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Aristotle, Strabo's account of his MSS., criticised, cxxxvii. 59 note

his sound criticism on Homer's account of the pursuit of Hector, cxxxix, 537, and note Arkwright (Sir Richard, 1732-1792), patent for his Spinning Jenny, cxxi. 598

(Mrs.), her touching lyric songs, cxl. 380; lines on the seasons, 381

Arles, Council of (314), cxi. 440 Armada, the. See Spanish Armada Armies, moral qualities more valua

ble than numbers, cxxvi. 277; motive force and mechanical power of, 285

Armstrong (Sir William, b. 1810), his system of rifled ordnance, cxix. 482; negative results of experiments with his heavy guns, 483; his first contract limited to fieldartillery, 486; his coil principle imitated, 487 note; success of his field-pieces in China, 487; fundamental error of breech-loading for field-guns, ib.; the shunt principle substituted, ib.; want of simplicity due to form of projectile, ib.; his system of double fuzes, 488; his theory of windage opposed to that of the French, 490; his guns liable to fouling from absence of windage, 491; leaden coating of projectile dangerous to gunners, 492; special characteristics of his field-artillery, 493; his vent-piece too complicated for warfare, ib.; his evidence before the Select Committee, 495; over-estimates the value of his invention, 496; his system of field-guns based on the enlargement of an ordinary rifle, 498; number of his guns rejected after trial, 504; advocates heavy bursting charges, 509; his evidence on his 100-pounder guns, 514; his coil system criticised, 516; his appointment to the

Ordnance Committee injudicious, 520 Armstrong (Sir William), his evidence against the Patent Laws, cxxi. 605

Army (British), its weakness during the American War of Independence, cxvi. 141

improved condition of, in India, cxxxi. 321


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of reform, cxxxiii. 207; want of cohesion and unity, 208; defective state of, due to absence of organisation, 209; constitution of, since 1688, ib.; Army Extraordinaries,' ib.; early contracts for recruits, 210; enlistment regulations, ib.; agitations for reform after 1835, 211; old system of departments, 212; changes during the Crimean War, ib.; the new system, 213; classification of responsibility, 214; Board of 1866 on transport duties, ib.; the Control Department created, 215; evils of dual government, ib.; want of training in the Militia, ib. (see Militia); recent efforts to form an Army of Reserve, 217; failure ascribed to optional terms of enlistment, 218; the present system mere patchwork, ib. ; remedies proposed, ib.; compulsory ballot for Militia, ib. ; question of exemptions, 219; scheme of annual contingents, 220; present percentage of recruits to the population, ib., note; details of proposed Army-Reserve system, ib., 224; the purchase system doomed, ib.; principle of selection urged in its place, 225; together with limitation of regimental command, 226; value of a cadet system, 227; summary of proposals, ib.; need of reserves to replace casualties in war, 229; additions to cavalry and artillery, ib.; Mr. Cardwell's short-service system, 230; district

organisation, ib.; field commissariat,
231; Control system condemned,
232; evils of over-centralisation,
233; report of Mr. Cardwell's
Committee, 235; new officers of
Finance and Supply, ib.; former
Master-General of the Ordnance,
ib.; new office of Surveyor-General
criticised, 236; evils of uniting
finance and administration, ib.;
position of Commander-in-Chief,
238; his proposed relations with
the Secretary of State, ib.; im-
portance of constitutional safe-
guards, 239; contrary tendencies
of recent changes, 240; military
bureaucracy at the War Office, ib. ;
irregular proceedings in Parlia-
ment, 241; restrictions in 1832 on
flogging, 310

Army (British), the Guard Corps in,
cxl. 464 (see Grenadier Guards);
precedency o various arms, 478
Army Regulation Act (1871), cxxxiv.
574, 576

Army, Standing, controversy on, in
England, cxiv. 307

Arndt (Ernst Moritz, 1769-1859),

Lives and Works of, cxxxii. 414;
his share in effecting German
unity, 415; his Swedish birth,
416; his early 'Recollections,' ib. ;
divinity studies, 418; travels, 419;
professor at Greifswald, ib.; mar-
ries, ib.; growth of his political
views, ib.; his hatred of the French,
421; his History of Serfdom
in Pomerania and Rügen,' 423;
visit to Sweden, ib.; his Spirit
of the Age,' ib.; his appeals to
German patriotism, 425; his duel,
ib.; takes refuge at Stockholm, ib.;
returns in disguise to Germany,
ib.; visit to Berlin, 426; resumes
his Professorship, ib.; his escape
from Sweden to Prussia, 428;
summoned by Von Stein to St.
Petersburg, 429; origin of his war-
songs, 431; specimens, 432, 435;

his devout spirit of patriotism, ib.;
his 'Catechism,' ib.; his unselfish
recognition of honour, 436; re-
moves to Bonn and remarries,
437; his papers seized by the
Prussian Government, ib.; his
trial, ib.; restored to his office,
438; elected Rector of Bonn Uni-
versity, ib.; his ninetieth birthday,
ib.; death, ib.

Arneth (Ritter von), his edition of
Marie Antoinette's letters, cxxiii.

