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work intrusted to them, as was accordingly done by the laying on of hands and by prayer. Although we are not informed that other ceremonies were used, there is nothing in this brief statement that necessarily excludes them. Of the grace bestowed we have the testimony of St. Paul, who admonishes Timothy to stir up the grace which was given him by the laying on of hands.*

You find still greater objections to regarding marriage as a sacrament, since it was instituted in Paradise. Yet, even then it was a mysterious type of the future union of Christ with His Church, as the Apostle assures us. It was worthy of our Lord to give it sacramental dignity and character, when that union was consummated by His incarnation. The reasoning of the Apostle on it shows its holiness and sublime signification. The indissoluble force of the marriage tie, which our Lord Himself declares, persuades us that grace must be given to enable the parties to bear the perpetual yoke. His presence at the wedding of Cana, and the miracles which He there performed, show His sanction and favor. So many scriptural indications are supported by the public and solemn teaching of the Church, her perpetual usage and tradition. Although none are obliged to marry, it is consoling to those who choose this state of

* 2 Tim. i. 6.

life, to know that it is not only lawful, but attended with grace and Divine blessing for such as properly enter into it. The Church is perfectly consistent in teaching, with St. Paul, that the state of celibacy is preferable, which leaves the soul at liberty to devote herself wholly to the things of God, and yet assuring her children that they do not sin by embracing the married state, if they take care to prepare themselves for the grace which is attached to the sacred contract.

St. Augustin, in the passage which you quote, speaks of the small number of the Christian sacraments compared with the Jewish rites, which were called by the fathers in the same way. He gives baptism and the communion as instances, without meaning to confine the term to them. The like occurs in his first discourse on the ciii. Psalm, where speaking of the gifts of God bestowed alike on the good and wicked, he observes that even the sacraments are received by them. "Look to the gifts of the Church herself. The gift of the sacraments in baptism, in the Eucharist, in the other holy sacraments, how great a gift it is! Even Simon the magician obtained it." In another place he describes the eagerness of the dying to receive the aids of religion, in these terms: "Do we not reflect that, when the extreme danger is at hand, and there is no possibility of escape, great is the rush of persons, of both sexes and of every age,

in the Church, some demanding baptism, others reconciliation, others the assigning of penance itself, all of them seeking consolation, and the celebration and dispensation of the sacraments ?"*

You make us, Right Reverend Sir, great reproaches in regard to the exactions practised in the administration of the sacraments, of which you allege some instances within your own knowledge. You assure us that some Canadians applied to you to have their children baptized, being unable to pay the fees demanded by the priest. I cannot suppose that they were residents of Canada, for the discipline of that country rigorously forbids the acceptance of the smallest fee or offering on such an occasion, and the high reputation of the clergy warrants me in believing that it is most strictly observed. Besides, the journey from the nearest part of Canada to Burlington, would cost far more than the most avaricious priest could demand. must, then, believe that the application came from Canadians, who had settled in your town, and I must refer you for explanation to your old neighbor and correspondent, who will no doubt satisfy you that you have been imposed upon. It is seldom that any even nominal Catholics can be induced in any circumstances to avail themselves of Protestant ministrations.

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I

LETTER VI.

Transubstantiation.

RIGHT REVEREND SIR:

EREMY TAYLOR volunteered his vindica

JER

tion of Catholics from the charge of idolatry in adoring the Eucharist, because our intention is directed to Jesus Christ, our Lord, whom we believe to be present.* Dr. Milner claimed our acquittal on the same ground; but you, kindly as you profess to be disposed, reject the plea, and insist that compared with the Pantheism of the old Egyptians, the incarnation of the Grand Llama, the adoration of the sun by the Aztecs, and the whole range of heathenism, transubstantiation is the "most inconsistent kind of idolatry, and the most degrading to a proper conception of the Deity." Yet you might have paused before uttering these censures, since we have, at least, the respectable authority of St. Augustin for adoring this mystery. Commenting on the passage, "adore His footstool," which the Protestant version renders "worship at His footstool," he says, "Since He (Christ) walked in the flesh, and He has given us the same flesh to

* Liberty of Prophesying, sect. xx.

eat for our salvation, and no one eats without first adoring it, we find how this footstool of the Lord may be adored, so that not merely are we free from sin in adoring it, but we sin, if we do not adore it.”*

Your Catechism states, that the inward part of the sacrament is the Body and Blood of Christ, which "are spiritually taken and received by the faithful in the Lord's Supper;" and yet you do not believe them to be really there, since it is only by an effort of faith that you become partakers of them. You insist that "the divine gift is in the sacrament, considered with respect to its inward grace." Your whole reasoning shows, however, that you do not hold the Body and Blood to be really there, so that you can only mean that the sacrament is directed to awaken faith, by which you may receive their virtue; but how can the faithful, as Dr. Milner

asks, take that which is not there?

Hence it is

others, pro

that so many of the Puseyites, and fess to believe in the real presence, which you very evidently reject.

For the variations of your liturgy in this respect, you plead that it was only by degrees that the eyes of the English Reformers were opened. Let this plea have its full force.

In canvassing our evidence, you at once meet

*Enarr. in Ps. xcviii.

† Vol. ii. p. 138.

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