at three-handed whist.

QUADRILOBATE LEAF, in botany, a four-lobed leaf. Divided to the middle into four distant parts, with convex margins.

QUADRILOCULAR PERICARP, in botany, a four-celled pericarp: as in euony

mus.

QUADRIN. s. (quadrinus, Lat.) A mite; a small piece of money, in value about a farthing (Bailey).

QUADRINOMICAL. a. (quatuor and nomen, Lat.) Consisting of four denominations.

QUADRIPARTITE, a. (quatuor and partitus, Lat.) Having four parts; divided into four parts.

QUADRIPARTITELY. ad. In a quadripartite distribution.

QUADRIPARTITION. s. A division by four, or the taking the fourth part of any quan tity.

QUADRIPHY'LLOUS. a. (quatuor and unav.) Having four leaves. QUADRIREME. s. (quadriremis, Lat.) A galley with four banks of oars.

QUADRISY'LLABLE. s. (quatuor and syllable.) A word of four syllables.

QUADRIVALVES. s. (quatuor and valve, Lat.) Doors with four folds.

QUADRI VIAL, a, (quadrivium, Latin.) Having four ways meeting in a point.

QUADRUPED. (quadrupes, Latin.) In its simplest and most general meaning a fourfooted animal. But as such an interpretation must include a prodigious multiplicity of animals of very different habits and structures, as for example not only hoofed and clawed landanimals, but lizards, tortoises, frogs and other amphibious reptiles, and perhaps various kinds of insects, it has been necessary, in the study of natural history, to limit its meaning, in order to be able to apply it to any definite purpose, and hence it has been generally restrained to such animals as have not only four feet, but a hairy body, produce viviparously, and suckle their young.

Thus explained, Aristotle divided quadrupeds into three sections, solid-hoofed, cloven, and di

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i. The whole-hoofed are exemplified in the horse, ass, onager or wild ass, mule, zebra, &c. Of this order Aristotle has observed that none of them have horns, or the bones of the foot called talus, and astragalus; and that the males of none of them have any appearance of teats. This last observation, however, is not perfectly correct; for the horse has an appearance of this kind, but in an organ where few people would think of looking for it, for the teat of the male horse is situate on the penis.

ii. The divided-hoofed are still further subpartitioned into 1. xa, bisulcate; and 2. TeTfax, quadrusulcate.

1. The bisulcate consist of quadrupeds whose hoof is separated into two parts only of which there are two kinds

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6. The non-ruminant include the swine tribes, and their numerous varieties, but no others.

2. The quadrusulcate, consist of quadrupeds whose hoofs are cloven into four sections, all of which seem to be non-ruminant, as the rhinoceros, hippopotamus, tapir, and capybara.

II. The second class, comprising the clawed, or digitate quadrupeds, is subdivided as follows:

i. Quadrupeds possessing two fissures or toes, but without nails; as the camel kind, which ruminate, and, like other ruminating animals, have complicated stomachs.

ii. Quadrupeds possessing many fissures, whether toes or claws.

1. Undivided, as in the elephant, which is also a ruminant animal.

2. Divided, as in various kinds, as follows.

a. With broad nails and a human shape, as the monkey tribes.

6. With narrower and more pointed nails, as the dog, cat, rabbit, and similar kinds, and which are sub-distinguished by the number and structure of the fore-teeth.

It must be obvious to every one, that though the leading characters are natural, there is no small complexity in the sub distinctions of this

arrangement.

The most striking features, perhaps, are in the possession of a mammary, or suckling organ, and of teeth: for we have a ready observed that the attribute of four feet belongs certainly to various amphibials, and perhaps to various insects, as well as to quadrupels properly so called. And hence Linnéus, benishing the term quadruped altogether from the regions of his own system, as too indistinct and indefinite, has made choice of these featires as the foundation of this system, employing the term mammalia, mammals, or suckling ammals, instead of quadrupeds, for the class; and arranging the orders of which the mamBalan class consists, according to the number, structure, and position of the fore-teeth.

Even this system, however, is not without its inconvenience: for the whale tribes, the narwhal, and dolphin, are also mammalian animals, although they differ from all other mammals in structure and habit; being destitute of feet, and proper nostrils, and living constantly in the water.

For this system, however, as for various others upon the same subject, the reader must turn to the articles PHYSIOLOGY and ZooLOGY.

(Watts).

a.

Having four feet

QUA'DRUPED. QUÁ’DRUPLE. a. (quadruplus, Latin.) Fourfold; four times told (Raleigh).