423; his account of his materials,
424; evidence of handwriting, 425
Arnold (Thomas, D.D., 1795-1842),
his scheme of a liberal Theological
Review, cxiii. 463

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- on the authenticity of Caesar's
'Commentaries, cxxiv. 403

his sound principles of State
and Church, cxl. 449
Arnold (Matthew), his bureaucratic
idea of State Education, exiv. 11;
on the cost of education in France,

on the grand style,' in
translating Homer, cxxi. 138; on
the rapidity of Homer's diction,

critical works of, cxxix. 486;
his correct sense of intellectual
truth and beauty, ib.; accused of
being an elegant trifler,' 487;
his defects of exposition, 488; on
Hebraism and Hellenism, ib.; on
Hellenic sweetness and light, 489;
practical mistakes of his criticism,
493; his strictures on periodical
literature and the Divorce Court,
ib.; advocates restraints on indi-
vidual freedom, 494; and reticence
in public discussion, 495; on the
superiority of French literature,
496; his admiration of the Parisian
Academy, 499; his poverty of de-
finition, 500; his glorification of

the Grand Style, ib.; his loose re-
marks on the Ballad Style, 502;
denounces the ballad metre for
Homeric translation, ib.; his slo-
venly treatment of his subjects,

Arnold (Matthew), his 'St. Paul and Protestantism,' cxxxiii. 399; polemics provoked by his book, ib.; his argument in opposition to M. Renan, 400; his division of Calvinists and Lutherans, 401; on Nonconformist tendencies to political dissent, ib.; on their abandonment of original Puritanism, 402; Mr. Dale's reply, 403; on 'historic Churches,' 406; on the doctrinal causes of Dissent, 422; on the Epistle to the Romans,' 423; contrasts Puritanism with St. Paul's doctrines, 424; his views on Pauline teaching criticised, ib.

Arnold (Mr.), his Report on the British and Foreign Training School, cxi. 354

Arnold (Mr., Police Magistrate), his articles in Fraser' on the alleged Shakspeare forgeries, cxi. 456 Arnolfo del Cambrio, his position among Tuscan sculptors, cxxi. 526; his works, 527

Arras, Treaty of (1435), exix. 537 Art, its practical connexion with Science, cxviii. 502

effect of theological opinions. on, cxxi. 444

intolerance in judgments on, cxxii. 77

galleries of, cxxiii. 57. See Exhibitions of Art and Science

controversy as to expression in, cxl. 171; imaginative power of Association, ib.

Art, Christian, the term explained,

cxx. 98, 99; its growth coincident with the progress of Christianity, 108; idea of the purifying effects of physical pain represented in, ib.

Sacred, travesties of sacred

subjects by great painters, cxxiv. 349

Artesian wells, proposed scheme of, for London, cxxiii. 413, 414 Arthur (King), early English romances of, cxxv. 246; 'Sir Gawayne and the Grene Knight,' 247; Breton legends of, 248; growth of his romances, 250

Mr. Cox's theory of the tradition of, cxxxi. 504 note; popularity of, as a national hero, 505; growth of the tale, ib. Articles (the Thirty-Nine), invaluable as a bond of union, cxiii. 9; qualified subscription to, recommended, ib.; their silence respecting biblical inspiration, 491

origin of, cxv. 582; subscription not obligatory at first, 585; mischief of plenary assent, 603; deferential declaration of allegiance suggested, 606

their cautious language on inspiration, exxi. 160

ratification of, cxl. 438 Artillery, advantages of riflemen

over field-batteries, cxix. 481; two systems of rifling, 482 (see Rifled Ordnance); vent-pieces (see Armstrong, Sir William); objections to breech-loading fieldguns in warfare, 495; publicity of experiments in, confined to England, 496; nominal weight of projectile no index to size of the gun, 508; two classes of field-guns in England, 509; inferior bursting charges of British shells, 510; purposes of heavy ordnance, ib.; effect of iron-plating on marine artillery, 511; American mania for huge guns, 512; their doubtful value, 529

use of, in warfare (see War, Art of); in naval tactics, exl. 16, 19 Artists, their need of corporate action, exviii. 485; social characteristics of, ib.; attempt in 1755 to

found an academy in England, 487
(see Academy, Royal); self-educa-
tion of, 493

Artois (Count d'). See Charles X.
Arts, Society of, first exhibition of
British painters in 1760, cxviii. 487
Arundel (Thomas Howard, Earl of,
d. 1646), his collection of gems,
cxxiv. 519, 520

Arundell of Wardour, Lords, family

names preserved in London streets,
cxxxi. 183

Aryans, their place in Indian eth-
nology, cxxx. 496

Aryan language, the term explained,
cxv. 85; stages in the growth
of, 94

mythology, Mr. Cox's work
on, cxxxii. 330; the compara-
tive theory criticised, 333; con-
nexion of, with Greek myths, 341;
the theory applies to 'Othello,'

Asceticism, its idea of the spiritual

efficacy of physical pain, cxx. 108
Ascham (Roger, 1515-1568) on the
study of grammar, cxx. 178; and
of Latin composition, 179

his sketch of Charles V.,

cxxxii. 77
Asconius Pedianus (Quintus, first
century), MS. of, found by Poggio,
cxxxvii. 72