T QUADRUPLICATE. v. a. (quadruplico, Latin.) To double twice; to make Jourfold.

QUADRUPLICATION. s. (from quaduplicate.) The taking a thing four times. QUADRUPLY. ad. (from quadruple.) To a fourfold quantity (Swift).

QUE'RE. (Latin.) Inquire; seek.
QUESTOR. See QUESTOR.

To QUAFF. v. a. (from coeffer, French, to be drunk.) To drink; to swallow in large droughts (Shakspeare).

To QUAFF. v. n. To drink luxuriously. QUFFER. 8. (from quaff.) He who quaris.

To QUA'FFER. v. a. To feel out (DerAsm).

QUA'GGY. a. Boggy; soft; not solid (Ainsworth).

QUAʼGMIRE. s. (that is, quakemire.) A thasing marsh; a bog that trembles under the feet (More).

QUAID. part. Crushed; dejected; depressed (Spenser).

To QUAIL. v. n. (quelen, Dutch.) 1. To languish; to sink into dejection (Herbert), 2. To fade; to decline (Hakewill).

To QUAIL. v. a. (cpellan, Saxon.) To crush; to quell: not used (Spenser).

QUAIL, in ornithology. See TETRAO. Qualls are to be taken by means of the call danng their whole wooing time, which lasts from April to August. The proper times for using the call are at sun-rising, at nine o'clock the morning, at three in the afternoon, and at sun-set; for these are the natural times of the q's calling. The notes of the cock and

hen quail are very different; and the sports man who expects to succeed in the taking them must be expert in both for, when the cock calls, the answer is to be made in the hen's note; and when the hen calls, the answer is to be made in the cock's. By this means they will come up to the person, so that he may with great ease throw the net over them and take them. If a cock quail be single, on hearing the hen's note he will immediately come; but if he has a hen already with him, he will not forsake her. Sometimes, though only one quail answers to the call, there will three or four come up; and then it is best to have patience, and not run to take up the first, but stay till they are all entangled, as they will soon be.

The quail is a neat cleanly bird, and will not run much into dirty or wet places: in dewy mornings, they will often fly instead of running to the call; and in this case, it is best to let them go over the net, if it so happens that they fly higher than its top; and the sportsman then changing sides, and calling again, the bird will come back, and then will probably be taken in the net.

The calls are to be inade of a small leather purse, about two fingers wide, and four fingers long, and made in the shape of a pear; this is to be stuffed half full of horse-hair, and at the end of it is to be placed a small whistle, made of the bone of a rabbit's leg, or some such other bone: this is to be about two inches long, and the end formed like a flageolet, with a little soft wax.

This is to be the end fastened into the purse; the other is to be closed up with the same wax, only that a hole is to be opened with a pin, to make it give a distinct and clear sound. To make this sound, it is to be held full in the palm of the hand, with one of the fingers placed over the top of the wax; then the purse is to be pressed, and the finger is to shake over the middle of it, to modulate the sound it gives into a sort of shake. This is the most useful call; for it imitates the note of the hen-quail, and seldom fails to bring a cock to the net if there be one near the place.

The call that imitates the note of the cock, and is used to bring the hen to him, is to be about four inches long, and above an inch thick; it is to be made of a piece of wire turned round and curled, and covered with leather; and one end of it must be closed up with a piece of flat wood, about the middle of which there must be a small thread or strap of leather, and at the other end is to be placed the same sort of pipe, made of bone, as is used in the other call. The noise is made by opening and closing the spiral, and gives the same sound that the cock does when he gives the hen a signal that he is near her.

QUAILPIPE. s. (quail and pipe.) A pipe with which fowlers allure quails (Addison).

QUAINT. a. (coint, French.) 1. Nice; scrupulously, minutely, superfluously; exact (Sidney). 2. Subtile; artful: obsolete (Cha.). 3. Neat; pretty; exact (Shakspeare). Subtly excogitated; finespun (Milton). 5. Affected; foppish (Swift).

4.

QUAINTLY. ad. (from quaint.) 1. Nice ly; exactly; with petty elegance (B. Jonson). 2. Artfully (Shakspeare).

QUAINTNESS. s. (from quaint.) Nicety; petty elegance (Pope).

To QUAKE. v. n. (cpacon, Saxon.) 1. To shake with cold or fear; to tremble (Sha.). 2. To shake; not to be solid or firm (Pope). QUAKE. S. (from the verb.) A shudder; a tremulous agitation (Suckling).

QUAKERS, a religious society, which took its rise in England about the middle of the 17th century, and rapidly found its way into other countries in Europe, and into the English settlements in North America.-Their founder, George Fox, an illiterate shoemaker, made his first appearance as a preacher about the year 1648. The nation was then greatly agitated by religious controversies, and numerous errors arose on the demolition of the ecclesiastical and civil constitution. The character of Fox was harmless, and he appears to have been an honest visionary, though some writers accuse him of making himself equal to Christ. He acquired several followers; and in the year 1650, being brought before two justices in Derbyshire for opposing a minister in the exercise of his duty, one of the magistrates, by way of jeer, gave to them the name of quakers; an appellation which has stuck to them ever since, though they themselves adopted, and still retain, the term of friends. Robert Barclay and William Penn are the greatest names which this society can boast; the former wrote a masterly apology for their doctrines, to which he prefixed a remarkable address to king Charles II. Penn wrote several books, the chief of which is that entitled, No Cross No Crown, showing that the way to obtain the heavenly crown is by being willing to bear the

cross.

These were writers of considerable learning and abilities, to whom may be added Sewell, the historian, who wrote an account of this people, first in Dutch, and afterwards in English. It may also be proper to mention, of later time, Anthony Pruver, who having been brought up (like Fox) in the employment of a shepherd, and a shoemaker, afterwards acquir ed so much knowledge in the dead languages, as to translate the whole of the Scriptures into English. It must be admitted, however, that the quakers, as a body, have produced few learned or scientific authors; and this reason may be assigned, that they avoid sending their children to public schools, and train them principally to mechanical or commercial employ ments, prefering the useful to the ornamental in their education. In medicine, nevertheless, the only learned profession which is open to them in Great Britain, they have had many who have attained and adorned the degree of doctor, among whom the learned world will readily recognize the name of Fothergill.

It is somewhat difficult to give an accurate account of their tenets, as they have no standard confession of faith. They have, however, so lately as 1790, published a summary view of

their doctrines: from which we learn, in brief, that the friends believe in one eternal God, and in Jesus Christ, his Son, the Messiah and Mediator of the new covenant. They acknow ledge the divinity of Christ, who is the wisdom and power of God unto salvation. To Christ alone they give the title of the word of God, and not to the Scriptures, but they highly esteem those sacred writings, in subordination to the spirit, from which they were given forth. They believe that, in order to enable men to put in practice the most excellent precepts of the gospel, every man is endued with a measure of the light, grace, or good spirit of Christ, by which he is enabled to distinguish good from evil, and to correct those corrupt propensities of his nature which mere reason is insufficient to overcome. They believe that the influence of the spirit of Christ is necessary to enable them acceptably to worship; and that to wait for it, when met in silence, is their proper business. They ascribe all true ministry to the same source, the immediate influence of the Holy Spirit. They reject, or disuse, baptism with water and the supper: the former as pertaining, according to John the Baptist's avowal, to a decreasing dispensation, and having been merely typical of spiritual baptism: the latter rite they do not consider as maintaining communion between Christ and his church; which is only obtained by a real participation of his divine nature through faith. As this society lays so much stress on the inward persuasion of the mind, effected by the operation of the light of Christ; and as they believe that lively faith is not at man's command, but is the gift of God in Christ, although nourished by man's obedience to its discoveries; they are so far from requiring of such as request admission among them, or such as are employed in the service of their church, any of those articles or formulas of faith, which are too often the means of inducing an insincere compliance, that they make no use of such forms at all. They say in their summary, "We prefer the judging of men by their fruits, and depending on the aid of him who, by his prophet, hath promised to be a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment. Without this, there is a danger of receiving numbers into outward communion, without any addition to that spiritual sheepfold, whereof our blessed Lord hath declared himself to be both the door and the shepherd-that is, of such as know his voice, and follow him in the paths of obedience."

In their public worship, all is performed in silence, unless some believe themselves inward. ly moved to speak; and, except during the time of prayer by one so moved, the men sit covered at liberty. Their marriages, after due enquiry, are performed by the parties taking each other in a meeting, and the company subscribe as witnesses. Their burials are equally simple; but frequently preaching takes place on both occasions. The quakers believe it wrong for Christians to use such flattering titles to men, as your grace, your excellency, the right honourable, reverend, and the like, t

use compliments, or to adopt, for flattery's sake, the custom of saying the plural you, to one person. Neither do they allow of kneeling or uncovering the head in respect to any man, reserving these gestures for divine worship. They condema gaiety and superfluity of apparel, public diversions, gaming, sports, and unnecessary frequenting of public-houses. They also disuse those names of the months and days, which, having been given in honour of the false gods or heroes of the heathens, originated in their superstition or flattery; and they believe it forbidden to Christians to swear or to fght on any occasion.