Ased (d. 828), his character, cxvi.
360; commands the Mussulman
expedition to Sicily, 364; his
death before Syracuse, 366
Ashantees, the, Mr. Bowdich's mis-
sion to, cxxxviii. 575; article
thereon in vol. xxxii. referred to,
ib.; the treaty of 1817, ib.; Coo-
massie at that time, ib.; present
war with, 5760, 588. See Gold

Asia, irregular geographical know-
ledge of, cxii. 313

disturbing effects of European
intervention in, cxxii. 177, 179
Asia (Central), geographical con-

troversy respecting, cxxxv. 14;
the George Ludwig MS.,' ib., 18;
Eastern Turkestan, 20; early
Christian communities in, 23-27;
sorceries and jugglery, ib.; mediæ-
val legends, 30

prospects of Russian com-
merce with, cxxxix. 325, 326;
English trade with, via India, 327,
330. See Toorkistan, Eastern
Asôka (d. B.C. 226), his history
illustrated by Buddhist inscrip-
tions, cxxii. 379; Sir E. Perry's
history of, ib. 382

Aspirate, the, misuse of, on early
Christian epitaphs at Rome, cxx.

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Assignats, extravagant issue of, by
the French Convention, cxviii.
132; the Maximum,' ib.
Assignment, convict system of, in
Australia, cxxi. 353

Assisi, Giotto's frescoes at, cxxii. 89
Assurance (Life), effects of deprecia-
tion of currency on, cxii. 29
Assyrian Empire, the, inconsistencies
in the history of, cxi. 56; rela-
tions with Babylonia, 61; date of
its commencement, 62; removals
of the capital, 63; the Babylonian
revolt, 64

Assyria, astrological system derived
from, cxvi. 99

Assyrians, Mr. Rawlinson's conjec-

tural history of, cxxv. 114; union
of the Chaldæan kingdom, ib.;
restoration of ancient monarchy

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at Babylon, ib.; fictitious chronology of Berosus, 120; royal names, 123; imperfect evidence of inscriptions, 125, 126; M. Gutschmid's method of chronology, 127, 128; Greek historians of, 141; rise of the Empire, 142; chaotic state of subsequent annals, 143; inscription of Tiglathpileser I., 144; his successors, ib., 149; Scythian irruption, 150; traditions of the fall of the empire, 151; extent of their civilisation, 153

Astbury, reveals the secret of Eler's pottery-work, cxxvi. 211; his improvements in pottery, 212 Astrology, Assyrian system of, cxvi.


Italian belief in, in the sixteenth century, cxxx. 32 Astronomer Royal, origin of the office, cxl. 94; various holders thereof, ib.-98; long average length of service, 99 Astronomy, different views of the science of, cxvi. 80; its bearing on ancient chronology, 82; theories in ancient Greece, 91; speculative views of, opposed by Socrates, 92. See Lewis, Sir G. C.

its precedence in Comte's hierarchy of sciences, cxxvii. 327

bearings of recent researches in, on geology, cxxxi. 54; doctrine of elemental identity of heavenly bodies, 63

'Atavism,' recent theory of, in rela

tion to heredity, cxxxii. 119 Athanasian Creed, permissive reading of, advocated, cxiii. 20; Essays and Reviews' on, 494 Athanasius (Saint, of Alexandria, 296-373), persecution of, by the Arians, cxiii. 467

impulse given by him to monasticism, cxiv. 329 Athanasius (made Patriarch of Constantinople in 1289), his quarrel

with Andronicus the Elder, cxxi. 482; his rigorous discipline, 483 Athena, Homeric epithets of, cxxxix.


Athenæus, archetypal MS. of, cxxxvii. 71

Athens (Ancient), chronology of lifearchons examined, cxxxii. 172 Athens, modern excavations at, cxxii. 563; want of a museum, 564 Atlanta (U.S.),Sherman's capture of, cxxi. 286

Atlantic, current system of, cxxxv. 438-453 (see Oceanic Circulation); globigerina-mud deposits in, 470 Atlantic telegraphs, hasty construction of the first cable, cxiii. 127; unsuccessful attempts to lay it, 128; the expedition renewed in 1858, 130; the Queen's message to the President, 132; causes of failure, 133

early history of, cxxxii. 229, 233; recovery of the 1865 cable, 234, 236.

Atomic theory, the foundation of

modern chemistry, cxxxiii. 156; its method of research, ib. -158; new modes of analysis, ib.; applied to gases, 159 Attainder, Acts of, early instances of, CXXV. 88 Atterbury (Francis, Bishop


Rochester, 1662-1731), his attempted vindication of Convocation as a spiritual Parliament, cxl. 430 'Auchterarder Case,' the, cxl. 277 Auckland (William Eden, 1st Lord, 1745-1814), his 'Journal and Correspondence,' Vols. I. II., cxiii. 360; confidential adviser of Lord North, 367; his daring change of Irish policy, ib.; active part in the Coalition, 369; vice-treasurer of Ireland, 370; his knowledge of finance, ib.; negotiates the commercial treaty with France, 371;

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