The sobriety of their dress is a good contrast to the ever-varying modes of a degenerate age. Their guarded and decent language, and regular deportment, however uncouth to light and superficial minds, must excite admiration in the liberal and intelligent observer. The excellent manner in which they govern their families and bring up their children in an acquiescence with their restraints and customs, may be recommended as deserving imitation. The quakers have exerted themselves with great zeal in procuring an abolition of the slave trade in this country; and have long ago so far set the example of emancipation in America, that there is scarcely a quaker in that continent possessing a slave. Though they are, as has been mentioned, restrained by their principles from attempting to serve their country in its wars, they have always proved themselves good subjects of the state, and have experienced from the British government many acts of indulgence.

A system of discipline has been established among this people, which has been admired, even by their adversaries; the object of it is, the relief of their poor-the maintenance of good order-the support of their testimonies, which they believe it is their duty to bear to the world and the help and recovery of such as are overtaken in faults. This discipline is Laid down in the rules which their yearly meet ing has issued from time to time; and is carried into effect at their monthly meetings, which are composed of members living at a convenient distance, and sometimes of several small congregations for worship. All their monthly meetings in one county (or, in some instances, in two or three adjacent counties) form a quarterly meeting, which has the immediate superintendance of the monthly meetings. The quarterly meetings in their turn are superintended by the yearly meeting. The yearly meeting requires of the quarterly meetings, and these latter of their monthly meetings, answers, at stated times, to certain queries, by which means the circumstances of the inferior meeting is made known to the superintending one. The monthly meetings send representa tives to the quarterly meetings, and these, to the yearly meeting. The yearly meeting for Great Britain is held in London in the spring, to which come representatives from the yearly meeting in Ireland. The American continent, on which there are numerous settlements of

the Friends, comprises six other yearly meet. ings, namely, New England, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas, &c. These yearly meetings are no otherwise bound to each other than by similarity of principle, and yet (though this similarity is doubtless the cause) no dispute on any point of faith has yet arisen between them; and it is not unusual for ministers of one country to spend much time in travelling in that character in the other, in which the certificates from the meetings to which he belongs at home secure him a reception. These are certificates of concurrence signed in the monthly meeting to which the minister belongs; and if the proposed journey extend beyond the limit of his yearly meeting, it is necessary to have the joint concurrence of his quarterly meeting, and also of his fellow-ministers and elders assembled at their yearly meeting. It may be here remarked, that among the quakers, women, as well as men, fill the station of minister; and, with the before-mentioned concurrence, are often engaged in travelling from place to place.

The quakers have charity schools in some parts of the kingdom; but at Ackworth in Yorkshire they have a large school, under the direction of their yearly meeting, in which about one hundred and eighty boys, and one hundred and seventy girls, are boarded and educated.

This society experienced at its outset violent opposition, and was cruelly persecuted during the times of Cromwell and of Charles II. although the Friends do not impeach the character of either, as being the springs of the persecution. In New England, the government put four of them to death; but farther executions of that sect were stopped by the interference of king Charles. The Friends, however, did not flinch, either in England or America; and as they seem to have borne persecution with as much patience as any people, so, when in their turn they came into power, they never shewed any disposition to persecute others. For William Penn, who founded Pennsylvania, laid down the widest plan of religious liberty that had then been devised, and reserved no privileges for his own society in the government of his province.

For more on the subject of this denomination of christians, the reader may consult Clarkson's Portraiture of Quakerism, and the works of Bevan, one of the society of Friends.

QUALEA, in botany, a genus of the class monandria, order monogynia. Calyx fourparted, corol two-petalled; berry undecided. Two species; forest-trees of Guiana.

QUALIFICATION.s. (qualification, Fr.) 1. That which makes any person or thing fit for any thing (Swift). 2. Accomplishment (Atterbury). 3. Abatement; diminution (Raleigh).

QUALIFICATION, in sporting, an annual fine paid to the legislature to possess the liberty of shooting, hunting, or coursing, upon the receipt of which a certificate of such receipt is

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